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Latest items for Afghanistan

April 4, 2019, 7:27 a.m.
Countries: Afghanistan, Belize, Benin, Bolivia, Botswana, Burkina Faso, Burundi, Cameroon, Central African Rep, Colombia, Cote D'Ivoire, Cuba, D R Congo, Dominican Republic, Ecuador, El Salvador, Gabon, Gambia, Ghana, Guatemala, Guinea-Bissau, Guyana, Haiti, Honduras, Iraq, Jamaica, Kenya, Lesotho, Liberia, Mali, Mauritania, Mexico, Namibia, Nicaragua, Niger, Nigeria, Pakistan, Panama, Papua New Guinea, Peru, Rwanda, Senegal, Sierra Leone, Solomon Islands, Somalia, South Africa, Suriname, Tanzania, Togo, Trinidad/Tobago, Uganda, Uruguay, Venezuela, Yemen, Zambia, Zimbabwe
Variables: MURDER-SCALE-3

4.0
March 21, 2019, 1:45 p.m.
Countries: Afghanistan, Bahamas, Barbados, Bosnia-Herzegovina, Cameroon, Congo, Cote D'Ivoire, Dominican Republic, East Timor, Eritrea, Ethiopia, Greece, Guyana, Haiti, Iraq, Israel, Jamaica, Kosovo, Latvia, Lesotho, Madagascar, Malawi, Mali, Romania, Slovakia, Sudan, Taiwan, Togo
Variables: GP-SCALE-1

2.0
March 18, 2019, 9:30 a.m.
Countries: Afghanistan
Variables: PW-PRACTICE-3

In this story about a woman named Khadija, it was noted that her husband wished to take a widow as his second wife. Polygyny is thus practiced in Afghanistan. However, Khadija noted that levirate marriage is practiced; that is, the brother of the widow's dead husband has the right and obligation to marry her, and since this widow has 10 brothers-in-law, it would be impossible for her husband to take the widow as his second wife.
March 18, 2019, 9:18 a.m.
Countries: Afghanistan
Variables: SMES-DATA-2, WR-PRACTICE-1, WR-PRACTICE-2

In Afghanistan, "Widows cannot work, like most women in traditional areas, and any inheritance or property would go to her husband’s brothers, not to his widow or children."
March 18, 2019, 9:13 a.m.
Countries: Afghanistan
Variables: AOM-PRACTICE-1

This article tells the story of a woman named Khadija. It notes, "At age 6, Khadija formally married Mr. Haq, who was 15 years older — although the marriage would not be consummated until she reached age 11 or puberty, whichever came first, the family said. Child marriage is illegal, but still widely tolerated in Afghanistan."
March 8, 2019, 6:09 a.m.
Countries: Afghanistan
Variables: DSFMF-PRACTICE-4, DSFMF-LAW-1

"Virginity testing was banned in 2016, but Javid said police have continued to pick up girls and women suspected of having sex, and take them to hospitals or clinics where they are forced to undergo a virginity test" (para. 10)
March 8, 2019, 6:09 a.m.
Countries: Afghanistan
Variables: DSFMF-PRACTICE-1, DSFMF-PRACTICE-2, DSFMF-PRACTICE-3

"According to a 2016 Human Rights Watch report, almost half of all women incarcerated in Afghanistan – and 95% of girls in juvenile detention – are there for “moral crimes” such as sex before marriage" (para. 13).
March 8, 2019, 6:09 a.m.
Countries: Afghanistan
Variables: DSFMF-PRACTICE-4

"In a prison in the Balkh province of Afghanistan, more than 200 girls and young women are crammed into dirty prison cells… Their crime is that they all failed a virginity test performed by a health professional at a clinic or hospital" (para. 1 - 2). "According to a 2016 Human Rights Watch report, almost half of all women incarcerated in Afghanistan – and 95% of girls in juvenile detention – are there for “moral crimes” such as sex before marriage" (para. 13).
March 8, 2019, 6:09 a.m.
Countries: Afghanistan
Variables: DSFMF-LAW-1

"Ashraf Ghani, the Afghan president, promised that forensic virginity tests – invasive examinations to check whether the hymen is intact – would be banned as an official procedure" (para. 3).
March 6, 2019, 7:52 p.m.
Countries: Afghanistan
Variables: SEGI-PRACTICE-3

"On August 20, Takhar prison guards and police allegedly used clubs to beat 15 female inmates during a protest where approximately 60 women protested their continued imprisonment, despite promises of amnesty made by the government. The Attorney General’s Office investigated the allegations and recommended criminal charges against three guards for the alleged beating" (5).
March 6, 2019, 7:49 p.m.
Countries: Afghanistan
Variables: MURDER-PRACTICE-1

"On March 7, the Taliban convicted and stoned to death a woman accused of adultery in Badakhshan Province" (27).
March 6, 2019, 7:48 p.m.
Countries: Afghanistan
Variables: TRAFF-LAW-1

"The government took steps to discourage the abuse of boys and to prosecute or punish those involved. On February 22, President Ghani signed a Law to Combat Crimes of Trafficking in Persons and Smuggling of Migrants, which includes legal provisions criminalizing behaviors associated with the sexual exploitation of children. The law criminalizes the various acts associated with bacha bazi, including not only sexual exploitation of a minor, but also forced dancing, and prescribes punishments ranging from eight to 12 years" (29).
March 6, 2019, 7:48 p.m.
Countries: Afghanistan
Variables: IIP-PRACTICE-1

"The greatest barrier to movement in some parts of the country was the lack of security. Social custom limited women’s freedom of movement without male consent or a male chaperone" (20). "Traditional societal practices continued to limit women’s participation in politics and activities outside the home and community, including the need to have a male escort or permission to work" (23). "Limited access to money and other resources to pay fines (or bribes) and the social requirement for women to have a male guardian affected women’s access to and participation in the justice system" (27).
March 6, 2019, 7:48 p.m.
Countries: Afghanistan
Variables: LBHO-PRACTICE-1

"Traditional societal practices continued to limit women’s participation in politics and activities outside the home and community, including the need to have a male escort or permission to work. These factors, in addition to an education and experience gap, likely contributed to the central government’s male-dominated composition. The 2013 electoral law reduced quotas for women on provincial councils from 25 percent to 20 percent and eliminated women’s quotas entirely for district and village councils. Neither district nor village councils had been established by year’s end" (23).
March 6, 2019, 7:48 p.m.
Countries: Afghanistan
Variables: MURDER-PRACTICE-1

"Under the penal code, if a man convicted of honor killing sees his wife or other close relation in the act of committing adultery and immediately kills or injures one or both parties to defend his honor, he cannot receive a prison sentence of more than two years" (27).
March 6, 2019, 7:48 p.m.
Countries: Afghanistan
Variables: DTCP-LAW-1

"Most courts administered justice unevenly, employing a mixture of codified law, sharia, and local custom. Traditional justice mechanisms remained the main recourse for many, especially in rural areas. Corruption was common within the judiciary, and often criminals paid bribes to obtain their release or a reduction in sentence" (9). "Some municipal and provincial authorities, including judges, had minimal training and often based their judgments on their personal understanding of sharia without appropriate reference to statutory law, tribal codes of honor, or local custom. The number of judges who graduated from law school continued to increase. Access to legal codes and statutes increased, but their limited availability continued to hinder some...more
March 6, 2019, 7:48 p.m.
Countries: Afghanistan
Variables: NGOFW-PRACTICE-1

"The security environment continued to have a negative effect on the ability of humanitarian organizations to operate freely in many parts of the country. Insurgents deliberately targeted government employees and aid workers. Violence and instability hampered development, relief, and reconstruction efforts. NGOs reported insurgents, powerful local individuals, and militia leaders demanded bribes to allow groups to bring relief supplies into the country and distribute them" (15).
March 6, 2019, 7:48 p.m.
Countries: Afghanistan
Variables: ATFPA-PRACTICE-2

"Traditional societal practices continued to limit women’s participation in politics and activities outside the home and community, including the need to have a male escort or permission to work" (23). "In past elections male family members could vote on behalf of the women in their families" (23).
March 6, 2019, 7:48 p.m.
Countries: Afghanistan
Variables: CLCW-PRACTICE-1, CLCC-LAW-1

"A citizen father transmits citizenship to his child. Birth in the country or to a citizen mother alone does not transfer citizenship. Adoption is not legally recognized" (28).
March 6, 2019, 7:48 p.m.
Countries: Afghanistan
Variables: IIP-PRACTICE-2

"The law criminalizes harassment and persecution ofwomen. Women who walked outside alone or who worked outside the home often experienced harassment, including groping and being followed. Women with public roles occasionally received threats directed at them or their families" (27).
March 6, 2019, 7:48 p.m.
Countries: Afghanistan
Variables: LRW-PRACTICE-2

"Interpretations of sharia also impeded successful prosecution of rape cases" (26). "Women who sought assistance in cases of rape were often subject to virginity tests" (26). "Space at the 29 women’s protection centers across the country was sometimes insufficient, particularly in major urban centers, and shelters remained concentrated in the western, northern, and central regions of the country" (27). "Most women did not seek legal assistance for domestic or sexual abuse because they did not know their rights or because they feared prosecution or being sent back to their family or the perpetrator" (27).
March 6, 2019, 7:48 p.m.
Countries: Afghanistan
Variables: LBHO-PRACTICE-2

"In the 2010 parliamentary elections, more women won seats than the minimum outlined in the constitution" (23).
March 6, 2019, 7:48 p.m.
Countries: Afghanistan
Variables: ERBG-PRACTICE-1

"In March a media advocacy group reported that many female journalists worked under pseudonyms to avoid recognition, harassment, and retaliation. According to the group, there were no female journalists in the provinces of Kunduz, Nuristan, or Panjsher because of insecurity" (18). "Women faced discrimination in access to employment and terms of occupation" (28). "Women continued to face discrimination and hardship in the workplace. Women made up only 7 percent of the workforce. According to the 2016 Asia Foundation survey, 74 percent of the population agreed that women should be allowed to work outside the home; nonetheless, only 9.4 percent of women in the survey said they were involved in any...more
March 6, 2019, 7:48 p.m.
Countries: Afghanistan
Variables: EWCMS-DATA-2

"Of the 469 National Directorate for Security (NDS), ANP, and Afghan National Defense and Security Forces (ANDSF) detainees interviewed, 39 percent reported torture or other abuse. Types of abuse included severe beatings, electric shocks, prolonged suspension by the arms, suffocation, wrenching of testicles, burns by cigarette lighters, sleep deprivation, sexual assault, and threats of execution" (3)
March 6, 2019, 7:48 p.m.
Countries: Afghanistan
Variables: LRW-PRACTICE-1

"Of the 469 National Directorate for Security (NDS), ANP, and Afghan National Defense and Security Forces (ANDSF) detainees interviewed, 39 percent reported torture or other abuse. Types of abuse included severe beatings, electric shocks, prolonged suspension by the arms, suffocation, wrenching of testicles, burns by cigarette lighters, sleep deprivation, sexual assault, and threats of execution" (3). "The Ministries of Interior and Defense also issued directives meant to prevent the recruitment and sexual abuse of children by the ANDSF. Media reported in some cases ANDSF units used children as personal servants, support staff, or for sexual purposes. (14) Implies female children as well (AMG-CODER COMMENT). "Authorities did not always fully enforce...more
March 6, 2019, 7:48 p.m.
Countries: Afghanistan
Variables: MARR-LAW-1

"The EVAW law criminalizes 22 acts of violence against women, including rape, battery, or beating; forced marriage; humiliation; intimidation; and deprivation of inheritance" (26). "The law criminalizes forced, underage, and 'baad' marriages (the practice of settlying disputes in which the culprit's family trades a girl to the victim's family) and interference with a woman's right to choose her spouse" (27). "Under the EVAW law, those who arrange forced or underage marriages are subject to imprisonment for not less than two years, but implementation of the law was limited" (29). "By law a marriage contract requires verification that the bride is 16 years of age (or 15 with the permission of...more
March 6, 2019, 7:48 p.m.
Countries: Afghanistan
Variables: DV-PRACTICE-2

"In some cases authorities wrongfully imprisoned women because they deemed it unsafe for the women to return home or because women’s shelters were not available to provide protection in the provinces or districts at issue" (6). "Authorities placed some women in protective custody to prevent violence by family members. They also employed protective custody (including placement in a detention center) for women who had experienced domestic violence, if no shelters were available to protect them from further abuse. The Elimination of Violence Against Women (EVAW) presidential decree--commonly referred to as the EVAW law--obliges police to arrest persons who abuse women. Implementation and awareness of the EVAW law was limited, however"...more
March 6, 2019, 7:48 p.m.
Countries: Afghanistan
Variables: CONST-LAW-1

"The constitution prohibits discrimination and notes that citizens, both 'man and woman,' have equal rights and duties before the law. It expressly prohibits discrimination based on language. The constitution contains no specific provisions addressing discrimination based on race, religion, national origin, color, sex, ethnicity, disability, or age" (35).
March 6, 2019, 7:48 p.m.
Countries: Afghanistan
Variables: DV-PRACTICE-1

"Additional problems included violence against journalists, criminalization of defamation; pervasive government corruption; and lack of accountability and investigation in cases of violence against women" (1) Violence against women is primarily expressed in domestic abuse (AMG-CODER COMMENT). "Women in IDP camps reported high levels of domestic violence" (20). IDP, Internally Displaced Persons (AMG-CODER COMMENT). "According to NGO reports, hundreds of thousands of women continued to suffer abuse at the hands of their husbands, fathers, brothers, in-laws, armed individuals, parallel legal systems, and institutions of state, such as the police and justice systems" (26). "The justice system’s response to domestic violence was limited, in part due to low reporting, sympathy toward perpetrators,...more
March 6, 2019, 7:48 p.m.
Countries: Afghanistan
Variables: SEGI-PRACTICE-3

"Other antigovernment elements threatened, robbed, kidnapped, and attacked government workers, foreigners, medical and nongovernmental organization (NGO) workers, and other civilians" (pg. 1) Afghani antigovernment elements are opposed to many elements of gener equality (AMG-CODER COMMENT). "Women active in government and politics continued to face threats and violence and were the targets of attacks by the Taliban and other insurgent groups" (23).