The most comprehensive compilation of information on the status of
women in the world.

Latest items for China

Nov. 10, 2017, 4:57 p.m.
Countries: China
Variables: ATFPA-PRACTICE-2

"In the absence of redistribution of existing gender roles, gains for women that should result from investments in physical infrastructure, for example, may be short-lived, or benefit them less than men. After one village in the People’s Republic of China (PRC) was electrified, it was found that the main effect was to lead women to shift their domestic responsibilities to the evening, resulting in them working longer hours in the field. Leisure time increased for the village as a whole, but men were the primary beneficiaries (FAO, IFAD, and ILO 2010, p. 40, referring to Lucas et al. 2003)"(4)
Nov. 10, 2017, 4:45 p.m.
Countries: China
Variables: DLB-DATA-1

"In the absence of redistribution of existing gender roles, gains for women that should result from investments in physical infrastructure, for example, may be short-lived, or benefit them less than men. After one village in the People’s Republic of China (PRC) was electrified, it was found that the main effect was to lead women to shift their domestic responsibilities to the evening, resulting in them working longer hours in the field. Leisure time increased for the village as a whole, but men were the primary beneficiaries (FAO, IFAD, and ILO 2010, p. 40, referring to Lucas et al. 2003)"(4)
Nov. 10, 2017, 1:14 p.m.
Countries: China, Russia
Variables: CWC-DATA-4

"There were an estimated 50,000 to 60,000 North Korean citizens working as overseas laborers, primarily in Russia and China. The UN Special Rapporteur on the DPRK noted that, while most were sent to Russia and China to work, they were also reportedly found in Algeria, Angola, Cambodia, Equatorial Guinea, Ethiopia, Kuwait, Libya, Malaysia, Mongolia, Myanmar, Nigeria, Oman, Poland, Qatar, and the United Arab Emirates. Numerous NGOs noted that these citizens were in conditions of forced labor. NGO reports indicated the laborers were managed by the government as a matter of state policy and were under constant and close surveillance by DPRK security agents. Laborers worked between 12 and 16 hours ...more
Nov. 10, 2017, 1:12 p.m.
Countries: China, Russia
Variables: TRAFF-DATA-1

"There were an estimated 50,000 to 60,000 North Korean citizens working as overseas laborers, primarily in Russia and China. The UN Special Rapporteur on the DPRK noted that, while most were sent to Russia and China to work, they were also reportedly found in Algeria, Angola, Cambodia, Equatorial Guinea, Ethiopia, Kuwait, Libya, Malaysia, Mongolia, Myanmar, Nigeria, Oman, Poland, Qatar, and the United Arab Emirates. Numerous NGOs noted that these citizens were in conditions of forced labor"(17).This data does not specifically mention women but if trafficking is occuring, women may be especially vulnerable (ENB-Coder Comment)
Nov. 10, 2017, 1:09 p.m.
Countries: China, Russia
Variables: TRAFF-PRACTICE-2

"There were an estimated 50,000 to 60,000 North Korean citizens working as overseas laborers, primarily in Russia and China. The UN Special Rapporteur on the DPRK noted that, while most were sent to Russia and China to work, they were also reportedly found in Algeria, Angola, Cambodia, Equatorial Guinea, Ethiopia, Kuwait, Libya, Malaysia, Mongolia, Myanmar, Nigeria, Oman, Poland, Qatar, and the United Arab Emirates. Numerous NGOs noted that these citizens were in conditions of forced labor. NGO reports indicated the laborers were managed by the government as a matter of state policy and were under constant and close surveillance by DPRK security agents. Laborers worked between 12 and 16 hours ...more
Nov. 10, 2017, 1:03 p.m.
Countries: China
Variables: TRAFF-PRACTICE-1, TRAFF-DATA-1

"There were reports of female victims of trafficking among refugees and workers crossing the border [from North Korea] into China"(1)
Nov. 10, 2017, 1:03 p.m.
Countries: China
Variables: CWC-DATA-3

"There were reports of female victims of trafficking among refugees and workers crossing the border [from North Korea] into China"(1)."The law criminalizes defection and attempted defection, including the attempt to gain entry to a foreign diplomatic facility for the purpose of seeking political asylum. Individuals who cross the border with the purpose of defecting or seeking asylum in a third country are subject to a minimum of five years of 'labor correction.' In 'serious' cases defectors or asylum seekers are subjected to indefinite terms of imprisonment and forced labor, confiscation of property, or death. Many would-be refugees who were returned involuntarily were imprisoned under harsh conditions"(10)
Nov. 10, 2017, 1:03 p.m.
Countries: China
Variables: CWC-DATA-4

"There were reports of female victims of trafficking among refugees and workers crossing the border [from North Korea] into China"(1)."According to the Hidden Gulag IV report, since late 2008, Jongo-ri (Camp 12) in North Hamkyung Province was expanded to include a women’s annex. Camp 12’s women’s annex holds approximately 1,000 women, most of whom were imprisoned after being repatriated from China. The existence of this women’s annex was corroborated by satellite imagery and defector testimony. Defector testimony cited food rations below subsistence levels, forced labor, and high rates of death due to starvation at Camp 12"(3)."The government [of North Korea] did not allow emigration, and reports stated that it continued ...more
Oct. 11, 2017, 1:30 p.m.
Countries: China
Variables: ABO-DATA-1

"Some parents are still getting illegal tests to find out the sex of their unborn child, in order to decide whether to get an abortion"(para 2)."Staff at the Yongjia county family planning department found that several married women in the area decided to get an abortion after being pregnant for less than two months, even though they had not violated any family planning regulations. It seems to have become a trend"(para 9)."China's national sex ratio at birth has remained high since the late 1980s, and reached 117 boys to 100 girls in 2011. And illegal sex identification and abortions are the direct causes behind this phenomenon"(para 30)
Oct. 11, 2017, 1:30 p.m.
Countries: China
Variables: ABO-PRACTICE-1

"Some parents are still getting illegal tests to find out the sex of their unborn child, in order to decide whether to get an abortion"(para 2)."'A test showed that there was no Y-chromosomal DNA in my blood, so my husband and I decided to have the abortion,' said Xiao Zhu (pseudonym), a resident of Yongjia county, East China's Zhejiang Province. Pregnant Xiao Zhu sent a sample of her blood to a Hong Kong-based medical organization to find out the sex of her fetus. The absence of Y-chromosomal DNA showed that there was a high possibility it was a girl.The day after receiving the test result, Xiao Zhu had an abortion"(para ...more
Oct. 11, 2017, 1:30 p.m.
Countries: China
Variables: ISSA-PRACTICE-2

"Xiao Zhu used gene detection technology, which claims to be able to predict a baby's sex by analyzing a small amount of the pregnant mother's blood.The procedure is illegal on the Chinese mainland, so many parents-to-be are looking to Hong Kong clinics that offer this service. The government is trying to battle against countless generations of preference for boys"(para 6-7)."But the Global Times reporter found many agencies offering to identify the sex of unborn babies simply by putting 'Hong Kong' and 'fetus sex identification' into a search engine.An employee from an agency found via this simple search said that customers could choose to have the blood test in Hong Kong ...more
Oct. 11, 2017, 1:30 p.m.
Countries: China
Variables: ISSA-DATA-1

According to Table 1, China's sex ratio was 102.61 male births per 100 female births. In 1990, the sex ratio was 111.14 male births per 100 female births. In 2000, the sex ratio was 116.86 male births per 100 female births. In 2010 the sex ratio was 117.94 male births per 100 female births. In 2015 the sex ratio was 113.51 male births per 100 female births (para 1). "According to the WHO, if a country's population sex ratio does not equalize or rather exceeds the 105 threshold, it usually means societies with a dominating preference for male children are intervening in nature and reducing the number of born girl ...more
Oct. 11, 2017, 1:30 p.m.
Countries: China
Variables: GP-DATA-5

"Staff at the Yongjia county family planning department found that several married women in the area decided to get an abortion after being pregnant for less than two months, even though they had not violated any family planning regulations. It seems to have become a trend"(para 9)."According to the ban on fetus sex tests and sex-selective abortions released by the National Health and Family Planning Commission in May 2016, any organizations or individuals involved in either of these practices would be punished"(para 19)
Oct. 11, 2017, 1:30 p.m.
Countries: China
Variables: MARR-PRACTICE-2

"Because of this tradition, the sex ratio at birth in recent years has been high, even reaching 117 boys to every 100 girls at one point. Past preference for boys has also resulted in many men being lifelong bachelors nowadays, a trend set to continue in coming decades. Even today, after China scrapped its one-child policy, young parents are still secretly following this practice in hope of getting children of both sexes"(para 8)
Oct. 11, 2017, 1:30 p.m.
Countries: China
Variables: MARR-DATA-1

"According to a 2010 Social Development Blue Paper from the Chinese Academy of Social Sciences, the sex ratio of those below 19 is the worst hit of all the different age groups.By 2020, the number of Chinese men of marriageable age will outnumber their female peers by 24 million"(para 33)
Oct. 11, 2017, 1:30 p.m.
Countries: China
Variables: DACH-PRACTICE-2

"According to the ban on fetus sex tests and sex-selective abortions released by the National Health and Family Planning Commission in May 2016, any organizations or individuals involved in either of these practices would be punished"(para 19). The existence of a National Health and Family Planning Commission may indicate access or at least acceptance of contraceptive use (ENB-Coder Comment)
Oct. 11, 2017, 1:30 p.m.
Countries: China
Variables: CRPLB-PRACTICE-1

"Some parents are still getting illegal tests to find out the sex of their unborn child, in order to decide whether to get an abortion. 'A test showed that there was no Y-chromosomal DNA in my blood, so my husband and I decided to have the abortion,' said Xiao Zhu (pseudonym), a resident of Yongjia county, East China's Zhejiang Province.Pregnant Xiao Zhu sent a sample of her blood to a Hong Kong-based medical organization to find out the sex of her fetus. The absence of Y-chromosomal DNA showed that there was a high possibility it was a girl.The day after receiving the test result, Xiao Zhu had an abortion.Xiao Zhu ...more
Oct. 11, 2017, 1:30 p.m.
Countries: China
Variables: SEGI-PRACTICE-1

"According to a 2010 Social Development Blue Paper from the Chinese Academy of Social Sciences, the sex ratio of those below 19 is the worst hit of all the different age groups"(para 33)."Lu Jiehua, a professor at the Department of Sociology in Peking University said that 'gender equality is a basic state policy. We should not only advocate it but push it through activities to give girls a more relaxed environment.'Only by providing fair opportunity to girls in all aspects, including education and employment, will people finally realize that it is the same to have a boy or a girl, Lu said"(para 34-35)
Oct. 11, 2017, 1:30 p.m.
Countries: China
Variables: ABO-LAW-1

"Some parents are still getting illegal tests to find out the sex of their unborn child, in order to decide whether to get an abortion"(para 2)."Xiao Zhu used gene detection technology, which claims to be able to predict a baby's sex by analyzing a small amount of the pregnant mother's blood.The procedure is illegal on the Chinese mainland, so many parents-to-be are looking to Hong Kong clinics that offer this service. The government is trying to battle against countless generations of preference for boys"(para 6-7)."Yongjia county police collected more than 100 fetus sex test results sent to local women and found that most of the tests were done by two ...more
Oct. 11, 2017, 1:30 p.m.
Countries: China
Variables: ERBG-PRACTICE-1, ERBG-PRACTICE-2, AFE-PRACTICE-1

"Lu Jiehua, a professor at the Department of Sociology in Peking University said that 'gender equality is a basic state policy. We should not only advocate it but push it through activities to give girls a more relaxed environment.'Only by providing fair opportunity to girls in all aspects, including education and employment, will people finally realize that it is the same to have a boy or a girl, Lu said"(para 34-35)
Oct. 11, 2017, 1:30 p.m.
Countries: China
Variables: ISSA-PRACTICE-1

According to Table 1, China's sex ratio was 102.61 male births per 100 female births. In 1990, the sex ratio was 111.14 male births per 100 female births. In 2000, the sex ratio was 116.86 male births per 100 female births. In 2010 the sex ratio was 117.94 male births per 100 female births. In 2015 the sex ratio was 113.51 male births per 100 female births (para 1). "According to the WHO, if a country's population sex ratio does not equalize or rather exceeds the 105 threshold, it usually means societies with a dominating preference for male children are intervening in nature and reducing the number of born girl ...more
Oct. 11, 2017, 1:30 p.m.
Countries: China
Variables: MULV-PRACTICE-1

"Even as China relaxes its one-child policy, the traditional preference for boys still means many will not be satisfied without a son"(para 1)."Staff at the Yongjia county family planning department found that several married women in the area decided to get an abortion after being pregnant for less than two months, even though they had not violated any family planning regulations. It seems to have become a trend.Yongjia county police collected more than 100 fetus sex test results sent to local women and found that most of the tests were done by two Hong Kong-based companies, DiagCor Bioscience Incorporation Ltd and Hong Kong Laboratory"(para 9-10)
Oct. 11, 2017, 1:30 p.m.
Countries: China
Variables: GP-DATA-3

"According to the ban on fetus sex tests and sex-selective abortions released by the National Health and Family Planning Commission in May 2016, any organizations or individuals involved in either of these practices would be punished"(para 19)
Oct. 11, 2017, 1:30 p.m.
Countries: China
Variables: CWC-DATA-2

"Zhai [Zhenwu] mentioned that the preference for male children is influenced by traditional Chinese culture and it is more common in rural areas"(para 32)
Oct. 11, 2017, 1:30 p.m.
Countries: China
Variables: ISSA-LAW-1

"Some parents are still getting illegal tests to find out the sex of their unborn child, in order to decide whether to get an abortion"(para 2)."Xiao Zhu used gene detection technology, which claims to be able to predict a baby's sex by analyzing a small amount of the pregnant mother's blood.The procedure is illegal on the Chinese mainland, so many parents-to-be are looking to Hong Kong clinics that offer this service. The government is trying to battle against countless generations of preference for boys"(para 6-7)."According to the ban on fetus sex tests and sex-selective abortions released by the National Health and Family Planning Commission in May 2016, any organizations or ...more
Oct. 11, 2017, 1:30 p.m.
Countries: China
Variables: ISSA-DATA-2

According to Table 1, China's sex ratio was 102.61 male births per 100 female births. In 1990, the sex ratio was 111.14 male births per 100 female births. In 2000, the sex ratio was 116.86 male births per 100 female births. In 2010 the sex ratio was 117.94 male births per 100 female births. In 2015 the sex ratio was 113.51 male births per 100 female births (para 1)."The explosion of 'the blood empire' has led to a serious imbalance in child sex ratios with Li explaining that the ratio between boys and girls once hit 136 boys for every 100 girls. While the global average is 103 to 107 ...more
Oct. 11, 2017, 1:30 p.m.
Countries: China
Variables: GIC-LAW-1

"Even as China relaxes its one-child policy, the traditional preference for boys still means many will not be satisfied without a son"(para 1)."According to the ban on fetus sex tests and sex-selective abortions released by the National Health and Family Planning Commission in May 2016, any organizations or individuals involved in either of these practices would be punished.'Enterprises that sell or rent equipment for B-ultrasound or chromosome detection to unqualified organizations or individuals will be asked to reform and fined 10,000 to 30,000 yuan,' read the regulation"(para 19-20)."'Although China relaxed the one-child policy in October 2015,which could help decrease the ratio imbalance to some extent, many couples who have had ...more
Oct. 10, 2017, 7:36 p.m.
Countries: China
Variables: AOM-PRACTICE-1

"A video showing a boy, said to be 13 years old, marrying his girlfriend in a Chinese village has sparked controversy. The newlyweds live in the Ding'an County of Hainan Province, and the bride was five months pregnant when the wedding took place, according to Chinese media" (para 1-2). "The bride, 13-year-old Jie, married her 18-year-old husband Wen just three days after they had met. The girl got pregnant soon afterwards and dropped out of schooll. At the time, Liu Neng, a sociology professor from Peking University, commented that getting married at this age was a cultural norm for youngsters in rural areas who had not much else to do ...more
Oct. 10, 2017, 7:36 p.m.
Countries: China
Variables: AOM-LAW-1

"The legal age of marriage in China is 20 for women and 22 for men, however child marriage has been described as a 'common' practice in rural China" (para 12).
Oct. 10, 2017, 7:36 p.m.
Countries: China
Variables: ISSA-DATA-2

"This means China has many more men than women. It's been estimated that 15 million men between the ages of 35 and 59 wouldn't be able to find wives by 2020, reported People's Daily, and by 2050 the number would be nearly 30 million" (para 19-20).