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Latest items for Iraq

May 16, 2019, 7:41 p.m.
Countries: Iraq
Variables: DV-PRACTICE-1

"Security forces made limited efforts to prevent or respond to societal violence. Although 16 famliy porection units, located in separate buildings at police stations around the country, operated under police authority to respond to claims of domestic ciolence made by women and children, they lacked sufficient capactiy. The most recent report detailing the units' work is from 2014" (11). "Domestic violence remained a pervasive problem, and there was no law prohibiting it" (40). "Several women reportedly refused to leave Basrah prisons after their sentences had concluded due to fear their families would harm them, or confine them to life-long home detention, because their actions had 'dishonored' the family" (42).more
May 16, 2019, 7:41 p.m.
Countries: Iraq
Variables: NGOFW-DATA-1

"According to the Turkmen Women's Association, ISIS militants kidnapped an estimated 500 Turkmen Shia women adn children from Ninewa Governorate in 2014, and 495 remained in captivity at year's end" (5). "KRG and independent sources stated the Yezidi Resistance Forces and Yezidi Women’s Protection Units’ militias employed Yezidi minors in paramilitary roles in Sinjar" (20). "NGOs played a key role in providing services, including legal aid, to victims of domestic violence, who often received no assistance from the government. Instead of using legal remedies, authorities frequently mediated between women and their families so that the women could return to their homes. Other than marrying or returning to their families, which...more
May 16, 2019, 7:41 p.m.
Countries: Iraq
Variables: LRW-LAW-1, LRW-LAW-2

"The law criminalizes rape (but not spousal rape) and permits a maximum sentence of life imprisonment if the victim dies" (39). "The law prohibits sexual relations outside marriage, including sexual harassment that is considered sexual solicitation. Penalties if convicted include fines and imprisonment. The law provides relief from penalties if unmarried participants marry" (42).
May 16, 2019, 7:41 p.m.
Countries: Iraq
Variables: LRCM-LAW-2

"The law criminalizes rape (but not spousal rape) and permits a maximum sentence of life imprisonment if the victim dies" (39). "KRG law criminalizes domestic violence, including physical and psychological abuse, threats of violence, and spousal rape" (41) KRG is the Kurdistan Regional Government (AMG-CODER COMMENT).
May 16, 2019, 7:41 p.m.
Countries: Iraq
Variables: MARR-LAW-1

The legal minimum age of marriage is 15 with parental permission and 18 without" (44).
May 16, 2019, 7:41 p.m.
Countries: Iraq
Variables: SUICIDE-PRACTICE-1

"The law permitted honor as a lawful defense in violence against women, and honor killings remained a serious problem throughout the country. Some families arranged honor killings to appear as suicides" (41).
May 16, 2019, 7:41 p.m.
Countries: Iraq
Variables: GEW-PRACTICE-1

"ISIS members committed acts of violence on a mass scale, including killings through suicide bombings and improvised explosive devices (IEDs); executions including shootings and public beheadings; use of civilians as human shields; as well as use of chemical weapons. They also engaged in kidnapping, rape, enslavement, forced marriage, and sexual violence, committing such acts against civilians from a wide variety of religious and ethnic backgrounds, including Shia, Sunnis, Kurds, Christians, Yezidis, and members of other religious and ethnic groups" (2). "According to the KRG Ministry of Endowments and Religious Affairs, authorities rescued more than 3,100 kidnapped Yezidi men, women, and children from ISIS; however, authorities believed another 3,293 Yezidis, mainly...more
May 16, 2019, 7:41 p.m.
Countries: Iraq
Variables: IIP-PRACTICE-1

"Law and custom generally do not respect freedom of movement for women. For example, the law prevents a woman from applying for a passport without the consent of her male guardian or a legal representative. Women could not obtain the Civil Status Identification Document, required for access to public services, food assistance, health care, employment, education, and housing, without the consent of a male relative. This restriction affected women in conflict, according to local NGOs. In ISIS-controlled areas, ISIS forces reportedly forbade women from leaving their homes unless male relatives escorted them. ISIS also prevented professional women from returning to work, with the exception of medical workers and teachers. The...more
May 16, 2019, 7:41 p.m.
Countries: Iraq
Variables: AOM-LAW-1

"The legal minimum age of marriage is 15 with parental permission and 18 without" (44).
May 16, 2019, 7:41 p.m.
Countries: Iraq
Variables: AFE-PRACTICE-3

"ISIS limited female education beyond the primary level in areas that it controlled" (26). "Primary education is compulsory for citizen children for the first six years of schooling and until age 15 in the IKR; it is provided without cost to citizens" (43).
May 16, 2019, 7:41 p.m.
Countries: Iraq
Variables: LRW-PRACTICE-2

"In most areas there were few or no publicly provided women’s shelters, information, support hotlines, and little or no sensitivity training for police. In the absence of shelters, authorities often detained or imprisoned sexual harassment victims for their own protection. Some women, without alternatives, became homeless" (42).
May 16, 2019, 7:41 p.m.
Countries: Iraq
Variables: MARR-PRACTICE-1

"ISIS members committed acts of violence on a mass scale, including killings through suicide bombings and improvised explosive devices (IEDs); executions including shootings and public beheadings; use of civilians as human shields; as well as use of chemical weapons. They also engaged in kidnapping, rape, enslavement, forced marriage, and sexual violence, committing such acts against civilians from a wide variety of religious and ethnic backgrounds, including Shia, Sunnis, Kurds, Christians, Yezidis, and members of other religious and ethnic groups" (2). "Local NGOs reported that abuse of Syrian refugees, often by other refugees, was common, including violence against women and children, child marriage, forced prostitution, and sexual harassment" (28). "Due to...more
May 16, 2019, 7:41 p.m.
Countries: Iraq
Variables: TRAFF-PRACTICE-1

"Reports of ISIS perpetrating gender-based violence, recruiting child soldiers, trafficking in persons, and destroying civilian infrastructure and cultural heritage sites were credible and common" (2). "ISIS reportedly detained children in schools, prisons, and airports, and separated girls from their families to sell them in ISIS-controlled areas for sexual slavery" (19). "Local NGOs reported that abuse of Syrian refugees, often by other refugees, was common, including violence against women and children, child marriage, forced prostitution, and sexual harassment" (28). "Due to continuing ISIS-perpetrated violence, women’s status suffered severe setbacks (see also section 1.g.). During the year ISIS kidnapped women and girls to sell, rent, or gift them as forced “brides” (a...more
May 16, 2019, 7:41 p.m.
Countries: Iraq
Variables: SEGI-PRACTICE-3

"ISIS imposed severe restrictions on women’s movement and dress in areas it controlled" (42).
May 16, 2019, 7:41 p.m.
Countries: Iraq
Variables: SEGI-PRACTICE-2

"While the government does not have a law that explicitly prohibits NGO-run shelters for victims of gender based crimes, the law allows the Ministry of Labor and Social Affairs to determine if a shelter may remain open. NGOs reported that communities often viewed the shelters as brothels and asked the government to close them. In order to appease community concerns, the ministry regularly closed shelters, only to allow them to reopen in another location later" (40).
May 16, 2019, 7:41 p.m.
Countries: Iraq
Variables: GP-DATA-5

"The Ministry of Interior maintained 16 family protection units around the country, designed to resolve domestic disputes and establish safe refuges for victims of sexual or gender-based violence. These units tended to prioritize family reconciliation over victim protection and lacked the capacity to support victims. Hotline calls typically went to the male commanders of the units who did not follow a regular referral system to provide victims with services, such as legal aid or safe shelter" (41).
May 16, 2019, 7:41 p.m.
Countries: Iraq
Variables: TRAFF-PRACTICE-2

"ISIS reportedly detained children in schools, prisons, and airports, and separated girls from their families to sell them in ISIS-controlled areas for sexual slavery" (19). "Due to continuing ISIS-perpetrated violence, women’s status suffered severe setbacks. During the year ISIS kidnapped women and girls to sell, rent, or gift them as forced 'brides' (a euphemism for forced marriage or sexual slavery) to ISIS fighters and commanders, and exploited the promise of sexual access in propaganda materials as part of its recruitment strategy. Space was limited, and service delivery was poor." (40).
May 16, 2019, 7:41 p.m.
Countries: Iraq
Variables: CWC-DATA-2

"The IKR’s Family Violence Law bans FGM/C, but NGOs reported the practice persisted, particularly in rural areas" (41). "Primary education is compulsory for citizen children for the first six years of schooling and until age 15 in the IKR; it is provided without cost to citizens. Equal access to education for girls remained a challenge, particularly in rural and unsecure areas" (43). "The legal minimum age of marriage is 15 with parental permission and 18 without. The government reportedly made few efforts to enforce the law. Traditional forced marriages of girls occurred throughout the country. According to UNICEF in 2016, approximately 975,000 women and girls had been married before age...more
May 16, 2019, 7:41 p.m.
Countries: Iraq
Variables: LRW-LAW-4

"In most areas there were few or no publicly provided women’s shelters, information, support hotlines, and little or no sensitivity training for police. In the absence of shelters, authorities often detained or imprisoned sexual harassment victims for the
May 16, 2019, 7:41 p.m.
Countries: Iraq
Variables: MURDER-LAW-1

"A provision of the law limits a sentence for conviction of murder to a maximum of three years in prison if a man is on trial for killing his wife or a female dependent due to suspicion that the victim was committing adultery' (41).
May 16, 2019, 7:41 p.m.
Countries: Iraq
Variables: CLCC-LAW-1

"The constitution states that anyone born to at least one citizen parent is a citizen" (43).
May 16, 2019, 7:41 p.m.
Countries: Iraq
Variables: AOM-PRACTICE-1

"The legal minimum age of marriage is 15 with parental permission and 18 without. The government reportedly made few efforts to enforce the law" (44). "Local and international NGOs reported that the practice of husbands or their families threatening to divorce wives they married when the girls were very young (ages 12 to 16) to pressure the girl’s family to provide additional money to the girl’s husband and his family also occurred, particularly in the south" (44).
May 16, 2019, 7:41 p.m.
Countries: Iraq
Variables: LBHO-LAW-1

"No laws limit participation of women, members of minorities in, or both in the political process, and they did participate" (35).
May 16, 2019, 7:41 p.m.
Countries: Iraq
Variables: INFIB-PRACTICE-1

"The IKR’s Family Violence Law bans FGM/C, but NGOs reported the practice persisted, particularly in rural areas" (41).
May 16, 2019, 7:41 p.m.
Countries: Iraq
Variables: AFE-LAW-1

"ISIS limited female education beyond the primary level in areas that it controlled" (26).
May 16, 2019, 7:41 p.m.
Countries: Iraq
Variables: CONST-LAW-1

"Although the constitution forbids discrimination based on gender, conservative societal standards impeded women’s ability to enjoy the same legal status and rights as men in all aspects of the judicial system" (42). "The constitution provides that all citizens are equal before the law without regard to gender, sect, opinion, belief, nationality, or origin" (51).
May 16, 2019, 7:41 p.m.
Countries: Iraq
Variables: LBHO-PRACTICE-1

"No laws limit participation of women, members of minorities in, or both in the political process, and they did participate" (35). "Despite an increase in the number of female parliamentarians, political discussions often marginalized female members of parliament" (35).
May 16, 2019, 7:41 p.m.
Countries: Iraq
Variables: ATC-DATA-5

"NGOs reported that the government made minimal progress in implementing UN Security Council Resolution 1325 on women, peace, and security despite an implementation plan launched in 2016" (41).
May 16, 2019, 7:41 p.m.
Countries: Iraq
Variables: AOM-DATA-2

"According to UNICEF in 2016, approximately 975,000 women and girls had been married before age 15, twice as many as in 1990" (44).
May 16, 2019, 7:41 p.m.
Countries: Iraq
Variables: PRN-LAW-1

"The law prohibits producing, importing, publishing, or possessing written material, drawings, photographs, or films that violate public integrity or decency" (24).