The most comprehensive compilation of information on the status of
women in the world.

Latest items for China

Oct. 18, 2019, 3:05 p.m.
Countries: Armenia, Azerbaijan, Bahamas, Bahrain, Bangladesh, Barbados, Bhutan, Bosnia-Herzegovina, Brazil, Burkina Faso, Burma/Myanmar, Cambodia, Cape Verde, Chad, Chile, China, Colombia, Congo, Cote D'Ivoire, Croatia, Cyprus, Czech Republic, Egypt, Equatorial Guinea, Eritrea, Fiji, Gabon, Georgia, Ghana, Greece, Guatemala, Guinea, Guinea-Bissau, Honduras, Hungary, India, Indonesia, Ireland, Israel, Jamaica, Jordan, Kenya, Kyrgyzstan, Lesotho, Liberia, Libya, Lithuania, Luxembourg, Madagascar, Malawi, Malaysia, Malta, Mauritania, Mauritius, Mongolia, Montenegro, Morocco, Niger, North Korea, Pakistan, Panama, Paraguay, Romania, Russia, Saudi Arabia, Sierra Leone, Singapore, Slovakia, Slovenia, Somalia, South Korea, Syria, Tajikistan, Thailand, Togo, Turkey, Turkmenistan, Ukraine, United Arab Emirates, United States, Uruguay, Uzbekistan, Venezuela, Zambia
Variables: GP-SCALE-2

2.0
Oct. 18, 2019, 12:59 p.m.
Countries: Afghanistan, Albania, Argentina, Armenia, Australia, Austria, Azerbaijan, Bahrain, Barbados, Belarus, Belgium, Belize, Bhutan, Bolivia, Botswana, Brazil, Brunei, Bulgaria, Burkina Faso, Burma/Myanmar, Canada, Cape Verde, Central African Rep, Chad, Chile, China, Colombia, Costa Rica, Cote D'Ivoire, Croatia, Cuba, Cyprus, Czech Republic, Denmark, Djibouti, Dominican Republic, Ecuador, El Salvador, Equatorial Guinea, Estonia, Finland, France, Gabon, Gambia, Georgia, Germany, Ghana, Greece, Guatemala, Guinea, Guyana, Haiti, Honduras, Hungary, Indonesia, Ireland, Israel, Italy, Jamaica, Japan, Kazakhstan, Kenya, Kuwait, Kyrgyzstan, Latvia, Lesotho, Liberia, Lithuania, Luxembourg, Macedonia, Malaysia, Maldives, Mali, Malta, Mauritius, Mexico, Mongolia, Montenegro, Namibia, Netherlands, New Zealand, Nicaragua, Nigeria, Norway, Panama, Papua New Guinea, Paraguay, Philippines, Poland, Portugal, Qatar, Romania, Russia, Serbia, Sierra Leone, Singapore, Slovakia, Slovenia, Solomon Islands, South Africa, South Korea, Spain, Sweden, Switzerland, Thailand, Trinidad/Tobago, Turkmenistan, Ukraine, United Arab Emirates, United Kingdom, United States, Uruguay, Uzbekistan, Vanuatu, Venezuela
Variables: ERBG-SCALE-1

1.0more
Oct. 16, 2019, 10:40 a.m.
Countries: China
Variables: TRAFF-PRACTICE-1

"The criminal code criminalized some forms of sex trafficking and labor trafficking. Various provisions of the criminal code could be used to prosecute sex trafficking offenses. Article 240 criminalized 'the abduction and sale of women or children,' which included abduction by deceit, kidnapping, purchasing, selling, sending, receiving, and transferring for the purpose of sale; however, unlike the definition of trafficking in persons under international law, Article 240 did not explicitly link these acts to a purpose of exploitation. Article 240 prescribed penalties of five to 10 years’ imprisonment and fines for the abduction and sale of women and children. If an abducted woman was then forced into prostitution, the penalties...more
Oct. 16, 2019, 10:40 a.m.
Countries: China
Variables: TRAFF-PRACTICE-3

"Despite the existence of these procedures, and contrary to the aforementioned policy, law enforcement officials continued to arrest and detain foreign women on suspicion of prostitution crimes without screening them for indicators of sex trafficking—sometimes for as long as four months—before deporting them for immigration violations. In some cases, rural border officials received reports involving the sex trafficking and forced labor of Burmese and Mongolian women and girls via forced and fraudulent marriage to Chinese men, then provided them with temporary shelter and helped to fund and escort their repatriation. However, observers noted this assistance was ad hoc and less prevalent among front-line officers working farther inland, where some foreign...more
Oct. 16, 2019, 10:37 a.m.
Countries: China
Variables: TRAFF-PRACTICE-2

"As reported over the past five years, human traffickers subject domestic and foreign individuals to trafficking in China, and they subject Chinese individuals to trafficking abroad. Traffickers also use China as a transit point to subject foreign individuals to trafficking in other countries throughout Asia and in international maritime industries. Well-organized criminal syndicates and local gangs subject Chinese women and girls to sex trafficking within China. Traffickers typically recruit them from rural areas and take them to urban centers, using a combination of fraudulent job offers and coercion by imposing large travel fees, confiscating passports, confining victims, or physically and financially threatening victims to compel their engagement in commercial sex....more
Oct. 16, 2019, 10:37 a.m.
Countries: China
Variables: TRAFF-PRACTICE-1

"The Government of the People’s Republic of China (PRC) does not fully meet the minimum standards for the elimination of trafficking and is not making significant efforts to do so; therefore China remained on Tier 3. Despite the lack of significant efforts, the government took some steps to address trafficking, including by continuing to cooperate with international authorities to address forced and fraudulent marriages in China, a key trafficking vulnerability for foreign women and girls, and by continuing to seek accountability for officials complicit in commercial sex crimes that may have included sex trafficking. However, state-sponsored forced labor intensified under the government’s mass detention and political indoctrination campaign against members...more
Sept. 20, 2019, 10:37 a.m.
Countries: Albania, Algeria, Angola, Armenia, Azerbaijan, Bahamas, Barbados, Belarus, Belize, Benin, Bhutan, Bolivia, Botswana, Brazil, Burkina Faso, Cambodia, China, Comoros, Cuba, Dominican Republic, East Timor, Ecuador, Equatorial Guinea, Ethiopia, Fiji, Georgia, Ghana, Indonesia, Israel, Jamaica, Kazakhstan, Kosovo, Kyrgyzstan, Laos, Lebanon, Libya, Lithuania, Madagascar, Malaysia, Mongolia, Mozambique, Namibia, Nepal, Nicaragua, Panama, Paraguay, Philippines, Rwanda, Sierra Leone, Singapore, Suriname, Trinidad/Tobago, Turkey, Turkmenistan, Uganda, United States, Uruguay, Uzbekistan, Vanuatu, Venezuela, Vietnam, Zambia
Variables: MULTIVAR-SCALE-1

3.0
Sept. 19, 2019, 8:35 p.m.
Countries: China
Variables: ADDL-DATA-1

"While North Koreans in China are technically refugees, Beijing refuses to acknowledge them as such, leaving them vulnerable to exploitation." (para 23).
Sept. 19, 2019, 8:35 p.m.
Countries: China
Variables: LDS-PRACTICE-2

"The woman are then subjected to domestic labour in the mornings and evenings, agricultural and other forms of manual labour during the days, and sexual intercourse with their husband and, on occasion, his male relatives, at night." (para 19).
Sept. 19, 2019, 8:35 p.m.
Countries: China
Variables: TRAFF-PRACTICE-1

"'Condemnation is insufficient. Only tangible acts can dismantle China’s sex trade, confront a North Korean regime that abhors women, and rescue sex slaves scattered across brothels, remote townships, and cybersex dens in mainland China.'" (para 6).
Sept. 19, 2019, 8:35 p.m.
Countries: China
Variables: TRAFF-DATA-1

"Of the women who the journey, 60 per cent end up in the sex industry, researchers said." (para 8). "Around half of those end up in prostitution, a third are forced into marriages - largely in rural communities with a shortage of women - and 15 per cent end up being used for cybersex." (para 9).
Sept. 19, 2019, 8:35 p.m.
Countries: China
Variables: TRAFF-PRACTICE-2

"The women are typically refugees who flee into China to escape persecution or starvation in their home country, before being exploited by locals, according to the Korea Future Initiative." (para 2). "Yoon Hee-soon, the author of the paper, wrote: 'Pushed from their homeland by a patriarchal regime that survives through the imposition of tyranny, poverty, and oppression, North Korean women and girls are passed through the hands of traffickers, brokers, and criminal organisations before being pulled into China’s sex trade, where they are exploited and used by men until their bodies are depleted." (para 4). "The majority of victims are aged between 12 and 29, though victims have been reported...more
Sept. 19, 2019, 8:35 p.m.
Countries: China
Variables: CWC-DATA-3

"Yoon Hee-soon, the author of the paper, wrote: 'Pushed from their homeland by a patriarchal regime that survives through the imposition of tyranny, poverty, and oppression, North Korean women and girls are passed through the hands of traffickers, brokers, and criminal organisations before being pulled into China’s sex trade, where they are exploited and used by men until their bodies are depleted." (para 7).
Sept. 19, 2019, 8:35 p.m.
Countries: China
Variables: MARR-PRACTICE-1

"Forced marriages are typically carried out by a broker who isolate the women in safe houses in rural areas, before showing them off to perspective buyers." (para 17).
Sept. 19, 2019, 8:35 p.m.
Countries: China
Variables: TRAFF-PRACTICE-3

"With few legitimate ways to make money and survive - and the threat of deportation back to North if they are reported to the police - the women are forced to make desperate choices." (para 24).
Sept. 17, 2019, 10:05 p.m.
Countries: China
Variables: ATDW-PRACTICE-2

"Eager to preserve the stability of the family unit, the party has also done little to help women following a recent court ruling that weakened their claim to property in divorce proceedings. And with divorce numbers on the rise, millions of Chinese women have been cut out of the nation’s real-estate boom, experts say." (para 15).
Sept. 17, 2019, 10:05 p.m.
Countries: China
Variables: ERBG-PRACTICE-2

"But instead of making it easier for women to both work and have children, China’s leader, Xi Jinping, has led a resurgence in traditional gender roles that has increasingly pushed women back into the home." (para 7).
Sept. 17, 2019, 10:05 p.m.
Countries: China
Variables: MULV-LAW-1

"Since 2012, China has required companies to offer at least 14 weeks of paid leave to women having children. Fathers typically get two weeks. The disparity means help-wanted ads often openly specify “men only” or “men preferred.”" (para 29).
Sept. 17, 2019, 10:05 p.m.
Countries: China
Variables: ERBG-DATA-1

"Thirty years ago, when the country first began implementing market reforms, Chinese women earned just under 80 percent of what men made. By 2010, according to the latest official data, the average income of women in Chinese cities had fallen to 67 percent that of men, and in the countryside 56 percent." (para 12).
Sept. 17, 2019, 10:05 p.m.
Countries: China
Variables: ERBG-LAW-2

"Such agreements are illegal but increasingly common in China, where discrimination against women is on the rise. From the womb to the workplace, from the political arena to the home, women in China are losing ground at every turn." (para 5).
Sept. 17, 2019, 10:05 p.m.
Countries: China
Variables: LO-PRACTICE-1

"Eager to preserve the stability of the family unit, the party has also done little to help women following a recent court ruling that weakened their claim to property in divorce proceedings. And with divorce numbers on the rise, millions of Chinese women have been cut out of the nation’s real-estate boom, experts say." (para 15). "When Sharon Shao approached several divorce lawyers in the spring of 2013, they all had the same advice: Don’t bother taking your husband to court. You have no hope of getting the apartment." (para 36). "Ms. Shao asked her ex-husband to add her name to the deed several times, but he always talked her...more
Sept. 17, 2019, 10:05 p.m.
Countries: China
Variables: ERBG-DATA-2

"Over the past decade, China’s ranking in the World Economic Forum’s global gender gap index has declined significantly — from 57th out of 139 countries in 2008 to 103rd in 2018." (para 18). "China once enjoyed one of the highest rates of female labor force participation in the world, with nearly three in four women working as recently as 1990. Now the figure is down to 61 percent, according to the International Labor Organization." (para 19).
Sept. 17, 2019, 10:05 p.m.
Countries: China
Variables: MARR-LAW-1

"Mao famously told women they held up “half the sky” and outlawed arranged marriage and the practice of taking concubines." (para 11).
Sept. 17, 2019, 10:05 p.m.
Countries: China
Variables: ERBG-PRACTICE-1

"In a stark turnaround from the early decades of Communist rule, officials now look the other way when employers, reluctant to cover costs related to maternity leave, openly pick men over women for hiring and promotions. At home, women are increasingly disadvantaged in divorce and losing out on gains in the country’s property boom." (para 9). "As a result, Chinese women are being squeezed out of the workplace by employers who penalize them if they have children, and by party officials urging them to focus on domestic life. At the same time, those who have managed to keep working are increasingly earning less relative to men." (para 10). "At work,...more
Sept. 17, 2019, 10:05 p.m.
Countries: China
Variables: ERBG-PRACTICE-3

"As a married woman without children, she would have to sign a “special agreement” promising not to get pregnant for two years. If she broke that promise, the company said, she could be fired, without compensation." (para 3). "As a result, opportunities for women to advance to company leadership roles have stagnated in recent years. Only 21 percent of Chinese companies had women in top manager roles last year, according to the World Economic Forum’s gender gap report." (para 32).
Sept. 17, 2019, 10:05 p.m.
Countries: China
Variables: LO-LAW-1

"Eager to preserve the stability of the family unit, the party has also done little to help women following a recent court ruling that weakened their claim to property in divorce proceedings. And with divorce numbers on the rise, millions of Chinese women have been cut out of the nation’s real-estate boom, experts say." (para 15). "Chinese law had previously recognized a family’s home as joint property in divorce proceedings. But the 2011 ruling held that real estate purchased before marriage, either outright or on mortgage, should revert to the buyer in a divorce — and that is usually the husband." (para 43).
Sept. 17, 2019, 10:05 p.m.
Countries: China
Variables: LO-DATA-3

"One 2012 survey by Horizon China, a research firm in Beijing, found that 70 percent of married women contributed financially to the family’s purchases of real estate but that less than a third of home deeds included the woman’s name. Researchers at Nankai University in Tianjin in 2017 examined 4,253 property deeds and found the wife’s name listed on only about one in five." (para 48).
Sept. 17, 2019, 10:05 p.m.
Countries: China
Variables: ADDL-DATA-1

"But the country’s gains have disproportionately benefited men. Gender is now one of the most important factors behind income inequality in China, perhaps more so than even the longstanding divide separating Chinese cities and the countryside, according to a recent study." (para 17). "In an official survey in 2017, about 54 percent of women said they had been asked about their marriage and childbearing status in job interviews." (para 34).
Sept. 17, 2019, 10:05 p.m.
Countries: China
Variables: MULV-PRACTICE-1

"In a break with the Marxist ambition of liberating women from patriarchal oppression, President Xi has called on women to embrace their “unique role” in the family and 'shoulder the responsibilities of taking care of the old and young, as well as educating children.'" (para 13).
Aug. 13, 2019, 8:42 p.m.
Countries: China
Variables: GEW-PRACTICE-1

"State-sponsored forced labor is increasingly prevalent in China. In 2013, the National People’s Congress ratified a decision to abolish 'Re-education through labor' (RTL), a punitive system that subjected individuals to extra-judicial detention involving forced labor, from which the government reportedly profited. The government closed most RTL facilities by October 2015; however, the government reportedly converted some RTL facilities into state-sponsored drug rehabilitation facilities or administrative detention centers where, according to civil society and media reports, forced labor continues. State-sponsored forced labor is intensifying under the government’s mass detention and political indoctrination campaign against Muslim minorities in the Xinjiang Uighur Autonomous Region (Xinjiang) (...) A small number of Han Chinese individuals...more