The most comprehensive compilation of information on the status of
women in the world.

Latest items for China

Sept. 7, 2020, 7:05 p.m.
Countries: Albania, Armenia, Azerbaijan, China, Georgia, India, Kosovo, Vietnam
Variables: ISSA-SCALE-1

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Sept. 5, 2020, 5:02 p.m.
Countries: Argentina, Australia, Austria, Belgium, Bosnia-Herzegovina, Bulgaria, Canada, China, Croatia, Cyprus, Czech Republic, Denmark, Estonia, Finland, France, Germany, Greece, Hungary, Iceland, Ireland, Israel, Italy, Japan, Kosovo, Latvia, Libya, Lithuania, Luxembourg, Malaysia, Maldives, Malta, Mauritius, Netherlands, New Zealand, Norway, Poland, Portugal, Qatar, Romania, Serbia, Singapore, Slovakia, Slovenia, South Korea, Spain, Sweden, Switzerland, Taiwan, Tunisia, United Arab Emirates, United Kingdom
Variables: AOM-SCALE-3

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Sept. 5, 2020, 5:02 p.m.
Countries: Argentina, Armenia, Australia, Austria, Azerbaijan, Barbados, Belgium, Belize, Benin, Bhutan, Bosnia-Herzegovina, Botswana, Bulgaria, Burkina Faso, Burundi, Cambodia, Cameroon, Canada, Cape Verde, Chad, Chile, China, Comoros, Congo, Costa Rica, Cote D'Ivoire, Croatia, Cyprus, Czech Republic, D R Congo, Denmark, Dominican Republic, East Timor, Ecuador, Egypt, Equatorial Guinea, Eritrea, Estonia, Fiji, Finland, France, Gambia, Georgia, Germany, Ghana, Greece, Guatemala, Guinea, Guinea-Bissau, Guyana, Honduras, Hungary, Iceland, India, Indonesia, Iraq, Ireland, Israel, Italy, Jamaica, Japan, Jordan, Kazakhstan, Kenya, Kosovo, Kyrgyzstan, Latvia, Liberia, Libya, Lithuania, Luxembourg, Macedonia, Madagascar, Malawi, Malaysia, Maldives, Mali, Malta, Mauritania, Mauritius, Moldova, Mongolia, Montenegro, Morocco, Mozambique, Namibia, Nepal, Netherlands, New Zealand, Nicaragua, North Korea, Norway, Pakistan, Panama, Paraguay, Peru, Poland, Portugal, Qatar, Romania, Rwanda, Serbia, Sierra Leone, Singapore, Slovakia, Slovenia, South Korea, Spain, Suriname, Swaziland, Sweden, Switzerland, Syria, Taiwan, Tajikistan, Tanzania, Thailand, Togo, Trinidad/Tobago, Tunisia, Turkey, Turkmenistan, Ukraine, United Arab Emirates, United Kingdom, Uruguay, Uzbekistan, Vanuatu, Venezuela, Vietnam
Variables: AOM-SCALE-2

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Sept. 5, 2020, 5:01 p.m.
Countries: Algeria, Argentina, Australia, Austria, Bahamas, Belgium, Bosnia-Herzegovina, Brunei, Bulgaria, Canada, China, Croatia, Cyprus, Czech Republic, Denmark, Estonia, Finland, France, Germany, Greece, Hungary, Iceland, Ireland, Israel, Italy, Japan, Kosovo, Latvia, Libya, Lithuania, Luxembourg, Malaysia, Maldives, Malta, Mauritius, Netherlands, New Zealand, Norway, Oman, Poland, Portugal, Qatar, Romania, Saudi Arabia, Serbia, Singapore, Slovakia, Slovenia, South Africa, South Korea, Spain, Sweden, Switzerland, Taiwan, Tunisia, United Arab Emirates, United Kingdom, United States
Variables: AOM-SCALE-1

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Sept. 3, 2020, 11:29 a.m.
Countries: China
Variables: WR-DATA-1

In China, there are about 44,590,560 widows, as estimated in 2015.
Aug. 31, 2020, 3:20 p.m.
Countries: China, India, Japan, South Korea
Variables: PHBP-PRACTICE-1

“Forty-four percent of Korean and fifty-four percent of Japanese ads used Caucasian models. Local models did not often appear in global brands’ ads in Korea, Hong Kong or Japan but eighty-two percent of the Indian ads used Indian models or celebrities. One reason for this may be the recent globalization of Indian beauty as affirmed by a number of Indian winners of such global beauty contests as Miss World and Miss Universe. From 1990-2006 Indian models won 11 of these titles. The dominance of Bollywood film in India also diminishes the impact of Hollywood ideologies in Indian culture. Indian celebrities appear to be the dominant body ideals for Indian women.”more
Aug. 29, 2020, 11:34 a.m.
Countries: China
Variables: PHBP-DATA-1

According to Table 1 from scholars Peltzer, Pengpid, and James, 18.4% of undergraduate students surveyed in China reported using skin lighteners in the past 12 months. This includes 16.4% of men, and 19.5% of women.
Aug. 26, 2020, 1:24 p.m.
Countries: China
Variables: DACH-PRACTICE-2, FSCB-LAW-1

“The couple already have one son. Zhou Junfeng is 10. After Zhou Junfeng was born his mother underwent a state-proscribed procedure to insert a contraceptive coil into her body. She says that this 'forced sterilisation' must have failed, allowing her to fall pregnant for a second time” (para 28-30).
Aug. 26, 2020, 1:24 p.m.
Countries: China
Variables: GIC-LAW-1, ABO-LAW-1

“[China’s one-child policy] is designed to keep the country's population in check. It prevents couples from having more than one child with a few exceptions in some rural provinces. The policy is supposed to be enforced through financial penalties and not forced abortions. But in some provinces, over-zealous local officials, keen to keep within their birth quotas, break the law and terminate pregnancies by force” (para 12-13).
Aug. 26, 2020, 1:24 p.m.
Countries: China
Variables: ABO-PRACTICE-1

“At 4am last Friday, a group of 20 officials from the Shandong Province Family Planning Commission forced their way into the home of Zhou Guoqiang and his wife Liu Xinwen. The officials kicked down the door of the family's home. Mr Zhou was held down while his wife was pulled from her bed and taken away. Liu Xinwen, 33, was taken to the People's Hospital of Fangzi District in Weifang City where she was injected with an abortion-inducing drug. Her baby, which she would later discover was a boy, died a day later in her womb. It took a further day for the foetus to be delivered. Her husband was...more
Aug. 26, 2020, 1:24 p.m.
Countries: China
Variables: FSCB-PRACTICE-1

“The couple already have one son. Zhou Junfeng is 10. After Zhou Junfeng was born his mother underwent a state-proscribed procedure to insert a contraceptive coil into her body. She says that this 'forced sterilisation' must have failed, allowing her to fall pregnant for a second time. The couple had the option to tell the authorities about the pregnancy the moment they discovered it, four months after conception. They decided not to come clean because they were concerned that an abortion may be forced on them. Instead, they said they planned to tell the authorities after the birth and then offer to pay the fine. This is common in parts...more
Aug. 10, 2020, 4:25 p.m.
Countries: China
Variables: ABO-LAW-1

"China liberalized its abortion law in the 1950s and promoted the practice under its one-child policy…The policy, under which abortion services were made widely available, came with severe coercive measures--including fines, compulsory sterilization, and abortion-- to deter unauthorized births" (para 9).
Aug. 10, 2020, 1:33 p.m.
Countries: China
Variables: LRW-LAW-1

“The alleged sexual assault of a teenager by a prominent lawyer and oil executive in China has sparked calls for the government to do more to address the sexual abuse of children and women, including raising the age of consent from 14” (para 1). “Xingxing said the abuse began shortly after she turned 14, the legal age of consent in China. “‘If the law sets the age of consent at 14, it tacitly grants sexual autonomy to minors over 14 and implies that they can freely decide to engage in sexual activity,’ Zhu Guangxing, an assistant professor of criminal law at China University of Political Science and Law, wrote in...more
Aug. 10, 2020, 1:33 p.m.
Countries: China
Variables: DACH-PRACTICE-2

“Her [Xinxing’s] story prompted countless women and girls to share stories of their own abuse and the failure of authorities to respond appropriately, and to question the lack of sex education for young people in the country” (para 17).
Aug. 10, 2020, 1:33 p.m.
Countries: China
Variables: SEGI-PRACTICE-3

“Amnesty International said it was aware of Xingxing’s case, and called for the Chinese government to work with civil society groups to combat abuse, instead of shutting them out of the spaces where they operate. ‘This only hinders the progress of reducing sexual harassment in the country. The government should work with anti-harassment activists instead of silencing them,’ said the researcher Doriane Lau” (para 19-20). “‘However, civil society groups and actors doing anti-sexual harassment activism continued to face severe persecution from the authorities.’ In its 2019 country report, Human Rights Watch said the Chinese government ‘remains hostile to women’s rights activism’” (para 22-23).
Aug. 10, 2020, 1:33 p.m.
Countries: China
Variables: DTCP-PRACTICE-1

“Xingxing’s account said she provided forensic and video evidence to police. She also alleged that a police officer put his hand on her neck to recreate one of her allegations against Bao during questioning, and that officers allowed Bao to be in the same room as her” (para 16).
Aug. 10, 2020, 1:33 p.m.
Countries: China
Variables: NGOFW-PRACTICE-1, NGOFW-DATA-1

“Amnesty International said it was aware of Xingxing’s case, and called for the Chinese government to work with civil society groups to combat abuse, instead of shutting them out of the spaces where they operate. ‘This only hinders the progress of reducing sexual harassment in the country. The government should work with anti-harassment activists instead of silencing them,’ said the researcher Doriane Lau” (para 19-20).
Aug. 10, 2020, 1:33 p.m.
Countries: China
Variables: WAM-PRACTICE-1

“Bao was fired as the vice-president of a Chinese oil company and resigned from his role advising the tech giant ZTE after the allegations and an interview with the victim were published in Chinese media this week” (para 3). “According to Chinese media, Xingxing reported the allegations to police in April 2019, but the investigation was closed before the month was out” (para 10).
Aug. 10, 2020, 1:33 p.m.
Countries: China
Variables: LRW-PRACTICE-1

“‘In too many cases, however, this only creates an opportunity for offenders to prey upon young, sexually ignorant minors, knowing they can later claim it was consensual to sidestep any legal repercussions.’ A Weibo account run by the Chinese #MeToo activist Zhou Xiaoxuan and her friends published a statement on Wednesday saying minors were much more easily abused in a system that ascribed the power of consent at such a young age, when ‘they have very few ways to protect themselves in the first place.’ ‘Most of the time they don’t know how to retain the evidence and must report the case in the first place,’ it said. ‘Secondly, girls...more
Aug. 10, 2020, 1:33 p.m.
Countries: China
Variables: SEGI-PRACTICE-1

“Bao was fired as the vice-president of a Chinese oil company and resigned from his role advising the tech giant ZTE after the allegations and an interview with the victim were published in Chinese media this week” (para 3). “A Weibo account run by the Chinese #MeToo activist Zhou Xiaoxuan and her friends published a statement on Wednesday saying minors were much more easily abused in a system that ascribed the power of consent at such a young age, when ‘they have very few ways to protect themselves in the first place.’ ‘Most of the time they don’t know how to retain the evidence and must report the case in...more
Aug. 10, 2020, 1:33 p.m.
Countries: China
Variables: LRW-DATA-1

“The alleged sexual assault of a teenager by a prominent lawyer and oil executive in China has sparked calls for the government to do more to address the sexual abuse of children and women, including raising the age of consent from 14. Bao Yuming has been accused of repeatedly sexually assaulting a teenage girl, now 18 and given the pseudonym Xingxing, in 2016” (para 1-2). “‘Do you know why sexual assault of minors occurs again and again? They [the alleged abusers] are exposed time and again but vanish each time … without severe punishment,’ said a high-profile Chinese actor, Zhang Ziyi, on Weibo” (para 18).
Aug. 2, 2020, 4:39 p.m.
Countries: China, Japan, South Korea
Variables: PHBP-LAW-1

“There are also different rules governing products in Asia. For example, Hu says, cosmetic products in China require approval from the China Food and Drug Administration, which she describes as "one of the most strict regulation on skin whitening worldwide." There is an ingredients approval list but no limit on their concentration. For an ingredient to be added to the list, registration is required and could take years of research and a lot of investment. In Japan, skin-whitening products are labeled as "quasi-drugs," Hu said, with an ingredient approval list and concentration limit. Tests on new ingredients could also take time and money. And in South Korea, whitening products are...more
Aug. 2, 2020, 4:37 p.m.
Countries: China, Japan, Malaysia, Mali, Nigeria, Philippines, South Korea
Variables: PHBP-DATA-1

“Routine skin whitener use ranges from 25% in Mali to 77% in Nigeria, and it's 40% in China, Malaysia, the Philippines and South Korea, according to the World Health Organization. But when it comes to these products, the Asia-Pacific market is the most lucrative region, making up more than half of the global market -- an estimated $7.5 billion out of $13.3 billion -- in 2017, according to Future Market Insights, which studies markets in over 150 countries. China accounts for about 40% of sales in Asia, Japan 21% and Korea approximately 18%.”
Aug. 2, 2020, 11:08 a.m.
Countries: China
Variables: PHBP-PRACTICE-1, PHBP-LAW-1

“Appearances are becoming increasingly important in China. Formerly banned as the "nonsense" of a decadent west, beauty pageants were made legal this year. Last month, the country hosted its first Miss World competition. Cosmetic surgery is also thought to be booming. According to the local media, consultants report a 25% increase in the number of women seeking nips and tucks. The most popular operation puts an extra fold in eyelids. Like nose-lengthening, jaw re-shaping and breast enlargements, the procedure aims to bring women closer to western ideals of beauty.”
Aug. 2, 2020, 11:07 a.m.
Countries: China, Russia
Variables: PHBP-PRACTICE-1

“These giant steel pins are connected by eight screws punched horizontally through her ankle and calf to a steel cage surrounding each leg. Once the bone starts to heal, these cages will act like a medieval torture device - each day over the next few months Kong will turn the screws a fraction and stretch her limbs more and more until she has grown by 8cm . . . Kong Jing-wen is one of a growing number of perfectly healthy Chinese young men and women who are willing to break a leg for beauty in order to rise up the ladder in height-conscious China. The complex and time-consuming procedure they...more
July 26, 2020, 8:55 p.m.
Countries: China
Variables: PHBP-PRACTICE-2

“The foot binding reformers . . . used an education campaign which explained that other countries did not bind feet and that China was ‘losing face’ and being internationally ridiculed. Secondly, the advantages of ‘natural’ feet were explained, alongside the disadvantages of binding. Thirdly, natural foot societies were formed, with members pledging not to bind and only allowing sons to marry unbound girls (Vento 1998). Three groups were involved in the campaigns against foot binding: a group of Western missionaries focused on Chinese Christians, another group focused on Westerners and the elite, and a group of Chinese reformers campaigned with the non-Christian Chinese elite (Little 1899). A London Missionary Society...more
July 19, 2020, 3:12 p.m.
Countries: China, Italy, United States
Variables: PHBP-DATA-1

“Past studies which included the adolescent population found higher prevalence for bulimia nervosa than in our study: from 1.1%, in a 15–17 years old Italian sample of school-aged students (Santonastaso et al., 1996), to 1.2% in Sweden (Råstam et al., 1989). However, prevalence similar, or lower than ours, have also been reported in samples including adolescent respondents: from 0.2% among 2544 students aged 13–18 in the USA (Whitaker et al., 1990), to 0.5% in Hong-Kong (N = 1020 students, 17–24 years old) (Lee, 1993).”
July 19, 2020, 2:49 p.m.
Countries: China
Variables: PHBP-DATA-1

Scholar Hoek reports in Table 1 that China has a point prevalence of 1.05% for anorexia nervosa, 2.98% for bulimia nervosa, and 3.58% for binge eating disorder.
July 15, 2020, 2:15 p.m.
Countries: China
Variables: AOM-DATA-2

According to a table on page 1, 3 percent of girls were married before age 18. (CODER COMMENT - SLE).
July 14, 2020, 4:36 p.m.
Countries: China
Variables: CONST-LAW-1

"The early communists enshrined 'the equality of women and men' in the Constitution of the People’s Republic and the new government introduced ambitious initiatives to put women to work in building the new communist nation" (para 10).