The most comprehensive compilation of information on the status of
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Latest items for China

Aug. 13, 2019, 8:42 p.m.
Countries: China
Variables: GEW-PRACTICE-1

"State-sponsored forced labor is increasingly prevalent in China. In 2013, the National People’s Congress ratified a decision to abolish 'Re-education through labor' (RTL), a punitive system that subjected individuals to extra-judicial detention involving forced labor, from which the government reportedly profited. The government closed most RTL facilities by October 2015; however, the government reportedly converted some RTL facilities into state-sponsored drug rehabilitation facilities or administrative detention centers where, according to civil society and media reports, forced labor continues. State-sponsored forced labor is intensifying under the government’s mass detention and political indoctrination campaign against Muslim minorities in the Xinjiang Uighur Autonomous Region (Xinjiang) (...) A small number of Han Chinese individuals...more
June 11, 2019, 12:13 p.m.
Countries: China
Variables: NGOFW-DATA-1

"Others pointed to the active role played by the All China Women’s Federation (ACWF) in passing the new domestic violence legislation" (57).
June 11, 2019, 12:13 p.m.
Countries: China
Variables: LRW-PRACTICE-1

"Of the reported cases, most allegations of rape were closed through private settlement rather than prosecution. Some persons convicted of rape were executed" (52). "Activists expressed concerns that rape was underreported, especially within the ethnic minority community, and that conviction rates were low, according to a South China Morning Post report [in Hong Kong]" (125).
June 11, 2019, 12:13 p.m.
Countries: China
Variables: ISTD-PRACTICE-1

"Discrimination against persons with HIV remained a problem, impacting individuals’ employment, educational, and housing opportunities and impeding access to health care. The law allows employers and schools to bar persons with infectious diseases and does not afford specific protections based on HIV status. During the year state media outlets reported instances of persons with HIV/AIDS who were barred from housing, education, or employment due to their HIV status" (66).
June 11, 2019, 12:13 p.m.
Countries: China
Variables: LO-PRACTICE-1

"Women’s rights advocates indicated that in rural areas women often forfeited land and property rights to their husbands in divorce proceedings. Rural contract law and laws protecting women’s rights stipulate that women enjoy equal rights in cases of land management, but experts asserted this was rarely the case due to the complexity of the law and difficulties in its implementation" (57).
June 11, 2019, 12:13 p.m.
Countries: China
Variables: CWC-DATA-3

"The government did not provide protection against the expulsion or forcible return of vulnerable refugees and asylum seekers, especially North Korean refugees. The government continued to consider North Koreans as 'illegal economic migrant' rather than refugees or asylum seekers and forcibly returned many of them to North Korea. The government continued to deny UNHCR permission to operate outside of Beijing. Human Rights Watch (HRW) documented the government detained 41 North Koreans in July and August alone, compared with 51 documented detentions of North Korean refugees from June 2016 to July 2017. In the same report, HRW estimated that among these 92 North Korean refugees, family members reported that at least...more
June 11, 2019, 12:13 p.m.
Countries: China
Variables: SEGI-PRACTICE-2

"Some women’s NGOs that sought to increase public awareness of sexual harassment reported harassment by public security and faced challenges executing their programs. In May police searched the houses of feminists suspected of printing clothing with antisexual harassment slogans. In September 2016 women’s rights activist Shan Lihua was found guilty by the Gangzha District People’s Court in Nantong, Jiangsu Province, of 'picking quarrels and stirring up trouble.' The indictment specifically cited Shan’s activism on a rape case in Hainan Province as evidence, according to media reports" (54).
June 11, 2019, 12:13 p.m.
Countries: China
Variables: FSCB-LAW-1

"The law, as implemented, requires each woman with an unauthorized pregnancy to abort or pay the social compensation fee, which can reach 10 times a person’s annual disposable income" (54). "The law maintains that 'citizens have an obligation to practice birth planning in accordance with the law' and also states that 'couples of child-bearing age shall voluntarily choose birth planning contraceptive and birth control measures to prevent and reduce unwanted pregnancies.' After the transition to a two-child limit, the available mix of contraceptives shifted from mainly permanent methods like tubal ligation or IUDs toward other reversible methods" (55) "Forced abortion is not specifically listed as a prohibited activity" (56). "The...more
June 11, 2019, 12:13 p.m.
Countries: China
Variables: ERBG-LAW-2

"The law prohibits sexual harassment against women; however, there is no clear definition of sexual harassment under the law. Offenders are subject to a penalty of up to 15 days in detention, according to the Beijing Public Security Bureau" (53). "The Law on the Protection of Women’s Rights and Interests empowers victims to file a sexual harassment complaint with their employer, authorities, or both. Employers who failed to take effective measures to prevent sexual harassment could be fined" (54). "In June the Legislative Assembly [in Macau] passed a sex crime bill that amended the Penal Code to make sexual harassment a crime. Under the new law, police may take action...more
June 11, 2019, 12:13 p.m.
Countries: China
Variables: LBHO-PRACTICE-1

"No laws limit participation of women and/or members of minorities in the political process, and they did participate. Women and/or members of minority groups held few positions of significant influence in the government or CCP structure" (47-48)
June 11, 2019, 12:13 p.m.
Countries: China
Variables: PRN-LAW-1

"Pornography of any kind, including child pornography, is illegal. Under the criminal code, those producing, reproducing, publishing, selling, or disseminating obscene materials with the purpose of making a profit could be sentenced to up to three years in prison or put under criminal detention or surveillance in addition to paying a fine. Offenders in serious cases could receive prison sentences of three to 10 years in addition to paying a fine" (58).
June 11, 2019, 12:13 p.m.
Countries: China
Variables: GIC-LAW-1

"The CCP restricts the rights of parents to choose the number of children they have and utilizes family planning units from the provincial to the village level to enforce population limits and distributions. A two-child policy was officially implemented as of January 2016. The Population and Family Planning Law permits married couples to have two children and allows couples to apply for permission to have a third child if they meet conditions stipulated in local and provincial regulations. (...) Citizens are subject to hefty fines for violating the law, while couples who have only one child receive a certificate entitling them to collect a monthly incentive payment and other benefits...more
June 11, 2019, 12:13 p.m.
Countries: China
Variables: AFE-PRACTICE-1

"Unregistered children could not access public services, including education" (57). "Although the law provides for nine years of compulsory education for children, many children did not attend school for the required period in economically disadvantaged rural areas, and some never attended. Public schools were not allowed to charge tuition, but many schools continued to charge miscellaneous fees because they received insufficient local and central government funding. Such fees and other school-related expenses made it difficult for poorer families and some migrant workers to send their children to school" (57). "[In Hong Kong] The law on disabilities states that children with separate educational needs must have equal opportunity in accessing education....more
June 11, 2019, 12:13 p.m.
Countries: China
Variables: CWC-DATA-4

"In localities with large populations of migrant workers, officials specifically targeted migrant women to ensure that they did not exceed birth limitations. Minorities in some provinces, however, were entitled to higher limits on their family size" (55). "The gap in education quality for rural and urban youth remained extensive, with many children of migrant workers attending unlicensed and poorly equipped schools" (57).
June 11, 2019, 12:13 p.m.
Countries: China
Variables: AFE-PRACTICE-2

"Individuals with disabilities faced difficulties accessing higher education. The law permits universities to exclude candidates with disabilities who would otherwise be qualified. A regulation mandates accommodations for students with disabilities when taking the national university entrance exam" (60).
June 11, 2019, 12:13 p.m.
Countries: China
Variables: MARR-PRACTICE-3

"Single women are entitled to reproductive rights, and their children are entitled to the same rights as those born to married parents, according to both the Civil Law and Marriage Law. Since the national family planning law mentions only the rights of married couples, local implementation was inconsistent, and unmarried persons must pay for contraception. Children born to single mothers or unmarried couples are considered 'outside of the policy' and subject to the social compensation fee and the denial of legal documents, such as birth documents and the 'hukou' residence permit. Single women can avoid those penalties by marrying within 60 days of the baby’s birth" (55).
June 11, 2019, 12:13 p.m.
Countries: China
Variables: ISSA-LAW-1

"The law also prohibits health-care providers from providing illegal surgeries, ultrasounds to determine the sex of the fetus that are not medically necessary, sex-selective abortions, fake medical identification, and fake birth certificate" (56).
June 11, 2019, 12:13 p.m.
Countries: China
Variables: IIP-PRACTICE-2

"It remained difficult for victims to file a sexual harassment complaint and for judges to reach a ruling on such cases. Many women remained unwilling to report incidents of sexual harassment, believing that the justice system was ineffectual, according to official media. Several prominent media reports of sexual harassment went viral on social media, helping to raise awareness of the problem, particularly in the workplace" (53). "Some women’s NGOs that sought to increase public awareness of sexual harassment reported harassment by public security and faced challenges executing their programs. In May police searched the houses of feminists suspected of printing clothing with antisexual harassment slogans. In September 2016 women’s rights...more
June 11, 2019, 12:13 p.m.
Countries: China
Variables: FSCB-PRACTICE-1

"There were reports of coerced abortions and sterilizations, though government statistics on the percentage of abortions that were coerced during the year was not available" (54). "State media claimed the number of coerced abortions had declined in recent years in the wake of loosened regulations, including the implementation of the two-child policy" (54). "Regulations requiring women who violate the family planning policy to terminate their pregnancies still exist and were enforced in some provinces, such as Hubei, Hunan, and Liaoning. Other provinces, such as Guizhou, Jiangxi, Qinghai, and Yunnan, maintained provisions that require 'remedial measures,' an official euphemism for abortion, to deal with pregnancies that violate the policy" (55). "The...more
June 11, 2019, 12:13 p.m.
Countries: China
Variables: LBHO-DATA-1

"Among the 2,987 appointed delegates to the 12th NPC in 2013, 699 (23 percent) were women" (48).
June 11, 2019, 12:13 p.m.
Countries: China
Variables: NGOFW-PRACTICE-1

"The government sought to maintain control over civil society groups, halt the emergence of independent NGOs, and hinder activities of civil society and human rights groups" (51). "Some women’s NGOs that sought to increase public awareness of sexual harassment reported harassment by public security and faced challenges executing their programs. In May police searched the houses of feminists suspected of printing clothing with antisexual harassment slogans. In September 2016 women’s rights activist Shan Lihua was found guilty by the Gangzha District People’s Court in Nantong, Jiangsu Province, of 'picking quarrels and stirring up trouble.' The indictment specifically cited Shan’s activism on a rape case in Hainan Province as evidence, according...more
June 11, 2019, 12:13 p.m.
Countries: China
Variables: LRW-DATA-1, DV-DATA-1

"There was no confirmed information on the incidence of rape or domestic violence [in Tibet]" (90).
June 11, 2019, 12:13 p.m.
Countries: China
Variables: DTCP-PRACTICE-1

"In January the partial redevelopment of Tai Lam Center for Women [in Hong Kong] added space for 128 women inmates, alleviating the overcrowding problem for women in high-security prisons" (111).
June 11, 2019, 12:13 p.m.
Countries: China
Variables: TRAFF-LAW-3

"Authorities continued to repatriate North Korean refugees forcibly, including trafficking victims, generally treating them as illegal economic migrants (…) The government did not provide North Korean trafficking victims with legal alternatives to repatriation" (45).
June 11, 2019, 12:13 p.m.
Countries: China
Variables: ERBG-LAW-1, LO-LAW-1, IAD-LAW-1, AFE-LAW-1

"The law provides for equality in ownership of property, inheritance rights, access to education, and equal pay for equal work" (56).
June 11, 2019, 12:13 p.m.
Countries: China
Variables: ERBG-DATA-1

"On average, women earned 35 percent less than men who did similar work. This wage gap was greater in rural areas" (56). "However [in Macau], per government statistics, between 2011 and 2016, the wage gap between men and women dropped from 2,500 patacas ($312) in 2011 to 1,700 patacas ($212) in 2016" (103).
June 11, 2019, 12:13 p.m.
Countries: China
Variables: AOM-PRACTICE-1

"The legal minimum age for marriage is 22 for men and 20 for women. Child marriage was not known to be a problem" (58).
June 11, 2019, 12:13 p.m.
Countries: China
Variables: LRW-LAW-2

"Rape of women is illegal, and carries a sentence of three years in prison to death" (52).
June 11, 2019, 12:13 p.m.
Countries: China
Variables: DACH-PRACTICE-2

"The law mandates that family planning bureaus administer pregnancy tests to married women of childbearing age and provide them with basic knowledge of family planning and prenatal services. Under the law schools are required to provide adolescent and sexual health education at an appropriate level, but in practice information is quite limited. Some provinces fined women who did not undergo periodic state-mandated pregnancy tests" (56).
June 11, 2019, 12:13 p.m.
Countries: China
Variables: ABO-LAW-1

"The law, as implemented, requires each woman with an unauthorized pregnancy to abort or pay the social compensation fee, which can reach 10 times a person’s annual disposable income" (54).