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Latest items for Cambodia

May 24, 2019, 9:54 a.m.
Countries: Cambodia
Variables: TRAFF-LAW-1

"In Cambodia, human trafficking is defined in the country’s 2008 Law on Suppression of Human Trafficking and Sexual Exploitation. The exploitative dimensions of the various acts stipulated include the purposes of “profit making, sexual aggression, production of pornography, marriage against will of the victim, adoption or any form of exploitation”, with ‘any form of exploitation’ comprising “the exploitation of the prostitution of others, pornography, commercial sex act, forced labor or services, slavery or practices similar to slavery, debt bondage, involuntary servitude, child labor or the removal of organs. The means component is specified to include “the actor’s or a third person’s control by means of force, threat, deception, abuse of...more
May 24, 2019, 9:54 a.m.
Countries: Cambodia
Variables: TRAFF-PRACTICE-2

"The first-contact broker was often known to the respondents or their families: a neighbor, coworker or client at the work place such as a hair salon. Some brokers referred to a daughter who was allegedly in China and remitting money home; The enticement was that women could send money home to their families by marrying a rich man or working and earning more than they would in Cambodia, or both. In some cases, they were told that, in order to get a well-paying job, they needed to marry a Chinese man; Some brokers provided the women with money before departure, which was referred to in interviews as ‘dowry’, travel expenses...more
May 24, 2019, 9:54 a.m.
Countries: Cambodia
Variables: TRAFF-PRACTICE-1

"Upon arrival, women were typically interviewed by the immigration and anti-human trafficking police for details about the brokers. The respondents received cash and in-kind support from a range of civil society organizations and were assisted to reach their homes; Vocational training options were often offered to the returnees, but only some were able to complete the programs; Women regularly engaged in wage labor after their return, mostly as factory workers or in low-skill service jobs in Phnom Penh; Some women and their families were in debt, having to repay creditors from whom they had borrowed to cover the journey to or back from China; Whilst certain respondents indicated having filed...more
May 15, 2019, 7:58 p.m.
Countries: Cambodia
Variables: AFE-DATA-1

"According to international organization reports, enrollment dropped significantly for girls after primary school in urban areas, while postprimary school enrollment for boys dropped significantly in rural areas" (27).
May 15, 2019, 7:58 p.m.
Countries: Cambodia
Variables: PRN-LAW-1

"The law also prohibits the production and possession of child pornography" (28).
May 15, 2019, 7:58 p.m.
Countries: Cambodia
Variables: AFE-PRACTICE-1

"The government did not deny girls equal access to education, but families with limited resources often gave priority to boys, especially in rural areas" (27).
May 15, 2019, 7:58 p.m.
Countries: Cambodia
Variables: TRAFF-PRACTICE-2

"The government continued to raid brothels to identify and remove child sex trafficking victims, although the majority of child sex trafficking was clandestine, occurring indirectly in beer gardens, massage parlors, beauty salons, karaoke bars, and noncommercial sites" (27). "The country remained a destination for child sex tourism" (28).
May 15, 2019, 7:58 p.m.
Countries: Cambodia
Variables: FSCB-PRACTICE-1, FSCB-LAW-1

"There were no reports of coerced abortion, involuntary sterilization, or other coercive population control methods" (26).
May 15, 2019, 7:58 p.m.
Countries: Cambodia
Variables: ERBG-PRACTICE-3

"BFC reported that in the garment and footwear sector, factory management discriminated heavily against men with respect to hiring and benefits, generally without legal consequence" (36).
May 15, 2019, 7:58 p.m.
Countries: Cambodia
Variables: DV-PRACTICE-1

"NGOs reported authorities did not aggressively enforce domestic law on perpetrators and avoided involvement in domestic disputes" (26).
May 15, 2019, 7:58 p.m.
Countries: Cambodia
Variables: AOM-LAW-1

"The legal minimum age of marriage for both men and women is 18 years; however, children as young as 16 years may legally marry with parental permission" (27).
May 15, 2019, 7:58 p.m.
Countries: Cambodia
Variables: LRW-DATA-1

"Local and international NGOs reported violence against women, including domestic violence and rape, was common. Rape and domestic violence were likely underreported due to the victims’ fear of reprisal by perpetrators, discrimination from the community, and their distrust of the judiciary system" (25). "Child rape continued to be a serious problem" (27).
May 15, 2019, 7:58 p.m.
Countries: Cambodia
Variables: LRW-PRACTICE-2

"Rape and domestic violence were likely underreported due to the victims’ fear of reprisal by perpetrators, discrimination from the community, and their distrust of the judiciary system" (25).
May 15, 2019, 7:58 p.m.
Countries: Cambodia
Variables: CONST-LAW-1

"The constitution provides for equal rights for women, equal pay for equal work, and equal status in marriage" (26).
May 15, 2019, 7:58 p.m.
Countries: Cambodia
Variables: CLCC-LAW-1

"By law a child derives citizenship by birth to a mother and father who are not ethnic Khmer if both parents were born and were living legally in the country or if either parent acquired citizenship through other legal means" (27).
May 15, 2019, 7:58 p.m.
Countries: Cambodia
Variables: LDS-PRACTICE-2

"Officials reported particular difficulties in verifying working conditions and salaries in the informal fishing, agricultural, construction, and domestic sectors. Penalties prescribed under law for forced labor were stringent, including imprisonment and fines. Although the government made efforts to highlight the problem of forced labor domestically, the extent to which these efforts were effective remained unclear" (33-34). "Children from impoverished families were at risk because affluent households used humanitarian pretenses to hire children as domestic workers, only to abuse and exploit them (see section 7.c.). Children were also subjected to forced begging. In September the Ministry of Labor and Vocational Training’s director of child labor acknowledged the ministry lacked resources to...more
May 15, 2019, 7:58 p.m.
Countries: Cambodia
Variables: WAM-PRACTICE-1

"The Ministry of Women’s Affairs also coordinated with several NGOs and local media outlets to produce radio and television programming on topics related to women" (26).
May 15, 2019, 7:58 p.m.
Countries: Cambodia
Variables: ERBG-DATA-1

"According to a BWTUC survey, daily pay for male construction workers was 20.2 percent higher than for women performing similar work" (36).
May 15, 2019, 7:58 p.m.
Countries: Cambodia
Variables: LRW-LAW-2

"Rape is punishable by five to 30 years’ imprisonment" (25).
May 15, 2019, 7:58 p.m.
Countries: Cambodia
Variables: NGOFW-PRACTICE-1

"Local human rights NGOs, media, and several independent analysts continued to express concern publicly about government actions targeting their work, including the arrests of ADHOC officials. On September 13, authorities arrested Dem Kundy and Hun Vannak, who worked for the NGO Mother Nature, on charges of incitement to commit a felony and violating privacy for filming sand-dredging operations in Koh Kong Province, a politically sensitive environmental issue" (12). "The constitution provides for freedom of association, but the government did not always respect this right, particularly with regard to workers’ rights (see section 7.a.). The LANGO requires all associations and NGOs to be politically neutral, which not only restricts the right...more
May 15, 2019, 7:58 p.m.
Countries: Cambodia
Variables: WAM-LAW-1

"In July the Ministry of Information and the Ministry of Women’s Affairs began to implement a code of conduct for all media outlets for reporting on violence against women. The code banned publication of information, including pictures of victims; depictions of women’s death, injury, or nudity; and the use of certain offensive or disparaging words against women. The Ministry of Women’s Affairs first announced a reporting system within the government to increase accountability and transparency in the government’s response to violence against women" (26).
May 15, 2019, 7:58 p.m.
Countries: Cambodia
Variables: ERBG-LAW-1

"The law prohibits employment discrimination based on race, color, sex, disability, religion, political opinion, birth, social origin, or union membership" (36).
May 15, 2019, 7:58 p.m.
Countries: Cambodia
Variables: TRAFF-PRACTICE-1

"The government continued to raid brothels to identify and remove child sex trafficking victims, although the majority of child sex trafficking was clandestine, occurring indirectly in beer gardens, massage parlors, beauty salons, karaoke bars, and noncommercial sites. Police continued to investigate cases of child sex trafficking occurring in brothels or cases where victims filed complaints directly but did not typically pursue more complicated cases. The government did not issue formal guidance allowing the use of undercover investigation techniques in trafficking investigations, and the lack of explicit authority continued to impede officials’ ability to hold child sex traffickers accountable" (27). "The government used the law to prosecute both sex tourists and...more
May 15, 2019, 7:58 p.m.
Countries: Cambodia
Variables: AFE-LAW-1

"Education was free, but not compulsory, through grade nine. Many children left school to help their families in subsistence agriculture, worked in other activities, began school at a late age, or did not attend school at all. The government did not deny girls equal access to education, but families with limited resources often gave priority to boys, especially in rural areas" (27).
May 15, 2019, 7:58 p.m.
Countries: Cambodia
Variables: LBHO-PRACTICE-3

"No laws limit the participation of women and members of ethnic minorities in the political process, but cultural traditions limited women’s role in politics and government" (23).
May 15, 2019, 7:58 p.m.
Countries: Cambodia
Variables: DV-LAW-1

"The domestic violence law criminalizes domestic violence but does not set out specific penalties" (25).
May 15, 2019, 7:58 p.m.
Countries: Cambodia
Variables: LRCM-PRACTICE-1

"Charges for spousal rape under the penal code and the domestic violence law were rare" (25).
May 15, 2019, 7:58 p.m.
Countries: Cambodia
Variables: DV-LAW-2

"The domestic violence law criminalizes domestic violence but does not set out specific penalties. The penal code can be used to punish domestic violence offenses, with penalties ranging from one to 15 years’ imprisonment" (25).
May 15, 2019, 7:58 p.m.
Countries: Cambodia
Variables: LRW-LAW-1

"The law criminalizes rape and assault" (25).
May 15, 2019, 7:58 p.m.
Countries: Cambodia
Variables: ERBG-LAW-2

"The penal code criminalizes sexual harassment, imposing penalties of six days’ to three months’ imprisonment and fines of 100,000-500,000 riels ($25-$125)" (26).