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Latest items for Burma/Myanmar

June 13, 2018, 8:41 p.m.
Countries: Burma/Myanmar
Variables: IRP-LAW-1

"But sex work is a dangerous job in Myanmar, which outlawed the industry in 1949" (para 27). "'Since November, I have not been getting many customers because there have been so many arrests. The police know who we are, they know where we meet the customer, they wait there all the time and when they see us they threaten us. If we don't pay them money then they arrest us,' she says" (para 28).
June 13, 2018, 8:41 p.m.
Countries: Burma/Myanmar
Variables: MARR-PRACTICE-5

"'[A family's] last recourse might be selling their daughter'" (para 19). The article does not indicate if this practice is legal or not, but it appears that families do view this as an option for making money when they are desperate enough (AA-CODER COMMENT).
June 13, 2018, 8:41 p.m.
Countries: Burma/Myanmar
Variables: AOM-PRACTICE-1

"Her second daughter dropped out after just one year of education and was married at 14" (para 17).
June 13, 2018, 8:41 p.m.
Countries: Burma/Myanmar
Variables: TRAFF-PRACTICE-2

"According to Maxime Boutry, it is common for severely indebted families to sell their daughters' virginity to repay their loan. 'This is the most obvious link between debt and [the] sex trade … for one girl's virginity it is 5 lakh (roughly $370) for the family, this is a really big amount of money that they can not earn anywhere else'" (para 33). "It is not clear who is creating the market for virgins, but some fear that it might be Chinese businessmen who believe that having sexual intercourse with a virgin will cure them of sexually transmitted diseases, including HIV" (para 35).
June 13, 2018, 8:41 p.m.
Countries: Burma/Myanmar
Variables: AFE-PRACTICE-1

"Their research also shows that 50 percent of children drop out of school at the age of 13. While education is nominally free in Myanmar, the cost of snacks, notebooks and informal tuition fees are too much for families struggling to repay their spiralling debts" (para 16). While this is not specific to women, it is important to realize that a lack of educational attainment for children is detrimental to the society as a whole. We can assume that roughly half of the children dropping out of school are young girls (AA-CODER COMMENT).
June 13, 2018, 8:41 p.m.
Countries: Burma/Myanmar
Variables: DTCP-PRACTICE-1

"'The police know who we are, they know where we meet the customer, they wait there all the time and when they see us they threaten us. If we don't pay them money then they arrest us,' she says. Ma Ei Pyi says that sometimes the police don't just demand money. She says she was among a group of sex workers forced to accompany a police officer to a local guest house and have sex with him in order to avoid being arrested" (para 28-29).
June 13, 2018, 8:41 p.m.
Countries: Burma/Myanmar
Variables: LO-DATA-1

"Her fortunes changed when the 34 women living on her street in North Okkalapa township started a collective savings group in 2009, hoping it would break the cycle of debt afflicting their lives...Each member invests 3,200 kyat ($2.34) per week in the group savings account - a padlocked box fiercely guarded by the group leader Aye Aye Khing. After investing for three months, members are illegible for a low-interest loan. The group's current liquidity stands at 3,321,000 kyat ($2,430). The women take it in turns to borrow 1,000,000 kyat ($732), which is usually invested into a business. They pay 2.5 percent monthly interest which is shared among the group at...more
June 13, 2018, 8:41 p.m.
Countries: Burma/Myanmar
Variables: IRP-PRACTICE-1

"'With such high interest rates, a poor family can very quickly find themselves with 4 lakh (roughly $296), 5 lakh (roughly $370) or even 6 lakh (roughly $444) of debt … there are only [a] few ways to get that sort of money fast, and sex work is one of the fastest money earning activities you can find,' says anthropologist Maxime Boutry" (para 19). "'If you are the woman in the family and not educated, your only choice is sex work. Life is very hard here, especially in Yangon, and we have to find money for our family to survive,' she says fighting back the tears. 'In this industry I...more
June 13, 2018, 8:41 p.m.
Countries: Burma/Myanmar
Variables: LO-LAW-1

"She is not the only one to be crippled by high interest loans in Yangon. In a recent survey of three townships, Save the Children discovered that 85 percent of households have taken out a loan from a local moneylender" (para 6). It appears that loans are available to both men and women, however, many individuals are taking loans from local moneylenders that may or may not actually be legally licensed to distribute loans anyway (AA-CODER COMMENT).
March 29, 2018, 10:36 p.m.
Countries: Burma/Myanmar
Variables: PW-DATA-1

According to a 2015-16 DHS survey of Myanmar, the percentage of women who were married or in a union and whose husband had no additional wives was 94.4%. The percentage of women who were married or in a union and whose husband had one additional wife was 4.8%. The percentage of women who were married or in a union and whose husband had two or more additional wives was 0.6%. The percentage of men who were married and had two or more wives was 3.9%. The percentage of married or in union men aged 15-49 who had two or more wives was 3.9%. This information was compiled by Professor Andrea...more
Jan. 8, 2018, 11:54 a.m.
Countries: Burma/Myanmar
Variables: ATFPA-PRACTICE-2

"About half of currently married women (51%) with cash earnings decide independently on how their earnings will be used, while 41% decide jointly with their husband" (241). Participation in household decision making is an important aspect of women’s ability to have control over their own lives. Eighty-eight percent of currently married women participate in decisions about visits to their family or relatives, including 37% who make these decisions mainly alone; 83% participate in decisions regarding their own health care, including 40% who make these decisions mainly alone; and 74% participate in decisions about major household purchases, including 19% who make these decisions mainly alone. "Overall, 65% of currently married women...more
Jan. 8, 2018, 11:54 a.m.
Countries: Burma/Myanmar
Variables: MMR-SCALE-1

"The pregnancy-related mortality ratio was 227 maternal deaths per 100,000 live births for the 7 years period before the survey" (235).
Jan. 8, 2018, 11:54 a.m.
Countries: Burma/Myanmar
Variables: BR-PRACTICE-1

"The mean ideal family size for all women age 15-49 in Myanmar is 2.5 children, and for all men in the same age group, it is 2.8 children. The mean ideal family size for currently married women, at 2.9 children, and for currently married men, at 3.0 children, is slightly higher than for all women and all men age 15-49, respectively. Among women with no living children, 35% would like to have two children, 20% would like to have three children, and 17% would like to have no children. Also notably, only 6% of women with no children want four or more children" (81).
Jan. 8, 2018, 11:54 a.m.
Countries: Burma/Myanmar
Variables: AFE-DATA-1

"A relatively high proportion of women and men have some secondary education or more: 36% of women and 41% of men. There is little difference by sex in the median years of education completed (4.2 versus 4.5)" (13). "Urban residents are much more likely to have completed secondary school than rural residents: among women in urban households, 22% have completed secondary school or have higher education compared with 4% of women in rural households. Men in urban areas are also more likely than men in rural areas (19% versus 4%) to have completed secondary school" (13). "The net attendance ratio for primary school is 83%, and there is little difference...more
Jan. 8, 2018, 11:54 a.m.
Countries: Burma/Myanmar
Variables: IM-DATA-1

"The infant mortality rate is 40 deaths per 1,000 live births. This means that 1 in 25 children does not reach his or her first birthday. Most of these deaths in the first year of life, more than 60%, occur within the first month" (111). "Under-5 mortality fell from 103 to 50 deaths per 1,000 live births in the decade or so preceding the survey" (111). "In Myanmar, neonatal mortality is 25 deaths per 1,000 live births, infant mortality is 40 deaths per 1,000 live births, and under-5 mortality is 50 deaths per 1,000 live births in the 5-year period preceding the survey. These rates imply that 1 in 25...more
Jan. 8, 2018, 11:54 a.m.
Countries: Burma/Myanmar
Variables: IM-DATA-2

"Male children are more likely to die in early childhood than female children. The under-5 mortality rate for male children is 78 deaths per 1,000 live births and for female children is 66 deaths per 1,000 live births" (113).
Jan. 8, 2018, 11:54 a.m.
Countries: Burma/Myanmar
Variables: AOM-PRACTICE-1

"Child marriage, that is marriage before age 18, is still quite common among Myanmar women: 19% of women age 20-49 were married before age 18. Among men age 20-49, by contrast, only 7% were married before their 18th birthday. Even though marriage before 18 is common, very early marriage (before age 15) is not" (55).
Jan. 8, 2018, 11:54 a.m.
Countries: Burma/Myanmar
Variables: CRPLB-PRACTICE-1

"Eighty-one percent of women age 15-49 who had a live birth in the 5 years preceding the survey received antenatal care from a skilled provider for their most recent birth. Three-fifths of women (59%) had four or more antenatal care visits" (121). "The 2015-16 MDHS reveals that four in five women age 15-49 (81%) received at least one ANC visit with skilled providers during the pregnancy for their most recent birth" (122). "Women are less likely to get ANC from a skilled provider for higher order births. Only 60% of women with a sixth or higher order birth received ANC from a skilled provider, compared with 89% of women giving...more
Jan. 8, 2018, 11:54 a.m.
Countries: Burma/Myanmar
Variables: IRP-DATA-2

"Overall, 2% of men had ever paid for sexual intercourse, and 1% reported having paid for sexual intercourse in the 12 months preceding the survey. Among those who had paid for sexual intercourse in the 12 months preceding the survey, 77% reported using a condom during their last such intercourse" (209).
Jan. 8, 2018, 11:54 a.m.
Countries: Burma/Myanmar
Variables: EWCMS-DATA-2

"Sixty-seven percent of women and 91% of men are currently employed" (27).
Jan. 8, 2018, 11:54 a.m.
Countries: Burma/Myanmar
Variables: CLCC-PRACTICE-1

According to Table 2.9, 7.9% of female children under age 5 did not have a birth certificate, whereas 6.4% of male children did not have a birth certificate (22).
Jan. 8, 2018, 11:54 a.m.
Countries: Burma/Myanmar
Variables: AOM-DATA-1

"The median age at first marriage is 22.1 for women and 24.5 for men, which means that women tend to marry 2 years earlier than men" (53).
Jan. 8, 2018, 11:54 a.m.
Countries: Burma/Myanmar
Variables: LO-LAW-1, LO-DATA-3

"Fifty-four percent of women age 15-49 own a house and 48% own land alone or jointly with someone else. Similarly, 56% of men own a house and 49% own land alone or jointly" (241). "In Myanmar, there are no differences between women and men with respect to ownership of a house or land. More than half of women (54%) and men (56%) age 15-49 own a house alone or jointly with someone else, and almost half of women (48%) and men (49%) own land alone or jointly. However, men are more likely than women to own both a house and land alone" (243).
Jan. 8, 2018, 11:54 a.m.
Countries: Burma/Myanmar
Variables: MABFC-DATA-1

"In Myanmar, intervals between births are generally quite long, with the median birth interval being 49 months. Thirty-two percent of births occur within 3 years of a previous birth, and only 13% occur within 24 months" (67). "The median age of a woman at her first birth is 24.7 years; only 7% of women give birth before they are 18" (67).
Jan. 8, 2018, 11:54 a.m.
Countries: Burma/Myanmar
Variables: UVAW-PRACTICE-1

"In Myanmar, 13% of women have experienced physical violence only, 1% have experienced sexual violence only, and 2% have experienced both physical and sexual violence" (264).
Jan. 8, 2018, 11:54 a.m.
Countries: Burma/Myanmar
Variables: PW-DATA-1

"Five percent of married women report that their husbands have other wives" (53). "Results show that polygyny is relatively uncommon in Myanmar. Only 5% of currently married women said their husbands have more than one wife, and 4% of currently married men said that they have more than one wife" (54). "A higher prevalence of polygyny is found among older age groups for both sexes. Six percent of married women age 45-49 say that their husband has one or more co-wives, and 8% of men age 45-49 say that they have more than one wife" (54).
Jan. 8, 2018, 11:54 a.m.
Countries: Burma/Myanmar
Variables: MMR-DATA-1

"The lifetime risk of maternal death indicates that 1 in 200 women in Myanmar will die from either pregnancy or childbearing" (235).
Jan. 8, 2018, 11:54 a.m.
Countries: Burma/Myanmar
Variables: MABFC-DATA-2

"In Myanmar, only 13% of non-first births occurred within 24 months after the preceding birth, and 5% occurred less than 18 months after the preceding birth (Table 5.5, Figure 5.4). The median birth interval for Myanmar as a whole is more than 4 years (49 months)—54 months in urban areas and 48 months in rural areas" (69).
Jan. 8, 2018, 11:54 a.m.
Countries: Burma/Myanmar
Variables: DACH-PRACTICE-2

"Overall, 52% of currently married women use a method of family planning, with 51% using a modern method and 1% using a traditional method. Among modern methods, injectables are most commonly used (28%), followed by the pill (14%), female sterilization (5%), and the IUD (3%). Overhalfofmodern contraceptive users (54%) receive their method from public sector sources—government hospitals, health centers, and clinics" (88). " Sixteen percent of currently married women have an unmet need for family planning: they want to space or limit births but are not currently using contraception" (88). "Three-quarters of the total demand for family planning is satisfied by modern methods (75%)" (88)." Knowledge about emergency contraception is...more
Jan. 8, 2018, 11:54 a.m.
Countries: Burma/Myanmar
Variables: LRW-DATA-1

"Fifteen percent of women have experienced physical violence since age 15, and 3% have ever experienced sexual violence" (261). "Three percent of women age 15-49 have ever experienced sexual violence, and 2% experienced sexual violence during the 12 months preceding the survey. Less than 1% of women first experienced sexual violence before age 18" (264).