The most comprehensive compilation of information on the status of
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Latest items for Egypt

Dec. 8, 2019, 5:18 p.m.
Countries: Egypt
Variables: ATDW-LAW-5

"Most Islamic countries, including Egypt, the United Arab Emirates, Pakistan and Bangladesh, have banned triple talaq, but the custom continued in India, which does not have a uniform set of laws on marriage and divorce that apply to every citizen" (para. 15).
Nov. 7, 2019, 6:16 p.m.
Countries: Egypt
Variables: LO-PRACTICE-1, LO-LAW-1

"The law makes it difficult for women to access formal credit. While the law allows women to own property, social and religious barriers strongly discouraged women’s ownership of land, a primary source of collateral in the banking system." (44).
Nov. 7, 2019, 6:16 p.m.
Countries: Egypt
Variables: CWC-DATA-3

"Media, NGOs, and UNHCR staff reported multiple cases of attacks against refugees, particularly women and children. According to UNHCR, refugees sometimes reported harassment, sexual harassment, and discrimination. Refugee women and girls, particularly sub- Saharan Africans, faced the greatest risk of societal, sexual, and gender-based violence." (32).
Nov. 7, 2019, 6:16 p.m.
Countries: Egypt
Variables: ATDW-PRACTICE-1

"'Khula' divorce allows a Muslim woman to obtain a divorce without her husband’s consent, provided she forgoes all her financial rights, including alimony, dowry, and other benefits. The Coptic Orthodox Church permits divorce only in rare circumstances, such as adultery or conversion of one spouse to another religion. Other Christian churches sometimes permitted divorce on a case-by-case basis." (43-44). "In marriage and divorce cases, a woman’s testimony must be judged credible to be admissible. Usually the woman accomplishes credibility by conveying her testimony through an adult male relative or representative. The law assumes a man’s testimony is credible unless proven otherwise." (44).
Nov. 7, 2019, 6:16 p.m.
Countries: Egypt
Variables: LBHO-PRACTICE-3

"No laws limit participation of women, members of minorities, or both in the political process, and they did participate. Social and cultural barriers, however, limited women’s political participation and leadership in most political parties and some government institutions." (38).
Nov. 7, 2019, 6:16 p.m.
Countries: Egypt
Variables: LRW-PRACTICE-2

"The Ministry of Social Solidarity supported eight women’s shelters. The Interior Ministry includes a unit responsible for combating sexual and gender-based violence." (42). "The government prioritized efforts to address sexual harassment. The penal code defines sexual harassment as a crime, with penalties including fines and sentences of six months to five years’ imprisonment if convicted. Media and NGOs reported that sexual harassment by police was also a problem, and the potential for further harassment further discouraged women from filing complaints." (42).
Nov. 7, 2019, 6:16 p.m.
Countries: Egypt
Variables: INFIB-LAW-1

"FGM/C is illegal, but it remained a serious problem...A 2016 amendment to the law designates FGM/C a felony, as opposed to a misdemeanor as it was previously, and assigns penalties for conviction of five to seven years’ imprisonment for practitioners who perform the procedure, or 15 years if the practice led to death or “permanent deformity.” The law granted exceptions in cases of “medical necessity,” which rights groups identified as a problematic loophole that allowed the practice to continue. According to international and local observers, the government did not effectively enforce the FGM/C law." (42).
Nov. 7, 2019, 6:16 p.m.
Countries: Egypt
Variables: ERBG-PRACTICE-2

"Labor laws provide for equal rates of pay for equal work for men and women in the public but not the private sector. Educated women had employment opportunities, but social pressure against women pursuing a career was strong. Large sectors of the economy controlled by the military excluded women from high-level positions." (44).
Nov. 7, 2019, 6:16 p.m.
Countries: Egypt
Variables: INFIB-DATA-2

"According to the 2015 Egypt Health Issues Survey, published during 2016 by the Ministry of Health and Population, 70 percent of girls between ages 15 and 19 had undergone FGM/C, a decrease from 81 percent in 2008." (42).
Nov. 7, 2019, 6:16 p.m.
Countries: Egypt
Variables: MARR-PRACTICE-6

"Laws affecting marriage and personal status generally corresponded to an individual’s religious group. A female Muslim citizen cannot legally marry a non- Muslim man. If she were to do so, authorities could charge her with adultery and consider her children illegitimate. Under the government’s interpretation of Islamic law, any children from such a marriage could be placed in the custody of a male Muslim guardian." (43). "The legal age of marriage is 18. According to UNICEF 17 percent of girls married before age 18, and 2 percent of girls were married by age 15. According to NCW statistics, nearly 36 percent of marriages in rural areas in the southern part...more
Nov. 7, 2019, 6:16 p.m.
Countries: Egypt
Variables: MURDER-PRACTICE-1, MURDER-LAW-1

"The law does not specifically address “honor” crimes, which authorities treated as any other crime. There were no reliable statistics regarding the incidence of killings and assaults motivated by “honor,” but local observers stated such killings occurred, particularly in rural areas." (42).
Nov. 7, 2019, 6:16 p.m.
Countries: Egypt
Variables: LBHO-DATA-1

"Voters elected a record number of 75 women, 36 Christians, and nine persons with disabilities to parliament during the 2015 elections, a substantial increase compared with the 2012 parliament...In 2015 the president appointed 28 additional members of parliament, including 14 women and two Christians." (38).
Nov. 7, 2019, 6:16 p.m.
Countries: Egypt
Variables: NGOFW-PRACTICE-1

"The government had agreed to but not yet scheduled dates for the visits of three special rapporteurs, including those responsible for violence against women; promotion of truth, justice, reparation, and provision for their nonrecurrence; and foreign debt." (41). "The Ministry of Social Solidarity supported eight women’s shelters. The Interior Ministry includes a unit responsible for combating sexual and gender-based violence. The NCW, a quasi-governmental body, was responsible for coordinating government and civil society efforts to empower women. In 2015 the NCW launched a five-year National Strategy to Combat Violence Against Women with four strategic objectives: prevention, protection, intervention, and prosecution." (42). "The government worked with NGOs to provide some assistance...more
Nov. 7, 2019, 6:16 p.m.
Countries: Egypt
Variables: PRN-LAW-1

"The law provides for sentences of not less than five years’ imprisonment and fines of up to EGP 200,000 ($11,315) for conviction of commercial sexual exploitation of children and child pornography. The government did not adequately enforce the law. The minimum age for consensual sex is age 18." (46).
Nov. 7, 2019, 6:16 p.m.
Countries: Egypt
Variables: ATDW-PRACTICE-2

"In marriage and divorce cases, a woman’s testimony must be judged credible to be admissible. Usually the woman accomplishes credibility by conveying her testimony through an adult male relative or representative. The law assumes a man’s testimony is credible unless proven otherwise." (44).
Nov. 7, 2019, 6:16 p.m.
Countries: Egypt
Variables: ERBG-PRACTICE-1

"Labor laws provide for equal rates of pay for equal work for men and women in the public but not the private sector. Educated women had employment opportunities, but social pressure against women pursuing a career was strong. Large sectors of the economy controlled by the military excluded women from high-level positions." (44). "The government did not effectively enforce prohibitions against such discrimination. Discrimination in employment and occupation occurred with respect to women and persons with disabilities..." (54).
Nov. 7, 2019, 6:16 p.m.
Countries: Egypt
Variables: DV-LAW-2

"The law requires that an assault victim produce multiple eyewitnesses, a difficult condition for domestic abuse victims." (42).
Nov. 7, 2019, 6:16 p.m.
Countries: Egypt
Variables: MARR-PRACTICE-5, MARR-LAW-4

"According to the law, a foreign man who wants to marry an Egyptian woman more than 25 years younger than he is must pay a fine of EGP 50,000 ($2,830)." (45-46).
Nov. 7, 2019, 6:16 p.m.
Countries: Egypt
Variables: INFIB-PRACTICE-1

"A 2016 amendment to the law designates FGM/C a felony, as opposed to a misdemeanor as it was previously, and assigns penalties for conviction of five to seven years’ imprisonment for practitioners who perform the procedure, or 15 years if the practice led to death or “permanent deformity.” The law granted exceptions in cases of “medical necessity,” which rights groups identified as a problematic loophole that allowed the practice to continue. According to international and local observers, the government did not effectively enforce the FGM/C law." (42).
Nov. 7, 2019, 6:16 p.m.
Countries: Egypt
Variables: LRW-PRACTICE-1

"Reported techniques included beatings with fists, whips, rifle butts, and other objects; prolonged suspension by the limbs from a ceiling or door; electric shocks; sexual assault; and attacks by dogs." (6). "Media, NGOs, and UNHCR staff reported multiple cases of attacks against refugees, particularly women and children. According to UNHCR, refugees sometimes reported harassment, sexual harassment, and discrimination. Refugee women and girls, particularly sub- Saharan Africans, faced the greatest risk of societal, sexual, and gender-based violence." (32). "The law prohibits rape, prescribing criminal penalties of 15 to 25 years’ imprisonment, or life imprisonment for cases of rape involving armed abduction. Spousal rape is not illegal. The government did not effectively...more
Nov. 7, 2019, 6:16 p.m.
Countries: Egypt
Variables: DTCP-PRACTICE-1

"Prison conditions for women were marginally better than those for men." (8). "Media and NGOs reported that sexual harassment by police was also a problem, and the potential for further harassment further discouraged women from filing complaints." (42).
Nov. 7, 2019, 6:16 p.m.
Countries: Egypt
Variables: LDS-PRACTICE-1

"The constitution states no work may be compulsory except by virtue of a law. Government did not effectively enforce the prohibition. Employers subjected male and female persons (including citizens) from South Asia, Southeast Asia, and Africa to forced labor in domestic service, construction, cleaning, begging, and other sectors. The government worked with NGOs to provide some assistance to victims of human trafficking, including forced labor." (53).
Nov. 7, 2019, 6:16 p.m.
Countries: Egypt
Variables: ABO-DATA-1

"There were no reports of coerced abortion, involuntary sterilization, or other coercive population control methods." (43).
Nov. 7, 2019, 6:16 p.m.
Countries: Egypt
Variables: GP-DATA-4

"Three women led four cabinet ministries; not all cabinet members hold portfolios." (34).
Nov. 7, 2019, 6:16 p.m.
Countries: Egypt
Variables: DV-PRACTICE-1, DV-LAW-1

"Domestic violence was a significant problem. The law does not prohibit domestic violence or spousal abuse, but authorities may apply provisions relating to assault with accompanying penalties. The law requires that an assault victim produce multiple eyewitnesses, a difficult condition for domestic abuse victims. Police often treated domestic violence as a social rather than criminal matter." (42).
Nov. 7, 2019, 6:16 p.m.
Countries: Egypt
Variables: LBHO-PRACTICE-1

"The House of Representatives law outlines the criteria for the electoral lists, which provides that the House of Representatives must include at least 56 women, 24 Christians, and nine persons with disabilities...If the president opts to use this authority, one-half of his appointments must be women, according to the law. Parliament included 89 women and 38 Christians." (38).
Nov. 7, 2019, 6:16 p.m.
Countries: Egypt
Variables: GP-DATA-6

"No women were on the Supreme Constitutional Court. Legal experts stated there were approximately 66 female judges serving in family, criminal, economic, appeals, and misdemeanor courts; that total was less than 1 percent of judges." (39).
Nov. 7, 2019, 6:16 p.m.
Countries: Egypt
Variables: NGOFW-DATA-1

"The Ministry of Social Solidarity supported eight women’s shelters. The Interior Ministry includes a unit responsible for combating sexual and gender-based violence. The NCW, a quasi-governmental body, was responsible for coordinating government and civil society efforts to empower women. In 2015 the NCW launched a five-year National Strategy to Combat Violence Against Women with four strategic objectives: prevention, protection, intervention, and prosecution." (42). "Women’s rights organizations argued that allowing foreign men to pay a fine to marry much younger women represented a form of trafficking and encouraged child marriage. They called on the government to eliminate the system altogether. The Antitrafficking Unit at the National Council for Childhood and Motherhood...more
Nov. 7, 2019, 6:16 p.m.
Countries: Egypt
Variables: LRW-LAW-1

"The law prohibits rape, prescribing criminal penalties of 15 to 25 years’ imprisonment, or life imprisonment for cases of rape involving armed abduction. Spousal rape is not illegal. The government did not effectively enforce the law. Civil society organizations reported police pressure not to pursue charges." (42). "The government prioritized efforts to address sexual harassment. The penal code defines sexual harassment as a crime, with penalties including fines and sentences of six months to five years’ imprisonment if convicted. Media and NGOs reported that sexual harassment by police was also a problem, and the potential for further harassment further discouraged women from filing complaints." (42). "On July 30, a Cairo...more
Nov. 7, 2019, 6:16 p.m.
Countries: Egypt
Variables: IAD-PRACTICE-1, IAD-LAW-1

"The law follows Islamic sharia in matters of inheritance; therefore, a Muslim female heir generally receives one-half the amount of a male heir’s inheritance, and Christian widows of Muslims have no inheritance rights. A sole Muslim female heir receives one-half her parents’ estate, and the balance goes to the siblings of the parents or the children of the siblings if the siblings are deceased. A sole male heir inherits his parents’ entire estate. A court case suing for the right of a Christian family to divide property equally among sons and daughters was pending appeal." (44).