The most comprehensive compilation of information on the status of
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Latest items for D R Congo

Aug. 15, 2019, 6:57 a.m.
Countries: D R Congo
Variables: GEW-PRACTICE-1

"Traffickers subject some men, women, and children working in artisanal mines in eastern DRC to forced labor, including debt bondage, by mining bosses, other miners, family members, government officials, and armed groups" (160).
Aug. 15, 2019, 6:56 a.m.
Countries: D R Congo
Variables: GEW-PRACTICE-1, GEW-PRACTICE-3

"In 2016, abductions for recruitment by the Lord’s Resistance Army increased slightly, and 16 Burundian child soldiers and one Rwandan child soldier, some recruited from refugee camps, were stopped by government officials while reportedly transiting through the DRC to fight in armed groups in Burundi. Child soldiers separated from armed groups and reintegrated into society remain vulnerable to rerecruitment, as adequate rehabilitation services did not exist for children suffering severe psychological trauma, stigmatization may interfere with community reintegration. There were no confirmed cases of child soldier recruitment by the FARDC for the fourth consecutive year. An international organization verified the FARDC used children in support roles, including for sexual slavery...more
Aug. 15, 2019, 6:54 a.m.
Countries: D R Congo
Variables: GEW-PRACTICE-3, EWCMS-PRACTICE-1

"In February 2018, an international organization estimated that there were more than 150 different armed groups in the DRC. In 2018, several armed groups continued to abduct and forcibly recruit Congolese men, women, and children as combatants and in support roles, such as guards, porters, cleaners, cooks, messengers, spies, and tax collectors at mining sites; women and girls were forced to marry or serve as sex slaves for members of some armed groups" (160).
Aug. 15, 2019, 6:44 a.m.
Countries: D R Congo
Variables: GEW-PRACTICE-3

"During the reporting period, there were two cases, verified by an international organization, of children used—but not recruited—in support roles by the FARDC, one for sex slavery and domestic servitude and the other for forced labor; the government redeployed one commander allegedly responsible for these crimes to a different regiment and did not report holding him or other allegedly complicit officials accountable" (159).
Aug. 15, 2019, 6:27 a.m.
Countries: D R Congo
Variables: GEW-PRACTICE-1

"The government reported filing 584 cases of sexual violence in military court in 2018, compared with 547 in 2017, 496 in 2016, and 68 in 2015; however, as in years past, the government did not report if the cases involved sex trafficking. In addition, the government did not report the number of trafficking prosecutions in criminal courts" (158).
Aug. 9, 2019, 1 p.m.
Countries: D R Congo
Variables: CWC-DATA-3

"Due to the conflict in the East and heightened conflict in areas of the Kasai region and former Katanga province, by November there were an estimated 4.1 million IDPs throughout the country. According to the UN Office for the Coordination of Humanitarian Affairs, there were by November approximately 1.1 million IDPs in North Kivu, 763,000 in the Kasai region, 654,000 in Tanganyika, 598,000 in South Kivu, 343,000 in Ituri, and 276,000 in Maniema. The government was unable to protect or assist IDPs adequately but generally allowed domestic and international humanitarian organizations to do so. UNHCR and other international humanitarian organizations worked to close IDP sites where the security situation was...more
Aug. 9, 2019, 1 p.m.
Countries: D R Congo
Variables: IRP-LAW-5

"The minimum age of consensual sex is 18 for both males and females, and the law prohibits prostitution by anyone under 18" (page 43).
Aug. 9, 2019, 1 p.m.
Countries: D R Congo
Variables: TRAFF-DATA-1

"According to a 2010 World Bank report, 26 percent of children living on the streets were girls, of whom 70 percent were victims of rape and 90 percent were victims of child sex trafficking. There were also reports that child soldiers, particularly girls, faced sexual exploitation (see section 1.g.)" (page 43). "Child labor, including forced child labor, was a problem throughout the country (see section 7.b.). Child labor was most common in the informal sector, including in artisanal mining and subsistence agriculture" (page 51).
Aug. 9, 2019, 1 p.m.
Countries: D R Congo
Variables: AFE-PRACTICE-1

"The constitution provides for tuition-free and compulsory primary education. It was not, however, compulsory or tuition free, and the government inconsistently provided it across the provinces. Public schools generally expected parents to contribute to teachers’ salaries. These expenses, combined with the potential loss of income from their children’s labor while they attended class, rendered many parents unable or unwilling to enroll their children. Primary and secondary school attendance rates for girls were lower than for boys due to financial, cultural, or security reasons, including early marriage and pregnancy for girls. Additionally, children in school were not particularly safe. Teachers subjected one in four children to corporal punishment and pressured one...more
Aug. 9, 2019, 1 p.m.
Countries: D R Congo
Variables: VOTE-LAW-1

"The constitution provides citizens the ability to choose their government in free and fair periodic elections held by secret ballot and based on universal and equal suffrage, but citizens were unable to exercise this right during the year due to the government’s and CENI’s failure to organize elections in accordance with the constitution" (page 32).
Aug. 9, 2019, 1 p.m.
Countries: D R Congo
Variables: FSCB-PRACTICE-1

"There were no reports of coerced abortion, involuntary sterilization, or other coercive population control methods" (page 40).
Aug. 9, 2019, 1 p.m.
Countries: D R Congo
Variables: MURDER-DATA-1

"In December, UNJHRO reported that at least 170 women were victims of extrajudicial killings nationwide from January to October" (page 2). "In December, UNJHRO reported that at least 170 women were victims of extrajudicial killings, at least 420 women were victims of SGBV, and at least 528 women were victims of arbitrary arrest during the year. UNJHRO stated that perpetrators were primarily police for arbitrary arrest and the FARDC with regard to extrajudicial killings and SGBV. UNJHRO stated that RMGs, including the FPRI and Twa militias, also targeted women during the year. Implementation, including promulgation of the text of the amended family code adopted in June 2016, had not begun...more
Aug. 9, 2019, 1 p.m.
Countries: D R Congo
Variables: GEW-DATA-1

"As of October 24, the United Nations reported that it had received 15 allegations of sexual exploitation and abuse against military, police, and civilian personnel deployed with MONUSCO during the year. Nine of these cases involved allegations of transactional sex; four involved allegations of an exploitative relationship; one involved the sexual assault of a child; and one involved the alleged rape of a child. As of October 24, all investigations were pending. The United Nations reported that it received one allegation during the year of sexual exploitation and abuse against DRC peacekeepers serving outside the DRC. The allegation of transactional sex, alleged to have taken place at an unspecified time...more
Aug. 9, 2019, 1 p.m.
Countries: D R Congo
Variables: MARR-LAW-1

"The law on sexual violence criminalizes rape, but the offense was not always reported by victims and the law was not always enforced. Rape was common. The legal definition of rape does not include spousal rape. It also prohibits extrajudicial settlements (for example, a customary fine paid by the perpetrator to the family of the victim) and forced marriage, allows victims of sexual violence to waive appearance in court, and permits closed hearings to protect confidentiality. The minimum penalty prescribed for rape is a prison sentence of five years, and courts regularly imposed such a sentence in rape convictions" (page 39). "While the law prohibits marriage of boys and girls...more
Aug. 9, 2019, 1 p.m.
Countries: D R Congo
Variables: NGOFW-PRACTICE-1

"Elements of the SSF continued unlawfully/extrajudicially to kill, harass, beat, intimidate, and arbitrarily arrest and detain domestic human rights advocates and domestic NGO workers, particularly when the NGOs reported on or supported victims of abuses by the SSF or reported on the illegal exploitation of natural resources in the east . . . Representatives from the Ministry of Justice and the ANR met with domestic NGOs and sometimes responded to their inquiries" (page 37-38).
Aug. 9, 2019, 1 p.m.
Countries: D R Congo
Variables: INFIB-LAW-1

"The law describes FGM/C as a form of sexual violence, provides a sentence of two to five years in prison, and levies fines of up to 200,000 Congolese francs ($125); in case of death due to FGM/C, the sentence is life imprisonment" (page 40).
Aug. 9, 2019, 1 p.m.
Countries: D R Congo
Variables: LRW-DATA-1

"According to media, members of the FARDC raped as many as 25 women in Makobola, 14 miles south of Uvira, in late September and mid-October after the withdrawal of a Mai Mai group that had been operating in the area . . . The SSF, RMGs, and civilians perpetrated widespread sexual violence (see section 1.g.). During the year the United Nations documented 267 adult victims and 171 child victims, including two boys, of sexual violence in conflict . . . The 2013-14 Demographic and Health Survey (DHS) found that more than one in four women nationwide (27 percent) had experienced sexual violence at some point in their lives, up from...more
Aug. 9, 2019, 1 p.m.
Countries: D R Congo
Variables: ERBG-PRACTICE-1, ERBG-DATA-1

"Gender-based discrimination in employment and occupation occurred (see section 6). Although the labor code stipulates men and women must receive equal pay for equivalent work, the government did not enforce this provision effectively. According to the International Labor Organization, women often received less pay in the private sector than did men doing the same job and rarely occupied positions of authority or high responsibility" (page 52).
Aug. 9, 2019, 1 p.m.
Countries: D R Congo
Variables: ISTD-DATA-3

"According to the survey, the adult HIV prevalence rate was 1.2 percent, and according to UNAIDS, an estimated 560,798 persons of all ages in the country had HIV in 2015" (page 46).
Aug. 9, 2019, 1 p.m.
Countries: D R Congo
Variables: DTCP-PRACTICE-1

"Serious threats to life and health were widespread and included violence (particularly rape) . . . Authorities generally confined men and women in separate areas but often held juveniles with adults" (page 6). "In December, UNJHRO reported that at least 528 women were victims of arbitrary arrest during the year" (page 10). "In December, UNJHRO reported that at least 170 women were victims of extrajudicial killings, at least 420 women were victims of SGBV, and at least 528 women were victims of arbitrary arrest during the year. UNJHRO stated that perpetrators were primarily police for arbitrary arrest and the FARDC with regard to extrajudicial killings and SGBV. UNJHRO stated that...more
Aug. 9, 2019, 1 p.m.
Countries: D R Congo
Variables: LBHO-PRACTICE-2, LBHO-PRACTICE-3

"Some observers believed cultural and traditional factors prevented women from participating in political life to the same extent as men" (page 34).
Aug. 9, 2019, 1 p.m.
Countries: D R Congo
Variables: GP-DATA-1

"Among the 59 government vice prime ministers, ministers, ministers of state, and vice ministers, six were women, a decrease in the total number from that of the government formed earlier in 2016 (from 11 percent of 68 such positions to 10 percent of 59 such positions)" (page 34).
Aug. 9, 2019, 1 p.m.
Countries: D R Congo
Variables: MARR-PRACTICE-1, MARR-PRACTICE-5

"While the law prohibits marriage of boys and girls under the age of 18, many marriages of underage children took place. Bridewealth (dowry) payment made by a groom or his family to the relatives of the bride to ratify a marriage greatly contributed to underage marriage, as parents forcibly married daughters to collect bridewealth or to finance bridewealth for a son. The constitution criminalizes forced marriage. Courts may sentence parents convicted of forcing a child to marry to up to 12 years’ hard labor and a fine of 92,500 Congolese francs ($58). The penalty doubles when the child is under 15. For additional information, see Appendix C" (page 42-43).more
Aug. 9, 2019, 1 p.m.
Countries: D R Congo
Variables: LRW-PRACTICE-2

"The law on sexual violence criminalizes rape, but the offense was not always reported by victims and the law was not always enforced. Rape was common. The legal definition of rape does not include spousal rape. It also prohibits extrajudicial settlements (for example, a customary fine paid by the perpetrator to the family of the victim) and forced marriage, allows victims of sexual violence to waive appearance in court, and permits closed hearings to protect confidentiality. The minimum penalty prescribed for rape is a prison sentence of five years, and courts regularly imposed such a sentence in rape convictions" (page 39). "Most survivors of rape did not pursue formal legal...more
Aug. 9, 2019, 1 p.m.
Countries: D R Congo
Variables: LRW-PRACTICE-1

"The law on sexual violence criminalizes rape, but the offense was not always reported by victims and the law was not always enforced. Rape was common. The legal definition of rape does not include spousal rape. It also prohibits extrajudicial settlements (for example, a customary fine paid by the perpetrator to the family of the victim) and forced marriage, allows victims of sexual violence to waive appearance in court, and permits closed hearings to protect confidentiality. The minimum penalty prescribed for rape is a prison sentence of five years, and courts regularly imposed such a sentence in rape convictions . . . Crimes of sexual violence were sometimes committed as...more
Aug. 9, 2019, 1 p.m.
Countries: D R Congo
Variables: PRN-LAW-1

"The penal code prohibits child pornography, with imprisonment of 10 to 20 years for those convicted" (page 43).
Aug. 9, 2019, 1 p.m.
Countries: D R Congo
Variables: AFE-DATA-1

"Primary and secondary school attendance rates for girls were lower than for boys due to financial, cultural, or security reasons, including early marriage and pregnancy for girls" (page 41).
Aug. 9, 2019, 1 p.m.
Countries: D R Congo
Variables: AFE-LAW-1

"The constitution provides for tuition-free and compulsory primary education. It was not, however, compulsory or tuition free, and the government inconsistently provided it across the provinces" (page 41).
Aug. 9, 2019, 1 p.m.
Countries: D R Congo
Variables: WR-PRACTICE-2, CUST-LAW-1, IAW-LAW-1, IAD-LAW-1

"According to UNICEF, many widows were unable to inherit their late husbands’ property because the law states that in event of a death in which there is no will, the husband’s children, including those born out of wedlock (provided that they were officially recognized by the father), rather than the widow, have precedence with regard to inheritance" (page 41).
Aug. 9, 2019, 1 p.m.
Countries: D R Congo
Variables: LRW-LAW-2, LRW-LAW-3, LRCM-LAW-2

"The law on sexual violence criminalizes rape, but the offense was not always reported by victims and the law was not always enforced. Rape was common. The legal definition of rape does not include spousal rape. It also prohibits extrajudicial settlements (for example, a customary fine paid by the perpetrator to the family of the victim) and forced marriage, allows victims of sexual violence to waive appearance in court, and permits closed hearings to protect confidentiality. The minimum penalty prescribed for rape is a prison sentence of five years, and courts regularly imposed such a sentence in rape convictions" (page 39).