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Latest items for East Timor

July 3, 2019, 1:59 p.m.
Countries: East Timor
Variables: DV-LAW-1

The Law Against Domestic Violence broadly covers all forms of domestic violence, including marital rape, and augments the Penal Code. While many cultural and institutional obstacles hinder implementation of the law, local NGOs viewed the law as having a positive effect by encouraging victims of domestic violence to report their cases to police. The secretary of state for the support and socio-economic promotion of women has a gender focal point in each district, which helps direct victims to appropriate resources and supports capacity building and key actors in their areas. Domestic violence offenses were the most commonly charged crimes in the criminal justice system. Several NGOs that monitored the courts’...more
July 3, 2019, 1:59 p.m.
Countries: East Timor
Variables: LRW-PRACTICE-1, LRW-LAW-1, LRW-LAW-2

"Gender-based violence remained a serious concern. Although rape, including marital rape, is a crime punishable by up to 20 years in prison, failures to investigate or prosecute cases of alleged rape and sexual abuse were common. The formal justice system addressed an increasing number of reported domestic and sexual abuse cases, but limited access to justice and cultural pressures led some communities to address rape and domestic violence through traditional law" (Pg 15).
July 3, 2019, 1:59 p.m.
Countries: East Timor
Variables: ERBG-PRACTICE-1

"The labor code prohibits sexual harassment in the work place, but such harassment reportedly was widespread. Relevant authorities processed no such cases during the year (see section 7.d.)" (Pg 16). "Some women reported employment discrimination based on marital status" (Pg 18). "The law offers no specific legal protection against discriminatory hiring practices due to marital status. Discrimination against women reportedly was common throughout the government, but sometimes went unaddressed. NGO workers noted that this was largely due to the lack of employment opportunities and a fear of retaliation among victims. No reliable data was available on the problem. Women also were disadvantaged in pursuing job opportunities due to cultural norms,...more
July 3, 2019, 1:59 p.m.
Countries: East Timor
Variables: GP-DATA-3, GP-DATA-4

"The Ministry of Social Solidarity is charged with providing assistance to victims of domestic violence. During the year ministry’s staff in each district included a gender-based violence focal point to coordinate a referral network, a coordinator for the Bolsa de Mae (Mother’s Purse) support fund, and two additional actors who focused on children’s issues. Due to staff shortages, the ministry had difficulty responding to all cases. To deal with this problem, the ministry worked closely with local NGOs and service providers to offer assistance to victims of violence, including shelters, a safe room at the national hospital, financial and food support, and escorts to judicial proceeding" (Pg 16).more
July 3, 2019, 1:59 p.m.
Countries: East Timor
Variables: AFE-PRACTICE-1, AFE-LAW-1

"The constitution stipulates that primary education shall be compulsory and free. The law requires nine years of compulsory education beginning at six years of age; however, there is no system to enforce attendance, nor is there a system to ensure that the provision of education is free. Language issues and teacher quality hampered the education system. Dropout rates were often very high due to distance, malnutrition, teenage pregnancy, or lack of parental support. While no school fees exist for public schools, students paid for supplies and uniforms. The most recent UN and government statistics available (2010) indicated that approximately 20 to 30 percent of primary school-age children nationwide were not...more
July 3, 2019, 1:59 p.m.
Countries: East Timor
Variables: ERBG-LAW-2

"The labor code prohibits sexual harassment in the work place, but such harassment reportedly was widespread. Relevant authorities processed no such cases during the year (see section 7.d.)" (Pg 16).
July 3, 2019, 1:59 p.m.
Countries: East Timor
Variables: CONST-LAW-1

"The constitution and relevant legislation prohibit discrimination based on grounds of color, race, marital status, gender, heritage, language, social or economic status, political or ideological convictions, religion, education, and physical or mental condition. Nonetheless, violence against women was a major problem, and discrimination against women, persons with disabilities, some minorities and the lesbian, gay, bisexual, transgender, and intersex (LGBTI) community occurred. Violence against children--both at home and in schools--and child labor were common" (Pg 15). "The constitution states that “women and men shall have the same rights and duties in all areas of family life and political, economic, social, cultural life,” but it does not specifically address discrimination" (Pg 17).more
July 3, 2019, 1:59 p.m.
Countries: East Timor
Variables: CWC-DATA-2, CRPLB-PRACTICE-1, MMR-PRACTICE-1, MMR-DATA-1

"According to 2015 World Health Organization estimates, the average maternal mortality rate in the country was 270 deaths per 100,000 live births. The UN Children’s Fund (UNICEF) estimated that only 30 percent of children were delivered by a skilled health professional and 78 percent were delivered at home. Access to maternal health services remained a challenge for people in rural areas, although each district has at least one medical facility that provides maternal care. Sixty-one percent of mothers received antenatal care from a medical professional, and 32 percent of mothers received post-partum care. Recent efforts by the government and NGOs have expanded access to midwives and other skilled professionals in...more
July 3, 2019, 1:59 p.m.
Countries: East Timor
Variables: NGOFW-PRACTICE-1, NGOFW-DATA-1

"The Ministry of Social Solidarity is charged with providing assistance to victims of domestic violence. During the year ministry’s staff in each district included a gender-based violence focal point to coordinate a referral network, a coordinator for the Bolsa de Mae (Mother’s Purse) support fund, and two additional actors who focused on children’s issues. Due to staff shortages, the ministry had difficulty responding to all cases. To deal with this problem, the ministry worked closely with local NGOs and service providers to offer assistance to victims of violence, including shelters, a safe room at the national hospital, financial and food support, and escorts to judicial proceeding" (Pg 16). "The secretary...more
July 3, 2019, 1:59 p.m.
Countries: East Timor
Variables: SEGI-PRACTICE-1

"The government and civil society actively promoted awareness campaigns to combat all forms of violence against women" (Pg 16).
July 3, 2019, 1:59 p.m.
Countries: East Timor
Variables: GIC-LAW-1, GIC-LAW-3

"The law offers no specific legal protection against discriminatory hiring practices due to marital status. Discrimination against women reportedly was common throughout the government, but sometimes went unaddressed. NGO workers noted that this was largely due to the lack of employment opportunities and a fear of retaliation among victims. No reliable data was available on the problem. Women also were disadvantaged in pursuing job opportunities due to cultural norms, stereotypes, and an overall lower level of qualifications or education. Additionally, some reported that pregnant women did not receive the protections guaranteed by the labor code" (Pg 25).
July 3, 2019, 1:59 p.m.
Countries: East Timor
Variables: ERBG-LAW-1

"The labor code prohibits discrimination based on color, race, civil status, gender, nationality, ethnic ancestry or origin, social position or economic status, political or ideological convictions, religion, physical or mental condition, age, or health status. The code also mandates equal pay. Implementation of the code’s provisions was generally ineffective" (Pg 25).
July 3, 2019, 1:59 p.m.
Countries: East Timor
Variables: DV-PRACTICE-1, DV-PRACTICE-2

"The Law Against Domestic Violence broadly covers all forms of domestic violence, including marital rape, and augments the Penal Code. While many cultural and institutional obstacles hinder implementation of the law, local NGOs viewed the law as having a positive effect by encouraging victims of domestic violence to report their cases to police. The secretary of state for the support and socio-economic promotion of women has a gender focal point in each district, which helps direct victims to appropriate resources and supports capacity building and key actors in their areas. Domestic violence offenses were the most commonly charged crimes in the criminal justice system. Several NGOs that monitored the courts’...more
July 3, 2019, 1:59 p.m.
Countries: East Timor
Variables: LBHO-LAW-1, LBHO-DATA-1, GP-DATA-1

"Electoral laws require that at least onethird of the candidates on party lists be women. Women hold 24 of the 65 seats in Parliament and several ministerial, vice-ministerial, and secretary of state positions. At the local level, at least three women must serve on every village council, which generally include 10 to 20 representatives, depending on the size of the village. Meaningful participation by women at the national and local levels, even when elected, may sometimes be constrained by traditional attitudes and stereotypes" (Pg 12).
July 3, 2019, 1:59 p.m.
Countries: East Timor
Variables: MARR-PRACTICE-1, MARR-PRACTICE-5, MARR-LAW-1, AOM-PRACTICE-1, AOM-LAW-1, AOM-DATA-2

"Although a marriage may not be registered until the youngest spouse is at least age 16, cultural, religious and civil marriages were recognized in the civil code. Cultural pressure to marry, especially if a girl or woman becomes pregnant, is strong. Underage couples may not officially marry, but are often married de facto once they have children together. Forced marriage rarely occurred, although reports indicated that social pressure sometimes encouraged victims of rape to marry their attacker or persons to enter into an arranged marriage where a bride price is paid According to the most recent information from UNICEF (2010), an estimated 19 percent of girls married prior to the...more
July 3, 2019, 1:59 p.m.
Countries: East Timor
Variables: GP-DATA-5

"The PNTL’s Vulnerable Persons Units (VPUs) generally handled cases of domestic violence and sexual crimes. The unit, however, does not have enough staff to provide a significant presence in all areas of the country, necessitating the involvement of other police units, especially community police, who are commonly present at the village level. Women’s organizations considered VPU performance as variable but improved" (Pg 16). "The Ministry of Social Solidarity is charged with providing assistance to victims of domestic violence. During the year ministry’s staff in each district included a gender-based violence focal point to coordinate a referral network, a coordinator for the Bolsa de Mae (Mother’s Purse) support fund, and two...more
July 3, 2019, 1:59 p.m.
Countries: East Timor
Variables: DACH-PRACTICE-2, DACH-DATA-2, ABO-LAW-1

"Couples and individuals have the right to decide the number, spacing, and timing of their children; manage their reproductive health; and have access to the means to do so free from discrimination, coercion, and violence. Economic, cultural, and religious considerations and distance (in rural areas) sometimes limited women’s reproductive rights. Unmarried women under age 20, for example, may be denied reproductive health services. Additionally, in many areas, service providers sometimes required a husband’s permission before providing reproductive health services. Healthcare was not readily available for complications associated with abortion due to overall lack of women’s healthcare and the criminalization of abortion. According to 2014 estimates from the UN Population Division,...more
July 3, 2019, 1:59 p.m.
Countries: East Timor
Variables: LO-PRACTICE-1, IAW-PRACTICE-1, IAD-PRACTICE-1

"Some customary practices discriminate against women, including traditional inheritance systems that tend to exclude women from land ownership. There have been complaints that the company registering land claims used forms that do not protect women’s rights to property or follow best practice as related to gender" (Pg 17).
June 10, 2019, 8:03 a.m.
Countries: East Timor
Variables: LRW-LAW-2

"The penal code makes sexual conduct by an adult with anyone below the age of 17 a crime, and increases penalties when such conduct involves victims younger than 14" (p. 15).
June 10, 2019, 8:03 a.m.
Countries: East Timor
Variables: LRW-LAW-1

"The age of consent is 14, according to the Penal Code. Some commercial sexual exploitation of children also occurred. The penal code makes sexual conduct by an adult with anyone below the age of 17 a crime, and increases penalties when such conduct involves victims younger than 14" (p. 15).
June 10, 2019, 8:03 a.m.
Countries: East Timor
Variables: DV-PRACTICE-1

"The PNTL’s Vulnerable Persons Units (VPUs) generally handled cases of domestic violence and sexual crimes, but does not have enough staff to provide a significant presence in all areas of the country. The Ministry of Social Solidarity is charged with providing assistance to victims of domestic violence. Due to staff shortages, the ministry had difficulty responding to all cases. To deal with this problem, the ministry worked closely with local NGOs and service providers to offer assistance to victims of violence" (p. 13).
June 10, 2019, 8:03 a.m.
Countries: East Timor
Variables: LRW-DATA-1, LRCM-DATA-1, DV-DATA-1

"A 2016 Asia Foundation study found that 59 percent of girls and women between 15 and 49 years old had experienced sexual or physical violence at the hands of an intimate partner and that 14 percent of girls and women had been raped by someone other than a partner" (p. 12).
June 10, 2019, 8:03 a.m.
Countries: East Timor
Variables: LBHO-PRACTICE-3

"Meaningful participation by women at the national and local levels, even when elected, is sometimes constrained by traditional attitudes and stereotypes" (p. 10).
June 10, 2019, 8:03 a.m.
Countries: East Timor
Variables: AFE-LAW-1

"The constitution stipulates that primary education shall be compulsory and free. The law requires nine years of compulsory education beginning at six years of age; however, there is no system to ensure that the provision of education is free" (p. 14).
June 10, 2019, 8:03 a.m.
Countries: East Timor
Variables: DV-LAW-2

"Penalties for 'Mistreatment of a Spouse' include two to six years imprisonment; however, prosecutors frequently used a different article in domestic violence cases ('Simple Offenses against Physical Integrity'), which carries a sentence of up to three years in prison" (p. 12).
June 10, 2019, 8:03 a.m.
Countries: East Timor
Variables: FSCB-PRACTICE-1

"There were no reports of coerced abortion, involuntary sterilization, or other coercive population control methods" (p. 13).
June 10, 2019, 8:03 a.m.
Countries: East Timor
Variables: GP-DATA-3

"Women held… only six out of 37 ministerial, vice-ministerial, and secretary of state positions" (p. 10).
June 10, 2019, 8:03 a.m.
Countries: East Timor
Variables: LBHO-DATA-1

"Women held 24 of the 65 seats in the National Parliament" (p. 10).
June 10, 2019, 8:03 a.m.
Countries: East Timor
Variables: TRAFF-LAW-1

"In February the government promulgated the Law on Preventing and Combating Human Trafficking to amend the criminal code, extending criminal liability for trafficking to “legal persons,” such as corporations. The new law prescribes fines, judicial dissolution, and asset forfeiture as penalties, and authorizes compensation of victims. The government coordinated implementation of a new national action plan through the Interagency Working Group to Combat Human Trafficking" (p. 18).
June 10, 2019, 8:03 a.m.
Countries: East Timor
Variables: LBHO-PRACTICE-1, LBHO-LAW-2

"Electoral laws require at least one-third of candidates on party lists be women" (p. 10).