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Latest items for Belarus

Feb. 14, 2019, 10:48 p.m.
Countries: Belarus
Variables: AOM-LAW-1

"The legal minimum age of marriage for both boys and girls is 18, although girls as young as 14 may marry with parental consent" (37).
Feb. 14, 2019, 10:48 p.m.
Countries: Belarus
Variables: DTCP-PRACTICE-1

"In general conditions for female and juvenile prisoners were slightly better than for male prisoners" (5).
Feb. 14, 2019, 10:48 p.m.
Countries: Belarus
Variables: ERBG-LAW-2, IIP-LAW-2

"Sexual harassment reportedly was widespread, but no specific laws, other than those against physical assault, address the problem" (36).
Feb. 14, 2019, 10:48 p.m.
Countries: Belarus
Variables: LO-LAW-1, LO-DATA-3, IAW-LAW-1, IAD-LAW-1

"The law provides for equal treatment of women with regard to property ownership and inheritance, family law, equal pay for equal work (although in practice women were often paid less), and in the judicial system, and the law was generally respected" (36).
Feb. 14, 2019, 10:48 p.m.
Countries: Belarus
Variables: IIP-PRACTICE-2

"In March the Mahilyou State University administration expelled Alena Kisel after she was fined 345 rubles ($180) for participating in unauthorized protests in the city" (20-21).
Feb. 14, 2019, 10:48 p.m.
Countries: Belarus
Variables: VOTE-PRACTICE-1

"Citizens were unable to choose their government through free and fair elections. Since his election as president in 1994, Aliaksandr Lukashenka has consolidated his rule over all institutions and undermined the rule of law through authoritarian means, including manipulated elections and arbitrary decrees. All subsequent presidential elections fell well short of international standards. The 2016 parliamentary elections also failed to meet international standards" (1). Both women and men may be influenced to not vote because of a lack of legitimate elections (CEM - CODER COMMENT).
Feb. 14, 2019, 10:48 p.m.
Countries: Belarus
Variables: DV-PRACTICE-2

"The government instituted a 2017-21 comprehensive national plan to improve childcare and the protection of children’s rights, including for victims of child abuse, domestic violence, and commercial sexual exploitation, and acknowledged a lack of funding and inefficiency in executing certain protective measures. With assistance from NGOs that promote children’s rights, authorities extensively employed procedures for on-the-record, one-time interviewing of child abuse victims in the framework of investigations or criminal cases at specialized facilities under the direct supervision of psychologists. Courts used recorded testimony to avoid repeatedly summoning child abuse victims for hearings. Cases that affected the rights and legitimate interests of minors were generally heard by more experienced judges with...more
Feb. 14, 2019, 10:48 p.m.
Countries: Belarus
Variables: PRN-LAW-1

"The law provides penalties of up to 13 years in prison for production or distribution of pornographic materials depicting a minor" (37-38). "The law also restricts access to websites whose content includes promotion of violence, wars, “extremist activities”; materials related to illicit weapons, explosives, and drugs; trafficking in persons; pornography; and information that may harm the national interests of the country" (19).
Feb. 14, 2019, 10:48 p.m.
Countries: Belarus
Variables: ERBG-DATA-1

"The law requiring equal pay for equal work was not regularly enforced, and the minister of labor and social welfare stated in June 2016 that on average women were paid 24 percent less than men" (47).
Feb. 14, 2019, 10:48 p.m.
Countries: Belarus
Variables: LRCM-LAW-2

"The law criminalizes rape in general but does not include separate provisions on marital rape" (35).
Feb. 14, 2019, 10:48 p.m.
Countries: Belarus
Variables: FSCB-PRACTICE-1, FSCB-LAW-1

"The most significant human rights issues included torture; . . . allegations of pressuring women to have abortions; trafficking in persons; and suppression of independent trade unions" (1).
Feb. 14, 2019, 10:48 p.m.
Countries: Belarus
Variables: LRW-DATA-1

"Rape was a problem. According to the Ministry of Internal Affairs, there were 108 registered cases of rape or attempted rape from January to June 2017" (35). "According to the Interior Ministry, from January to November authorities registered 533 pedophilia and related crimes, including 76 cases of rape of prepubescent children, 173 cases of sexual violence against minors and prepubescent children, 250 cases of sexual intercourse and sexual molestation of minors under age 16, and 34 cases of sexual molestation of minors, and identified 396 victims of these crimes" (37).
Feb. 14, 2019, 10:48 p.m.
Countries: Belarus
Variables: RISW-PRACTICE-2

"The government failed to resume operations of a national hotline for assisting children despite various NGOs’ requests to support the hotline" (37). I am coding this here because child abuse is an aspect of domestic violence, which primarily affects women and children (CEM - CODER COMMENT).
Feb. 14, 2019, 10:48 p.m.
Countries: Belarus
Variables: DACH-PRACTICE-3

"Women with disabilities, as well as pregnant women whose children were diagnosed with potential disabilities in utero, reported that some doctors insisted they terminate their pregnancies" (36).
Feb. 14, 2019, 10:48 p.m.
Countries: Belarus
Variables: UVAW-PRACTICE-1

"The government directed efforts to combat genderbased violence mainly by preventing such crimes and not by protecting or assisting victims, although crisis rooms provided limited psychological and medical assistance to victims" (36). "As of January the Ministry of Education ran 138 social-educational centers nationwide for minor victims of any type of violence or minors finding themselves in vulnerable and dangerous conditions" (37).
Feb. 14, 2019, 10:48 p.m.
Countries: Belarus
Variables: LRW-LAW-1

"Rape or sexual assault of a person known to be a minor is punishable by up to 15 years’ imprisonment. . . The minimum age for consensual sex is 16" (37).
Feb. 14, 2019, 10:48 p.m.
Countries: Belarus
Variables: NGOFW-PRACTICE-1

"The government continued to deny registration to some NGOs and political parties on a variety of pretexts, including 'technical' problems with applications. Authorities frequently harassed and intimidated founding members of organizations in an effort to force them to abandon their membership and thus deprive their groups of the number of petitioners necessary for registration. Many groups had been denied registration on multiple occasions" (24). "There were a number of active domestic human rights NGOs, although authorities were often hostile to their efforts, restricted their activities, selectively cooperated with them, and were not responsive to their views. Two prominent human rights NGOs--the Belarusian Helsinki Committee and the Center for Legal Transformations--operated...more
Feb. 14, 2019, 10:48 p.m.
Countries: Belarus
Variables: DV-LAW-1

"The law on crime prevention establishes a separate definition of domestic violence and provides for implementation of protective orders, which are from three to 30 days in duration. The law requires authorities to provide victims and abusers with temporary accommodation until the protective orders expire" (36).
Feb. 14, 2019, 10:48 p.m.
Countries: Belarus
Variables: LRW-LAW-2

"Rape or sexual assault of a person known to be a minor is punishable by up to 15 years’ imprisonment. Sexual acts between a person older than 18 and a person known to be younger than 16 carry penalties of up to five years imprisonment" (37).
Feb. 14, 2019, 10:48 p.m.
Countries: Belarus
Variables: ABO-PRACTICE-1

"Women with disabilities, as well as pregnant women whose children were diagnosed with potential disabilities in utero, reported that some doctors insisted they terminate their pregnancies" (36). "The most significant human rights issues included torture; . . . allegations of pressuring women to have abortions; trafficking in persons; and suppression of independent trade unions" (1).
Feb. 14, 2019, 10:48 p.m.
Countries: Belarus
Variables: PRN-PRACTICE-1

"From January to November, the Internal Affairs Ministry investigated 63 cases of the production and distribution of child pornography. Twenty-nine minors were victims of sexual exploitation, including 25 in child pornography, and four in prostitution" (37).
Feb. 14, 2019, 10:48 p.m.
Countries: Belarus
Variables: IRP-PRACTICE-1

"Prostitution of children was a problem. . . Twenty-nine minors were victims of sexual exploitation, including 25 in child pornography, and four in prostitution" (37-38).
Feb. 14, 2019, 10:48 p.m.
Countries: Belarus
Variables: GIC-LAW-1

"Although the law grants women the right to three years of maternity leave with assurance of a job upon return, employers often circumvented employment protections by using short-term contracts, then refusing to renew a woman’s contract when she became pregnant" (47). "Women with disabilities, as well as pregnant women whose children were diagnosed with potential disabilities in utero, reported that some doctors insisted they terminate their pregnancies" (40).
Feb. 14, 2019, 10:48 p.m.
Countries: Belarus
Variables: LBHO-PRACTICE-2

"In 2015 Tatsiana Karatkevich was the first woman to run for president, and on election day President Lukashenka told the press, 'our president has numerous functions, from security to the economy. A person in a skirt is unlikely to be able to cope with them now.' He added that even if this were not the case, society was not ready for a female president" (31). "No laws limit participation of women or minorities in the political process but patriarchal social attitudes disfavored women’s efforts to achieve positions of power" (31).
Feb. 14, 2019, 10:48 p.m.
Countries: Belarus
Variables: DV-LAW-2

"The law on crime prevention establishes a separate definition of domestic violence and provides for implementation of protective orders, which are from three to 30 days in duration. The law requires authorities to provide victims and abusers with temporary accommodation until the protective orders expire. In addition, the code on administrative offenses prescribes a large fine or detention for up to 15 days for battery, intended infliction of pain, and psychological or physical suffering committed against a close family member" (36).
Feb. 14, 2019, 10:48 p.m.
Countries: Belarus
Variables: CONST-LAW-1

"The law prohibits discrimination based on race, gender, language, or social status. These laws do not apply specifically to employment or occupation" (47).
Feb. 14, 2019, 10:48 p.m.
Countries: Belarus
Variables: WAM-PRACTICE-1

"The government also restricted the activities of a nonofficial writers union, the independent Union of Belarusian Writers, and extensively supported the progovernment Union of Writers of Belarus. Authorities harassed distributors of books authored by critical and independent writers or written in the Belarusian language. Authorities did not allow local printing of books by Sviatlana Aleksievich, winner of the Nobel Prize for literature, although her books were widely available in bookstores and online, primarily in Russian editions" (21).
Feb. 14, 2019, 10:48 p.m.
Countries: Belarus
Variables: CLCC-LAW-1

"Citizenship is derived either by birth within the country or from one’s parents. A child of a citizen is a citizen regardless of place of birth, even if one parent is not a citizen" (36).
Feb. 14, 2019, 10:48 p.m.
Countries: Belarus
Variables: AOM-PRACTICE-1

"There were reports of early marriage in which girls as young as 14 and boys as young as 16 married with parental consent" (37).
Feb. 14, 2019, 10:48 p.m.
Countries: Belarus
Variables: RISW-PRACTICE-1

"The government instituted a 2017-21 comprehensive national plan to improve childcare and the protection of children’s rights, including for victims of child abuse, domestic violence, and commercial sexual exploitation, and acknowledged a lack of funding and inefficiency in executing certain protective measures. With assistance from NGOs that promote children’s rights, authorities extensively employed procedures for on-the-record, one-time interviewing of child abuse victims in the framework of investigations or criminal cases at specialized facilities under the direct supervision of psychologists. Courts used recorded testimony to avoid repeatedly summoning child abuse victims for hearings. Cases that affected the rights and legitimate interests of minors were generally heard by more experienced judges with...more