The most comprehensive compilation of information on the status of
women in the world.

Latest items for China

Dec. 8, 2019, 8:28 p.m.
Countries: China
Variables: CL-DATA-1

"The number of impoverished women has dropped by an enormous margin, and the severity of poverty of women has been continuously alleviated. In the 592 poorest counties which are made the main targets of national poverty alleviation and development work, the poverty rate of the female population decreased from 20.3 percent in 2005 to 9.8 percent in 2010" (para. 11).
Dec. 8, 2019, 8:28 p.m.
Countries: China
Variables: ATC-DATA-5

"China is fully committed to implementing international conventions and fulfilling international obligations in the field of women. It has signed and approved relevant international conventions and documents, and met the obligations they impose. China embodies the spirit and principle of the Convention on the Elimination of All Forms of Discrimination Against Women (CEDAW) in the making of its laws, policies and plans, makes unremitting efforts to eliminate all forms of discrimination against women, safeguard women’s rights and interests according to law, and promotes gender equality. In 2003 and 2012, China submitted reports on the implementation of the Convention on the Elimination of All Forms of Discrimination Against Women in China....more
Dec. 8, 2019, 8:28 p.m.
Countries: China
Variables: ERBG-PRACTICE-4

"The number of female entrepreneurs keeps growing, now accounting for one quarter of the total number of entrepreneurs in China. The government has initiated an action plan to promote entrepreneurship and innovation among women, encouraging women to seek employment in emerging industries. About 55 percent of new Internet businesses are being founded by women" (para. 14).
Dec. 8, 2019, 8:28 p.m.
Countries: China
Variables: LBHO-DATA-1

"China values the role of women in people’s congresses by improving their representation in the ranks of deputies to people’s congresses at various levels. The ratio of women deputies to the first session of the 12th National People’s Congress in 2013 was 23.4 percent, 2.4 percentage points higher than 20 years ago; ethnic minority women deputies made up 41.3 percent of the total number of ethnic minority deputies. China sets store on improving women’s participation in socialist consultative democracy and the role of representatives of women’s federations and women delegates to the Chinese People’ s Political Consultative Conference (CPPCC). The proportion of women members at the first session of the...more
Dec. 8, 2019, 8:28 p.m.
Countries: China
Variables: AFE-LAW-1

"The state implements the Compulsory Education Law of the People’s Republic of China and other relevant laws, regulations and policies, and takes practical measures to improve women’s education. It has implemented a special policy to ensure school-age girls enjoy equal access to compulsory education" (para. 18).
Dec. 8, 2019, 8:28 p.m.
Countries: China
Variables: LR-DATA-1

"The state has set up special funds to reduce the number of illiterate women. In 2013, the illiteracy rate for females at and over the age of 15 was 6.7 percent, 17.4 percentage points lower than in 1995; and the population of illiterate women fell by more than 70 million as compared with 1995" (para. 19).
Dec. 8, 2019, 8:28 p.m.
Countries: China
Variables: AFE-DATA-1

"In 2014, the net primary school enrolment rates of boys and girls were both 99.8 percent, meaning that China has achieved the United Nations Millennium Development Goals ahead of time. Women now enjoy greater opportunities in junior high school education and above, particularly further education. In 2014, the proportion of female students in junior high schools was 46.7 percent and that in high schools was 50 percent; in institutions of higher learning women accounted for 52.1 percent of undergraduate students, 51.6 percent of postgraduate students, and 36.9 percent of students studying for Ph.D. degrees" (para. 18). "In 2014, the number of women receiving secondary vocational education was 8.05 million, accounting...more
Dec. 8, 2019, 8:28 p.m.
Countries: China
Variables: DACH-PRACTICE-2

"Reproductive health services for women have been further strengthened. The state guarantees that women enjoy good reproductive health services throughout the life cycle, such as conducting general surveillance and treatment of gynecological diseases, and providing adolescent and old-age healthcare. It has implemented the policy of free technical services for family planning, promoted informed choice of contraceptive methods and reduced unintentional pregnancies. It has kept investigating and preventing fetal sex identification for non-medical needs and sex-selective pregnancy termination. It has provided health education, vaccination, maternal health care and other basic public health services for women in the floating population, and has launched pilot programs to ensure equal access to family planning...more
Dec. 8, 2019, 8:28 p.m.
Countries: China
Variables: ERBG-DATA-5

"The number of female entrepreneurs keeps growing, now accounting for one quarter of the total number of entrepreneurs in China. The government has initiated an action plan to promote entrepreneurship and innovation among women, encouraging women to seek employment in emerging industries. About 55 percent of new Internet businesses are being founded by women" (para. 14). "The state protects the rights and interests of rural women in relation to land. China is a large agricultural country, and women living in rural areas account for about 70 percent of the total agricultural labor force. While forging ahead with deeper all-round reform and promoting village-level self-government in rural areas, the state has...more
Dec. 8, 2019, 8:28 p.m.
Countries: China
Variables: AFE-PRACTICE-1

"It supports female college graduates in seeking employment and starting businesses, providing training in employment, guidance in starting businesses and internship opportunities, and it has implemented the Sunshine Project, improving the quality and skills of the rural female workforce and creating conditions to promote the transfer of rural female workforce to non-agricultural sectors and urban areas. There are now more than 200,000 training schools for women nationwide, providing training sessions to a total of nearly 200 million women in new agricultural technologies and new crop species. A total of 1.5 million women have obtained titles and qualifications as agricultural technicians, and 53,000 women’s professional cooperatives have been founded" (para. 13)....more
Dec. 8, 2019, 8:28 p.m.
Countries: China
Variables: SEGI-PRACTICE-1

"The state supports the women’s federation organizations in representing and safeguarding women’s rights and promoting gender equality. As the organizational system of women’s federations is better established, it has been playing an increasingly prominent role in conducting theoretical studies and carrying out publicity, education and training programs in relation to gender equality" (para. 8). "Principles and concepts of gender equality are gradually extending into teaching and scientific research. More and more schools have begun to introduce the idea of gender equality in educational content and teaching methods, and some primary and high schools are now offering courses in gender equality, directing younger students to relate to the idea of gender...more
Dec. 8, 2019, 8:28 p.m.
Countries: China
Variables: WAM-PRACTICE-1, WAM-DATA-1

"The state has enhanced guidance and management of the media and has trained media workers to enhance their awareness of gender equality. China has improved supervision to ensure news media and advertising agents exercise strict self-discipline and avoid any discrimination against women in the media by depreciating or denying their independent personality. China has vigorously publicized the positive contribution made by women to economic and social development. Women are playing an important role in the media. By the end of 2014, female journalists and editors had made up 44.1 percent of qualified staff in this area" (para. 36).
Dec. 8, 2019, 8:28 p.m.
Countries: China
Variables: ERBG-PRACTICE-1

"It supports female college graduates in seeking employment and starting businesses, providing training in employment, guidance in starting businesses and internship opportunities, and it has implemented the Sunshine Project, improving the quality and skills of the rural female workforce and creating conditions to promote the transfer of rural female workforce to non-agricultural sectors and urban areas. There are now more than 200,000 training schools for women nationwide, providing training sessions to a total of nearly 200 million women in new agricultural technologies and new crop species. A total of 1.5 million women have obtained titles and qualifications as agricultural technicians, and 53,000 women’s professional cooperatives have been founded" (para. 13)....more
Dec. 8, 2019, 8:28 p.m.
Countries: China
Variables: DACH-PRACTICE-3

"Following the launch of an employment promotion project for the disabled in urban areas in 2011, about 100,000 disabled women have joined the workforce each year" (para. 13). "China also attaches importance to special education, increasing disabled women’s access to educational resources of various types and at all levels; as a result, disabled women have improved access to education" (para. 21).
Dec. 8, 2019, 8:28 p.m.
Countries: China
Variables: ADDL-DATA-1

"China sets store by highlighting the role of women in building a conservation culture. More and more women are involved in environmental protection, making their contribution to protecting the ecological environment, addressing climate change and maintaining energy and resource security. The number of female members in the NPC Environment Protection and Resources Conservation Committee, female mayors in charge of environmental protection and female heads of environmental protection bureaus has kept increasing. By the end of 2014, female officials working at the Ministry of Environmental Protection accounted for 31.2 percent of the total. Women are encouraged to participate in energy conservation and emission reduction efforts, and to adopt low-carbon lifestyle. Women...more
Dec. 8, 2019, 8:28 p.m.
Countries: China
Variables: NGOFW-DATA-3

"The state has developed and implemented national plans and programs for promoting women’ s development. Women’s development was included in China’s 10th, 11th and 12th five-year plans for economic and social development, each time with greater emphasis, clearer goals, and more effective measures for promoting coordinated development between Chinese women and China’ s economy and society. The State Council has issued three programs covering different periods for the development of Chinese women, clearly defining the overall goals, key areas and policies and measures to be adopted for women’s development at different stages. People’s governments at and above the county level in the 31 provinces, autonomous regions and municipalities have worked...more
Dec. 8, 2019, 8:28 p.m.
Countries: China
Variables: ERBG-LAW-1

"The state ensures equal employment right for women. Employment has a vital bearing on people’s quality of life. The state has promulgated and improved laws and regulations to promote fair employment and eliminate gender discrimination in employment. The Employment Promotion Law of the People’s Republic of China has a chapter specially dealing with fair employment, emphasizing gender equality in employment right. The Labor Contract Law of the People’s Republic of China has clear provisions under which businesses are required to create collective contracts for protecting female workers’ rights and interests, providing a legal basis for protecting the legitimate rights and interests of female workers. To create favorable conditions for women’...more
Dec. 8, 2019, 8:28 p.m.
Countries: China
Variables: CRPLB-PRACTICE-1

"The number of women participating in old-age insurance, medical insurance, unemployment insurance, industrial injury insurance, and maternity insurance keeps rising. In 2013, the numbers of women covered by old-age insurance and medical insurance for urban workers reached 146.12 million and 126.57 million, growing by 67.43 million and 72.82 million as compared to the figures in 2005, and the number of women participating in maternity insurance reached 71.17 million, an increase of 48.44 million as compared with 2005. In April 2012, the Special Regulations on Labor Protection for Female Employees was promulgated and put into effect, extending statutory maternity leave from 90 days to 98 days and increasing the level of...more
Dec. 8, 2019, 8:28 p.m.
Countries: China
Variables: LBHO-PRACTICE-1

"China values the role of women in people’s congresses by improving their representation in the ranks of deputies to people’s congresses at various levels. The ratio of women deputies to the first session of the 12th National People’s Congress in 2013 was 23.4 percent, 2.4 percentage points higher than 20 years ago; ethnic minority women deputies made up 41.3 percent of the total number of ethnic minority deputies. China sets store on improving women’s participation in socialist consultative democracy and the role of representatives of women’s federations and women delegates to the Chinese People’s Political Consultative Conference (CPPCC). The proportion of women members at the first session of the 12th...more
Dec. 8, 2019, 8:28 p.m.
Countries: China
Variables: ERBG-PRACTICE-3

"The latest survey of the social status of Chinese women shows that women in secondary and tertiary industries grew by 25 percentage points in comparison with 10 years ago, and that female heads of various departments, professional and technical personnel, and clerical and related personnel increased by 13 percentage points. In 2013, the number of middle-ranking and senior female professional and technical personnel reached 6.61 million, or 44.1 percent of the total in this category, an increase of 9 percentage points from that of 2000" (para. 14).
Dec. 8, 2019, 8:28 p.m.
Countries: China
Variables: ERBG-DATA-2

"The state improves the employment structure for women. In 2013, the total number of women employed nationwide was 346.4 million, accounting for 45 percent of the total employed population. The latest survey of the social status of Chinese women shows that women in secondary and tertiary industries grew by 25 percentage points in comparison with 10 years ago, and that female heads of various departments, professional and technical personnel, and clerical and related personnel increased by 13 percentage points. In 2013, the number of middle-ranking and senior female professional and technical personnel reached 6.61 million, or 44.1 percent of the total in this category, an increase of 9 percentage points...more
Dec. 8, 2019, 8:28 p.m.
Countries: China
Variables: TRAFF-PRACTICE-1

"The State Council issued China’s Action Plan Against Human Trafficking (2013-2020) in 2013, further improving the mechanism of inter-departmental coordination. The public security organs have resolutely combated crimes of violence against women. In 2013, they uncovered 25,852 rape cases and 4,537 cases of abducting and trafficking in women. China has also strengthened international judicial cooperation, carried out international cooperation programs, and severely dealt with transnational and trans-regional gangs engaged in abducting and trafficking in women and children" (para. 42).
Dec. 8, 2019, 8:28 p.m.
Countries: China
Variables: LRW-DATA-1, TRAFF-DATA-1

"The public security organs have resolutely combated crimes of violence against women. In 2013, they uncovered 25,852 rape cases and 4,537 cases of abducting and trafficking in women" (para. 42).
Dec. 8, 2019, 8:28 p.m.
Countries: China
Variables: DV-PRACTICE-2

"Support has been given to the efforts of women’ s federations and other women’s organizations in setting up hotlines and institutions providing rights protection services and legal aid for women. At present, the hotline 12338 has been in operation in more than 2,800 districts (counties) of China’s 31 provincial-level administrative divisions, and 250,000 institutions such as women’s rights protection stations and complaint centers against domestic violence have been established, which have widened the channels for Chinese women to protect their rights and interests" (para. 45).
Dec. 8, 2019, 8:28 p.m.
Countries: China
Variables: CWC-DATA-2

"China has implemented a program for poverty alleviation through development in rural areas, making women a key focus of attention and giving priority to poverty alleviation projects for women when all other conditions are equal, striving to improve the development capacity of women and bringing more benefits to them as a group" (para. 11). "It has implemented the Sunshine Project, improving the quality and skills of the rural female workforce and creating conditions to promote the transfer of rural female workforce to non-agricultural sectors and urban areas. There are now more than 200,000 training schools for women nationwide, providing training sessions to a total of nearly 200 million women in...more
Dec. 8, 2019, 8:28 p.m.
Countries: China
Variables: GP-DATA-6

"China has given priority to the important role played by women in judicial justice. In 2013, the proportion of female people’s jurors was 34.2 percent, and the proportions of female judges and procurators were 28.8 percent and 29.3 percent, up 12.1 percent and 12.3 percent over 1995, respectively. Professional women’ s organizations, such as women judges associations, women procurators associations and women lawyers associations, have played a positive role in safeguarding women’ s rights and interests" (para. 43).
Dec. 8, 2019, 8:28 p.m.
Countries: China
Variables: CL-PRACTICE-2, WR-PRACTICE-2

"China has set up and improved systems of services for the elderly to ensure that elderly women’ s living conditions and quality of life are improved, and that impoverished, widowed and elderly women living alone are given special care" (para. 39).
Dec. 8, 2019, 8:28 p.m.
Countries: China
Variables: ASR-PRACTICE-1

"It supports female college graduates in seeking employment and starting businesses, providing training in employment, guidance in starting businesses and internship opportunities, and it has implemented the Sunshine Project, improving the quality and skills of the rural female workforce and creating conditions to promote the transfer of rural female workforce to non-agricultural sectors and urban areas. There are now more than 200,000 training schools for women nationwide, providing training sessions to a total of nearly 200 million women in new agricultural technologies and new crop species. A total of 1.5 million women have obtained titles and qualifications as agricultural technicians, and 53,000 women’s professional cooperatives have been founded" (para. 13)....more
Dec. 8, 2019, 8:28 p.m.
Countries: China
Variables: DACH-PRACTICE-1

"The state improves the level of social security for women. The Social Insurance Law of the People’s Republic of China has a separate chapter for maternity insurance, clearly stipulating that women equally enjoy social security rights. In the Program for the Development of Chinese Women (2011-2020), a section titled “Women and Social Security” was added, defining the main goals, policies, and measures to enable women to enjoy equal access to social insurance, relief, welfare and assistance. The number of women participating in old-age insurance, medical insurance, unemployment insurance, industrial injury insurance, and maternity insurance keeps rising. In 2013, the numbers of women covered by old-age insurance and medical insurance for...more
Dec. 8, 2019, 8:28 p.m.
Countries: China
Variables: LRW-LAW-1, TRAFF-LAW-1

"The Amendment IX to the Criminal Law of the People’s Republic of China approved in August 2015 strengthened protection of women, especially of girls under the age of 14, and specified harsher punishments for the crimes of raping girls under the age of 14 and abducting and trafficking in women and children" (para. 41).