The most comprehensive compilation of information on the status of
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Latest items for China

April 12, 2019, 7:56 p.m.
Countries: China
Variables: GP-DATA-3

[Hong Kong] "There is an Office of the Ombudsman and an Equal Opportunities Commission (EOC). The government appoints both the ombudsman and the EOC commissioners, who were independent in their operations. Both organizations operated without interference from the government and published critical findings in their areas of responsibility. EOC commissioner York Chow served as a vocal public advocate on minority rights, antidiscrimination for lesbian, gay, bisexual, transsexual, and intersex (LGBTI) individuals, access to public and commercial buildings for persons with disabilities, and other issues within the EOC’s responsibility" (page 112). "[Hong Kong] The law authorizes the EOC to work towards the elimination of discrimination and harassment as well as to...more
April 12, 2019, 7:56 p.m.
Countries: China
Variables: PRN-LAW-1

"[Hong Kong] The law makes it an offense to possess, produce, copy, import, or export pornography involving a child under the age of 18 or to publish or cause to be published any advertisement that conveys or is likely to be understood as conveying the message that a person has published, publishes, or intends to publish any child pornography. Authorities generally enforced the law. The penalty for creation, publication, or advertisement of child pornography is eight years’ imprisonment, while possession carries a penalty of five years’ imprisonment" (page 115). "[Macau] The law prohibits child pornography and the sexual exploitation of children, with harsher penalties for aggravated cases" (page 136).more
April 12, 2019, 7:56 p.m.
Countries: China
Variables: ISTD-DATA-3

[Tibet] "Nongovernmental organizations (NGOs) and health experts expressed serious concern about the growing prevalence of HIV/AIDS in the TAR and other Tibetan areas" (page 90).
April 12, 2019, 7:56 p.m.
Countries: China
Variables: VOTE-LAW-1

"[Macau] The law limits citizens’ ability to change their government through credible periodic elections, and citizens did not have universal suffrage" (page 132).
April 12, 2019, 7:56 p.m.
Countries: China
Variables: ERBG-PRACTICE-3, LO-LAW-1, ATDW-LAW-1, IAW-LAW-1

"[Hong Kong] According to gender-rights activists and public policy analysts, while the law treats men and women equally in terms of property rights in divorce settlements and inheritance matters, women faced discrimination in employment, salary, welfare, inheritance, and promotion (see section 7.d.)" (page 114).
April 12, 2019, 7:56 p.m.
Countries: China
Variables: DV-LAW-1

"[Hong Kong] The government . . . effectively enforced criminal statutes prohibiting domestic violence against women and prosecuted violators . . . The law allows victims to seek a three-month injunction, extendable to six months, against an abuser. The ordinance does not criminalize domestic violence directly, but abusers may be liable for criminal charges under other ordinances . . . The law covers molestation between married couples, homosexual and heterosexual cohabitants, former spouses or cohabitants, and immediate and extended family members. It protects victims under age 18, allowing them to apply for an injunction in their own right, with the assistance of an adult guardian, against molestation by their parents,...more
April 12, 2019, 7:56 p.m.
Countries: China
Variables: TRAFF-PRACTICE-1

"[Macau] Trafficking in persons remained a problem, although authorities were building capacity to pursue trafficking cases" (page 126). "[Macau] The government has a special interagency unit to fight human trafficking, the Human Trafficking Deterrent Measures Concern Committee. In addition to holding seminars to raise awareness about human trafficking, the committee operates two 24-hour telephone hotlines, one for reporting trafficking, and another to assist trafficking victims" (page 138).
April 12, 2019, 7:56 p.m.
Countries: China
Variables: LRCM-PRACTICE-1

[Hong Kong] "The law criminalizes rape, including spousal rape, and police enforced the law effectively. Through June police received 41 allegations of rape and 504 of indecent assault" (page 113).
April 12, 2019, 7:56 p.m.
Countries: China
Variables: GP-DATA-1

"Six of the 30 members of the Executive Council (cabinet-level secretaries and “nonofficial” councilors who advise the CE) were women. . . . Thirteen of the 45 most senior government officials (secretaries, undersecretaries, and permanent secretaries) were women" (page 110).
April 12, 2019, 7:56 p.m.
Countries: China
Variables: LBHO-DATA-1

[Tibet] "There were no formal restrictions on women’s participation in the political system, and women held many lower-level government positions. They were, however, underrepresented at the provincial and prefectural levels of government. According to an official website, in 2012 female cadres (government and party officials) in the TAR accounted for more than 41 percent of the TAR’s total cadres" (page 91). [Hong Kong] "Six of the 30 members of the Executive Council (cabinet-level secretaries and “nonofficial” councilors who advise the CE) were women. Nine of the 40 directly elected LegCo members were women, and women held two of the 35 FC seats" (page 110). "[Macau] There were seven women in...more
April 12, 2019, 7:56 p.m.
Countries: China
Variables: AOM-LAW-1

"[Hong Kong] The legal minimum age of marriage is 16, and parents’ written consent is required for marriage before the age of 21. There was no evidence of early or forced marriage in the SAR" (page 115). "[Macau] The minimum age for marriage is 16. Children between ages 16 and 18 who wish to marry must get approval from their parents or guardians" (page 136).
April 12, 2019, 7:56 p.m.
Countries: China
Variables: CWC-DATA-3

[Tibet] "Tight border controls sharply limited the number of persons crossing the border into Nepal and India. In 2015, 89 Tibetan refugees transited Nepal through the Tibetan Reception Center, run by the Office of the UN High Commissioner for Refugees in Kathmandu, on route to permanent settlement in India. This compared to 80 in 2014, down from 171 in 2013 and 242 in 2012" (page 89). [Hong Kong] "Government policy was to repatriate undocumented migrants who arrived from mainland China, and authorities did not consider them for refugee status. As of July the authorities had returned 1,975 immigration offenders and illegal immigrants to the mainland . . . The SAR...more
April 12, 2019, 7:56 p.m.
Countries: China
Variables: GIC-LAW-1

"[Tibet] Family planning policies permitted Tibetans and members of some other minority groups to have more children than ethnic Han. Some Tibetans who worked for the government reported pressure from their work units to have only one child" (page 90). "[Hong Kong] Couples and individuals have the right to decide the number, spacing, and timing of children; manage their reproductive health; and have access to the information and means to do so, free from discrimination, coercion, or violence" (page 114). "[Macau] Couples and individuals had the right to decide the number, spacing, and timing of their children, to manage their reproductive health and to both fertility and contraceptive treatment, free...more
April 12, 2019, 7:56 p.m.
Countries: China
Variables: LRW-LAW-2

"[Hong Kong] The legal age of consent for heterosexuals is 16. Under the law a person having “unlawful sexual intercourse” with a victim under 16 is subject to five years’ imprisonment, while having unlawful sexual intercourse with a victim under 13 carries a sentence of life imprisonment" (page 115).
April 12, 2019, 7:56 p.m.
Countries: China
Variables: LRW-DATA-1

[Tibet] "There was no confirmed information on the incidence of rape or domestic violence" (page 90). [Hong Kong] "The law criminalizes rape, including spousal rape, and police enforced the law effectively. Through June police received 41 allegations of rape and 504 of indecent assault" (page 113). "[Hong Kong] From January through June, police received 437 reports of child abuse: 190 involved physical abuse (referring to victims younger than 14) and 247 involved sexual abuse (referring to victims younger than 17)" (page 114). "[Macau] Police received 37 complaints of rape and made 21 arrests during the last six months of 2014 and the first six months of 2015" (page 134). "[Macau]...more
April 12, 2019, 7:56 p.m.
Countries: China
Variables: LRW-LAW-1

[Hong Kong] "The law criminalizes rape, including spousal rape, and police enforced the law effectively" (page 113). "[Hong Kong] The law mandates protection for victims of child abuse (battery, assault, neglect, abandonment, and sexual exploitation), and the government enforced the law. The law allows for the prosecution of certain sexual offenses, including against minors, committed outside the territory of the SAR" (page 114). "[Hong Kong] The legal age of consent for heterosexuals is 16. Under the law a person having “unlawful sexual intercourse” with a victim under 16 is subject to five years’ imprisonment, while having unlawful sexual intercourse with a victim under 13 carries a sentence of life imprisonment"...more
April 12, 2019, 7:56 p.m.
Countries: China
Variables: LBHO-PRACTICE-3

"[Macau] There were no laws or practices preventing women or members of minorities from voting, running for office, serving as election monitors, or otherwise participating in political life on the same basis as men or nonminority citizens" (page 132).
April 12, 2019, 7:56 p.m.
Countries: China
Variables: DV-PRACTICE-1

"[Hong Kong] The government regarded domestic violence against women as a serious concern and took measures to prevent and prosecute offenses. It effectively enforced criminal statutes prohibiting domestic violence against women and prosecuted violators. From January to June, police investigated 690 domestic violence-related cases. The law allows victims to seek a three-month injunction, extendable to six months, against an abuser. The ordinance does not criminalize domestic violence directly, but abusers may be liable for criminal charges under other ordinances. The government enforced the law and prosecuted violators, but sentences typically consisted only of injunctions or restraining orders" (page 113). "[Hong Kong] The law mandates protection for victims of child abuse...more
April 12, 2019, 7:56 p.m.
Countries: China
Variables: ERBG-DATA-1

"[Hong Kong] According to gender-rights activists and public policy analysts, while the law treats men and women equally in terms of property rights in divorce settlements and inheritance matters, women faced discrimination in employment, salary, welfare, inheritance, and promotion (see section 7.d.)" (page 114). "[Macau] Observers estimated there was a significant difference in salaries between men and women, particularly among those with unskilled jobs" (page 135).
April 12, 2019, 7:56 p.m.
Countries: China
Variables: DV-DATA-1

"[Hong Kong] From January to June, police investigated 690 domestic violence-related cases . . . Activists reported domestic violence was more prevalent against ethnic minority women" (page 113). "[Hong Kong] From January through June, police received 437 reports of child abuse: 190 involved physical abuse (referring to victims younger than 14) and 247 involved sexual abuse (referring to victims younger than 17)" (page 114). "[Macau] Various NGOs and some government officials considered domestic violence against women to be a growing problem . . . There were 306 reported cases of domestic violence in the last six months of 2014 and the first six months of 2015" (page 134). "[Macau] One...more
April 12, 2019, 7:56 p.m.
Countries: China
Variables: CRPLB-PRACTICE-1

"[Macau] Access to information on family planning, contraception, and prenatal care was widely available, as was skilled attendance at delivery and postpartum care" (page 135).
April 12, 2019, 7:56 p.m.
Countries: China
Variables: ERBG-LAW-2

"[Hong Kong] The law prohibits sexual harassment or discrimination on the basis of sex, marital status, and pregnancy. The law applies to both men and women, and police enforced the law effectively" (page 114). "[Hong Kong] The law and regulations prohibit employment discrimination on the grounds of race or ethnicity, disability, family status (marital status and/or pregnancy), sex, or disability. The law stipulates employers must prove that proficiency in a particular language is a justifiable job requirement if they reject a candidate on these grounds" (page 122). "[Macau] There is no law specifically addressing sexual harassment, unless it involves the use of a position of authority to coerce the performance...more
April 12, 2019, 7:56 p.m.
Countries: China
Variables: ERBG-LAW-1

"[Macau] Health Bureau guidelines protect pregnant workers and those with heart and lung diseases from exposure to secondhand smoke by exempting them from work in smoking areas" (page 141).
April 12, 2019, 7:56 p.m.
Countries: China
Variables: NGOFW-PRACTICE-1

"[Hong Kong] The law authorizes the EOC to work towards the elimination of discrimination and harassment as well as to promote equal opportunity between men and women. A Women’s Commission served as an advisory body for policies related to women, and a number of NGOs were active in raising problems of societal attitudes and discrimination against women" (page 114).
April 12, 2019, 7:56 p.m.
Countries: China
Variables: TRAFF-LAW-1

"[Hong Kong] The law does not prohibit all forms of forced or compulsory labor, nor do laws specifically criminalize forced labor" (page 120). "[Macau] The law prohibits all forms of forced or compulsory labor. Penalties range from three to 12 years’ imprisonment with minimum and maximum sentences increased by one-third if the victim is under the age of 14. Observers considered these penalties to be generally sufficient to deter the use of forced labor" (page 138).
April 12, 2019, 7:56 p.m.
Countries: China
Variables: DV-LAW-2

"[Hong Kong] The law allows victims to seek a three-month injunction, extendable to six months, against an abuser. The ordinance does not criminalize domestic violence directly, but abusers may be liable for criminal charges under other ordinances. The government enforced the law and prosecuted violators, but sentences typically consisted only of injunctions or restraining orders. . . . It protects victims under age 18, allowing them to apply for an injunction in their own right, with the assistance of an adult guardian, against molestation by their parents, siblings, and specified immediate and extended family members. The law also empowers the court to require that the abuser attend an antiviolence program....more
April 12, 2019, 7:56 p.m.
Countries: China
Variables: LRCM-LAW-2

[Hong Kong] "The law criminalizes rape, including spousal rape, and police enforced the law effectively" (page 113).
April 12, 2019, 7:56 p.m.
Countries: China
Variables: ERBG-PRACTICE-1

"[Hong Kong] According to gender-rights activists and public policy analysts, while the law treats men and women equally in terms of property rights in divorce settlements and inheritance matters, women faced discrimination in employment, salary, welfare, inheritance, and promotion (see section 7.d.)" (page 114). "[Hong Kong] Women reported they faced discrimination in employment, salary, welfare, inheritance, and promotion, and some victims filed lawsuits on these grounds. NGOs assessed gender discrimination was more widespread, but many women preferred not to file discrimination cases. Women reportedly formed the majority of the working poor and those who fell outside the protection of labor laws" (page 122). "[Macau] Discrimination in hiring practices based on...more
April 12, 2019, 7:56 p.m.
Countries: China
Variables: DV-PRACTICE-2

"[Hong Kong] The government maintained programs that provided intervention and counseling to batterers. Sixty-five integrated family service centers and 11 family and child protective services units offered services to domestic violence victims and batterers. The government continued its public information campaign to strengthen families and combat violence, and increased public education on the prevention of domestic violence" (page 113). "[Hong Kong] The government provided parent-education programs, including instruction on child abuse prevention, in all 50 of the Department of Health’s maternal and child health centers. It also provided public education programs to raise awareness of child abuse and alert children about how to protect themselves. The Social Welfare Department provided...more
April 12, 2019, 7:56 p.m.
Countries: China
Variables: IRP-DATA-2

"Prostitution in Tibetan areas was not uncommon" (page 90).