The most comprehensive compilation of information on the status of
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Latest items for Egypt

Aug. 1, 2018, 2:44 p.m.
Countries: Egypt
Variables: LBHO-LAW-2

"The House of Representatives law outlines the criteria for the electoral lists which provided that the House of Representatives must include at least 56 women and 24 Christians" (33).
Aug. 1, 2018, 2:44 p.m.
Countries: Egypt
Variables: LRW-LAW-2

"The law prohibits rape, although the legal definition of rape covers only forced penetration of the female sexual organ by the male sexual organ, prescribing criminal penalties of 15 to 25 years’ imprisonment or life imprisonment for cases of rape involving armed abduction" (37).
Aug. 1, 2018, 2:44 p.m.
Countries: Egypt
Variables: EWCMS-LAW-2

"Authorities permitted women only to serve in the medical corps of the armed forces and excluded them from compulsory military service" (41).
Aug. 1, 2018, 2:44 p.m.
Countries: Egypt
Variables: AFE-LAW-1

"Education is compulsory, free, and universal until the ninth grade" (41).
Aug. 1, 2018, 2:44 p.m.
Countries: Egypt
Variables: ATDW-PRACTICE-1, ATDW-LAW-5

"'Khula' divorce allows a Muslim woman to obtain a divorce without her husband’s consent, provided she is willing to forgo all her financial rights, including alimony, dowry, and other benefits...A woman’s testimony is equal to that of a man in courts dealing with all matters except for personal status, such as marriage and divorce. In marriage and divorce cases, a woman’s testimony must be judged credible to be admissible. Usually the woman accomplishes this credibility by conveying her testimony through an adult male relative or representative. The law assumes a man’s testimony is credible unless proven otherwise" (40).
Aug. 1, 2018, 2:44 p.m.
Countries: Egypt
Variables: LRW-LAW-1

"The law prohibits rape, although the legal definition of rape covers only forced penetration of the female sexual organ by the male sexual organ…" (37). "Since 2014 the penal code has defined sexual harassment as a crime, with penalties including fines and sentences of six months to five years in prison" (39). "The minimum age for consensual sex is 18" (43).
Aug. 1, 2018, 2:44 p.m.
Countries: Egypt
Variables: DV-LAW-1

"The law does not prohibit domestic violence or spousal abuse, but authorities may apply provisions relating to assault with accompanying penalties" (37).
Aug. 1, 2018, 2:44 p.m.
Countries: Egypt
Variables: IAD-LAW-1

"A Muslim female heir receives half the amount of a male heir’s inheritance, and Christian widows of Muslims have no inheritance rights. A sole Muslim female heir receives half her parents’ estate, and the balance goes to the siblings of the parents or the children of the siblings if the siblings are deceased. A sole male heir, who is expected to provide for relatives, inherits his parents’ entire estate" (40).
Aug. 1, 2018, 2:44 p.m.
Countries: Egypt
Variables: TRAFF-LAW-1

"On December 8, the Ministry of Justice introduced measures intended to close legal loopholes and make tourism marriages more difficult to obtain. It changed an existing and long-standing system whereby a foreign man who wanted to marry an Egyptian woman more than 25 years younger than he is must pay a fine. The measure increased the fine from LE 40,000 ($5,200) to LE 50,000 ($6,500). Women’s rights organizations argued that allowing foreign men to pay a fine in order to marry much younger women represented a form of trafficking and encouraged child marriage. They called on the government to eliminate the system altogether" (42-43). "The law provides for sentences of...more
Aug. 1, 2018, 2:44 p.m.
Countries: Egypt
Variables: DV-DATA-1

"A local rights organization estimated that 45 percent of women were subjected to domestic violence" (37). "According to UNICEF at least 80 percent of children between 13 and17 years old were exposed to some form of violence (physical, emotional, or sexual)" (42).
Aug. 1, 2018, 2:44 p.m.
Countries: Egypt
Variables: TRAFF-PRACTICE-1, IRP-PRACTICE-1

"NGOs and local media reported sex tourism and the number of street children in Cairo and other metropolitan areas (where criminals sometimes sexually exploited children) remained high due to economic hardship. Temporary marriages were also sometimes used to mask sexual exploitation of children and child prostitution" (43). "According to government, NGO, and media reports, the number of street children in Cairo continued to increase in the face of deteriorating economic conditions. Such children were at greater risk of sexual exploitation or forced begging" (50).
Aug. 1, 2018, 2:44 p.m.
Countries: Egypt
Variables: LRCM-LAW-2

"Spousal rape is not illegal" (37).
Aug. 1, 2018, 2:44 p.m.
Countries: Egypt
Variables: CRPLB-PRACTICE-1

"According to the 2014 EDHS, 90 percent of mothers received at least some antenatal care from a trained provider, and 83 percent of mothers had at least four antenatal visits. A doctor or trained nurse/midwife assisted at the delivery of 92 percent of all births with 87 percent occurring in a health facility" (39).
Aug. 1, 2018, 2:44 p.m.
Countries: Egypt
Variables: IIP-PRACTICE-1

"Police officials reportedly forced unmarried young women, sometimes including those in their 30s, to present their father’s written permission to obtain a passport and to travel abroad, although this is not required by law" (27).
Aug. 1, 2018, 2:44 p.m.
Countries: Egypt
Variables: CLCW-PRACTICE-1

"Married Bahais and their children faced difficulties obtaining national identification cards because the government did not recognize Bahai marriages as legitimate" (26-27). "Police officials reportedly forced unmarried young women, sometimes including those in their 30s, to present their father’s written permission to obtain a passport and to travel abroad, although this is not required by law" (27).
Aug. 1, 2018, 2:44 p.m.
Countries: Egypt
Variables: MARR-LAW-5

"Laws affecting marriage and personal status generally corresponded to an individual’s religious group. For example, a female Muslim citizen cannot legally marry a non-Muslim man" (40).
Aug. 1, 2018, 2:44 p.m.
Countries: Egypt
Variables: CWC-DATA-3

"According to UNHCR, as of September there were approximately 188,000 refugees and asylum seekers in the country, coming mainly from Syria, Sudan, Iraq, and countries in the Horn of Africa...Reports of irregular movements of individuals, including asylum-seekers, and of detention of foreign nationals attempting to depart the country irregularly remained numerous, after a dramatic increase in 2013. Syrians represented the largest portion of this group, which also included Sudanese, Eritreans, Somalis, Ethiopians, and other Africans" (28). "According to UNHCR refugees reported harassment, sexual harassment, and discrimination. Refugee women and girls, particularly subSaharan Africans, faced significant societal, sexual, and gender-based violence" (30). "Refugees who found work took low-paying jobs in the...more
Aug. 1, 2018, 2:44 p.m.
Countries: Egypt
Variables: INFIB-DATA-2

"According to the 2014 Egypt Demographic and Health Survey (EDHS), published during the year by the Ministry of Health, the percentage of girls between 15 and 17 years old who had undergone FGM/C decreased to 60 percent, from 74 percent in 2008. According to the same survey, 92 percent of ever-married women between 15 and 49 years old had undergone FGM/C. The survey showed that 56 percent of mothers supported FGM/C, a decrease from 75 percent in 2000" (38).
Aug. 1, 2018, 2:44 p.m.
Countries: Egypt
Variables: GP-DATA-6

"No women were on the Supreme Constitutional Court (SCC). Legal experts said there were approximately 75 female judges, including 26 appointed during the year, with most serving in family courts; that total is less than 1 percent of judges" (33). "On September 1, the Ministry of Justice established a position of Assistant Minister for the Rights of the Woman and Child and filled it with a female judge" (38).
Aug. 1, 2018, 2:44 p.m.
Countries: Egypt
Variables: INFIB-PRACTICE-1

"The Ministry of Health prepared the EDHS in partnership with UN Population Fund, the UN Children’s Fund (UNICEF), and other international partners. On June 14, the government launched a new National Strategy for the Abandonment of FGM/C, led by the population ministry in partnership with the United Nations and other international partners. The law criminalizes FGM/C, except in cases of 'medical necessity,' with penalties of three months to two years in prison or a fine of LE 5,000 ($650). Rights groups pointed to the “medical necessity” exception as a problematic loophole that allowed the practice to continue. According to international and local observers, the government did not effectively enforce this...more
Aug. 1, 2018, 2:44 p.m.
Countries: Egypt
Variables: ISTD-PRACTICE-1

"The health care system provided anonymous counseling and testing for HIV, free adult and pediatric antiretroviral therapy, and support groups. Authorities paid insufficient attention to the specific needs of women and children, particularly in the areas of medical treatment, psychosocial support, and the prevention of mother-to-child transmission" (46).
Aug. 1, 2018, 2:44 p.m.
Countries: Egypt
Variables: TRAFF-DATA-1, IRP-DATA-2

"The Ministry of Social Solidarity estimated the number of street children to be 20,000, while civil society organizations estimated the number to be in the millions. Many were victims of violence and sexual abuse, including forced prostitution" (43).
Aug. 1, 2018, 2:44 p.m.
Countries: Egypt
Variables: DTCP-PRACTICE-1

"Prison conditions for women were marginally better than those for men" (7). "On May 24, the Giza Criminal Court sentenced Khaled Abdel Rahman Mohamed, a low-ranking police officer, to life imprisonment for raping a 16-year-old female detainee with mental disabilities at Imbaba Police Station in August 2014" (37). "The media and NGOs reported that sexual harassment by police was also a problem, and the potential for further harassment further discouraged women from filing complaints...There were reports of police forces sexually assaulting women during arrest. On March 26, a video circulated on social media of five police officers sexually assaulting and beating two women during a security raid in Daqahliya governorate....more
Aug. 1, 2018, 2:44 p.m.
Countries: Egypt
Variables: CONST-LAW-1

"The constitution also states 'no political activity may be practiced and no political parties may be formed on the basis of religion or discrimination based on gender, origin, or sectarian basis or geographic location'" (32). "The constitution states that all citizens 'are equal in rights, freedoms, and general duties without discrimination based on religion, belief, gender, origin, race, color, language, disability, social class, political or geographic affiliation, or any other reason.' Many aspects of the law discriminate against women and religious minorities, and the government did not effectively enforce prohibitions against such discrimination" (37). "The constitution provides for equal rights for male and female citizens" (40). "The law prohibits discrimination...more
Aug. 1, 2018, 2:44 p.m.
Countries: Egypt
Variables: TRAFF-PRACTICE-2

"The media reported some child marriages were temporary marriages intended to mask child prostitution. Families sometimes forced adolescent girls to marry wealthy foreign men in what were known locally as 'tourism' or 'summer' marriages for the purpose of sexual exploitation, prostitution, or forced labor. On December 8, the Ministry of Justice introduced measures intended to close legal loopholes and make tourism marriages more difficult to obtain. It changed an existing and long-standing system whereby a foreign man who wanted to marry an Egyptian woman more than 25 years younger than he is must pay a fine. The measure increased the fine from LE 40,000 ($5,200) to LE 50,000 ($6,500). Women’s...more
Aug. 1, 2018, 2:44 p.m.
Countries: Egypt
Variables: AOM-PRACTICE-1

"The media reported some child marriages were temporary marriages intended to mask child prostitution. Families sometimes forced adolescent girls to marry wealthy foreign men in what were known locally as 'tourism' or 'summer' marriages for the purpose of sexual exploitation, prostitution, or forced labor" (42).
Aug. 1, 2018, 2:44 p.m.
Countries: Egypt
Variables: ERBG-DATA-2

"According to the UN Development Program, women represented 23 percent of the labor force. According to the governmental Central Agency for Public Mobilization and Statistics, the female unemployment rate was more than 24 percent, compared with 9.8 percent for men" (41).
Aug. 1, 2018, 2:44 p.m.
Countries: Egypt
Variables: ERBG-LAW-2

"The constitution states all citizens 'are equal in rights, freedoms, and general duties without discrimination based on religion, belief, gender, origin, race, color, language, disability, social class, political or geographic affiliation, or any other reason'" (51).
Aug. 1, 2018, 2:44 p.m.
Countries: Egypt
Variables: LRW-PRACTICE-2

"Civil society organizations reported police pressure not to pursue charges and fear of societal reprisal actively discouraged women from going to police stations to report crimes, resulting in a very small number of cases being investigated or effectively prosecuted...Several NGOs offered counseling, legal aid, and other services to women who were victims of rape and domestic violence but operated under strained resources. The MOSS supported nine women’s shelters. The MOI includes a unit responsible for combating sexual and gender-based violence" (37). "The media and NGOs reported that sexual harassment by police was also a problem, and the potential for further harassment further discouraged women from filing complaints" (39).more
Aug. 1, 2018, 2:44 p.m.
Countries: Egypt
Variables: ERBG-DATA-1

"Labor laws provide for equal rates of pay for equal work for men and women in the public but not the private sector. In 2014 the World Economic Forum found that the country’s women received 78 percent of the income of their male counterparts--not of men in general" (41).