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Latest items for Montenegro

June 11, 2019, 9:13 a.m.
Countries: Montenegro
Variables: ATFPA-PRACTICE-2

"All property acquired during marriage is joint property" (Pg 26). "Traditional patriarchal ideas of gender, according to which women should be subservient to male members of their families, resulted in continued discrimination against women in the home. Less educated women or those living in rural areas often encountered attitudes and stereotypes that perpetuated their subordinate position in the family and society" (Pg 26).
June 11, 2019, 9:13 a.m.
Countries: Montenegro
Variables: CWC-DATA-2

"Traditional patriarchal ideas of gender, according to which women should be subservient to male members of their families, resulted in continued discrimination against women in the home. Less educated women or those living in rural areas often encountered attitudes and stereotypes that perpetuated their subordinate position in the family and society" (Pg 26).
June 11, 2019, 9:13 a.m.
Countries: Montenegro
Variables: LRW-PRACTICE-1, LRW-LAW-2

"Rape and Domestic Violence: These acts are illegal. In most cases the penalty for rape, including spousal rape, is one to 10 years in prison. When the victim is younger than 14, suffers serious bodily injury, or is the victim of several perpetrators, punishment may be more severe. Imposed sentences were generally lenient, the average being three years" (Pg 24).
June 11, 2019, 9:13 a.m.
Countries: Montenegro
Variables: CONST-LAW-1

"The constitution and law prohibit discrimination based on race, sexual orientation, gender, disability, language, and social status" (Pg 23).
June 11, 2019, 9:13 a.m.
Countries: Montenegro
Variables: ERBG-PRACTICE-3

Widespread discriminatory cultural norms prevented women from participating equally in all areas of social development and generally discouraged them from seeking work outside the home. Employers at times violated women’s entitlement to a 40-hour workweek, overtime, paid leave, and maternity leave. Societal expectations regarding women’s obligations toward the family adversely affected their opportunities to obtain jobs and advance in the workplace (also see section 7.d.) (Pg 26). "Women were at times subject to discrimination based on their marital status, pregnancy, and physical appearance. Employers did not respect all of their legal obligations toward pregnant women, and sometimes reduced their responsibilities or fired them after they returned from maternity leave. A...more
June 11, 2019, 9:13 a.m.
Countries: Montenegro
Variables: AOM-LAW-1

"The minimum legal age for marriage is 18 in most cases, but persons as young as 16 may marry with the consent of a court if it finds them mentally and physically fit for marriage" (Pg 29).
June 11, 2019, 9:13 a.m.
Countries: Montenegro
Variables: LR-DATA-1

"In the Romani, Ashkali, and Balkan Egyptian communities, traditional values, societal prejudice, and a tendency to leave school prematurely limited educational opportunities for women. Due to poor education and harsh living conditions, Romani women seldom visited gynecologists or obstetricians, with negative consequences for their health and for infant mortality rates. According to Romani NGOs, one-half of Romani women between the ages of 15 and 24 were illiterate. Romani women often noted that they faced double discrimination based on their gender and ethnicity" (Pg 26).
June 11, 2019, 9:13 a.m.
Countries: Montenegro
Variables: IRP-LAW-1, IRP-DATA-2

"The age of sexual consent is 18. There is a statutory rape law. Sexual activity with a juvenile carries a prison sentence of up to three years. Paying a juvenile for sexual activity carries a prison term of three months to five years. Authorities may fine or imprison for one to 10 years any person found guilty of inducing a minor into prostitution. Romani child beggars were at risk of sex trafficking. According to a survey of Roma conducted in Podgorica and Berane in April 2014 by the NGO Montenegrin Women’s Lobby, 71 percent of respondents knew of prostitution cases involving minor Romani girls" (Pg 29).
June 11, 2019, 9:13 a.m.
Countries: Montenegro
Variables: AFE-PRACTICE-1

"In the Romani, Ashkali, and Balkan Egyptian communities, traditional values, societal prejudice, and a tendency to leave school prematurely limited educational opportunities for women. Due to poor education and harsh living conditions, Romani women seldom visited gynecologists or obstetricians, with negative consequences for their health and for infant mortality rates. According to Romani NGOs, one-half of Romani women between the ages of 15 and 24 were illiterate. Romani women often noted that they faced double discrimination based on their gender and ethnicity" (Pg 26). "Girls were more likely than boys to leave primary school. Many parents did not want their children, particularly girls, to go to school, preferring that they...more
June 11, 2019, 9:13 a.m.
Countries: Montenegro
Variables: AOM-PRACTICE-1

"Child marriage was a serious problem, particularly in the Romani and Balkan Egyptian communities" (Pg 29).
June 11, 2019, 9:13 a.m.
Countries: Montenegro
Variables: LRW-LAW-1

"Rape and Domestic Violence: These acts are illegal. In most cases the penalty for rape, including spousal rape, is one to 10 years in prison. When the victim is younger than 14, suffers serious bodily injury, or is the victim of several perpetrators, punishment may be more severe. Imposed sentences were generally lenient, the average being three years" (Pg 24). "The age of sexual consent is 18. There is a statutory rape law. Sexual activity with a juvenile carries a prison sentence of up to three years. Paying a juvenile for sexual activity carries a prison term of three months to five years. Authorities may fine or imprison for one...more
June 11, 2019, 9:13 a.m.
Countries: Montenegro
Variables: DACH-PRACTICE-2

"Reproductive Rights: The government recognized the right of couples and individuals to decide freely the number and timing of their children, to manage their reproductive health, and to have the information and means to do so, free from discrimination, coercion, and violence. Romani women generally had the least access to family planning counseling and gynecological services, since many of them rarely saw doctors" (Pg 25).
June 11, 2019, 9:13 a.m.
Countries: Montenegro
Variables: DV-LAW-1, DV-LAW-2

"Domestic violence is generally punishable by a fine or a one-year prison sentence. In cases of serious bodily injury or violence against children, punishment ranges from one to five years in prison. If the violence results in death, punishment can be up to 12 years in prison" (Pg 24).
June 11, 2019, 9:13 a.m.
Countries: Montenegro
Variables: ISSA-PRACTICE-1, ISSA-LAW-1, ISSA-DATA-1

"Although it is illegal, medical professionals noted that selective sex selection took place, resulting in a boy-to-girl birth ratio of 110:100. The government did not actively address the problem" (Pg 27).
June 11, 2019, 9:13 a.m.
Countries: Montenegro
Variables: ATDW-LAW-1

"The NGO SOS noted that it was often difficult for women to defend their property rights in divorce proceedings due to the widespread belief that the property belongs to the man. In inheritance traditions there were instances of women ceding their property and inheritance rights to men, but this practice continued to decline. A consequence of these factors was that men tended to be favored in the distribution of property ownership" (Pg 26).
June 11, 2019, 9:13 a.m.
Countries: Montenegro
Variables: DV-PRACTICE-1, DV-PRACTICE-2, NGOFW-PRACTICE-1, NGOFW-DATA-1

"Domestic violence was a persistent and common problem. In a September statement, the resident representative of the UN Development Program voiced concern that every third woman in the country was a victim of physical or some other form of family abuse at some point in her life. According to the Center for Women’s Rights, abused women or victims of rape often did not report the crime due to fear of reprisal, economic dependency, lack of information, physical and social subjugation, lack of measures to prevent reoccurrence, or social stigma. In many cases victims declined to press charges even when evidence of an attack or rape was clear. According to NGO...more
June 11, 2019, 9:13 a.m.
Countries: Montenegro
Variables: MARR-PRACTICE-1, MARR-LAW-1

"The minimum legal age for marriage is 18 in most cases, but persons as young as 16 may marry with the consent of a court if it finds them mentally and physically fit for marriage. Child marriage was a serious problem, particularly in the Romani and Balkan Egyptian communities. According to a survey by the NGO Center for Roma Initiatives, 70 per cent of the Romani population aged 12-18 entered into arranged marriages. Authorities considered such common law marriages illegal. Punishment for arranging forced marriages ranges from six months to five years in prison. Romani NGOs claimed that families paid dowries of 4,000 to 15,000 euros ($4,400 to $16,500) for...more
June 11, 2019, 9:13 a.m.
Countries: Montenegro
Variables: AFE-LAW-1

"The law provides free elementary education for all children. Secondary education is free but not compulsory" (Pg 27).
June 11, 2019, 9:13 a.m.
Countries: Montenegro
Variables: SEGI-PRACTICE-1

"The government conducted a campaign to prevent discrimination against women and strengthen women’s political participation. The parliamentary committee on gender equality and the Center for Feminist Culture NGO also ran a campaign on curbing violence against women through the establishment of support groups" (Pg 27).
June 11, 2019, 9:13 a.m.
Countries: Montenegro
Variables: IIP-PRACTICE-2

"According to the Center for Women’s Rights, sexual harassment of women occurred often, but few women reported it. Public awareness of the problem remained low. Victims hesitated to report harassment due to fear of employer reprisals and a lack of information about legal remedies" (Pg 25).
June 11, 2019, 9:13 a.m.
Countries: Montenegro
Variables: MARR-PRACTICE-5

"Authorities considered such common law marriages illegal. Punishment for arranging forced marriages ranges from six months to five years in prison. Romani NGOs claimed that families paid dowries of 4,000 to 15,000 euros ($4,400 to $16,500) for child brides. NGOs reported that parents of some girls sold them into marriage, including to foreigners. The custom of buying or selling virgin brides continued in the Romani, Ashkali, and Balkan Egyptian communities; grooms reportedly paid between 1,000 to 10,000 euros ($1,100 to $11,000). The government implemented measures to prevent underage marriage, including enforcing mandatory school education and prosecuting persons who arranged early marriages. During the first nine months of the year, courts...more
June 11, 2019, 9:13 a.m.
Countries: Montenegro
Variables: ERBG-PRACTICE-1

"Widespread discriminatory cultural norms prevented women from participating equally in all areas of social development and generally discouraged them from seeking work outside the home. Employers at times violated women’s entitlement to a 40-hour workweek, overtime, paid leave, and maternity leave. Societal expectations regarding women’s obligations toward the family adversely affected their opportunities to obtain jobs and advance in the workplace (also see section 7.d.)" (Pg 26). "Women were at times subject to discrimination based on their marital status, pregnancy, and physical appearance. Employers did not respect all of their legal obligations toward pregnant women, and sometimes reduced their responsibilities or fired them after they returned from maternity leave. A...more
May 21, 2019, 9:35 p.m.
Countries: Montenegro
Variables: MARR-PRACTICE-7

A woman in Montenegro can legally choose where she lives in the same way as a man (115).
May 21, 2019, 9:35 p.m.
Countries: Montenegro
Variables: AFE-LAW-1

Primary education in Montenegro is free and compulsory (115).
May 21, 2019, 9:35 p.m.
Countries: Montenegro
Variables: ATFPA-LAW-1

In Montenegro, there is no legislation designating head of household status (115).
May 21, 2019, 9:35 p.m.
Countries: Montenegro
Variables: GIC-LAW-3

There is paid maternity leave available to women in Montenegro of at least 14 weeks. Women receive at least 2/3 of their wages for the duration of their maternity leave. The government pays for 100% of maternity leave benefits. There is paid parental leave. Mothers are guaranteed an equivalent position after returning to work from maternity leave. The government supports or provides childcare services. Childcare payments are not tax deductible (115). Parents in Montenegro are able to work flexibly (115). Working flexibly, such as working from home or taking partial days off to care for children, could be considered a childcare benefit (EJ-CODER COMMENT).
May 21, 2019, 9:35 p.m.
Countries: Montenegro
Variables: CLCW-LAW-2

A woman in Montenegro can legally apply for a passport in the same way as a man (115). A woman in Montenegro can legally travel outside of the country in the same way as a man (115).
May 21, 2019, 9:35 p.m.
Countries: Montenegro
Variables: MULV-LAW-1

The government of Montenegro provides for valuation of nonmonetary contributions, such as staying at home to take care of children or other dependents (115).
May 21, 2019, 9:35 p.m.
Countries: Montenegro
Variables: GP-DATA-5

Montenegrin law establishes an anti-discrimination commission (115).
May 21, 2019, 9:35 p.m.
Countries: Montenegro
Variables: DV-LAW-1

There is legislation specifically addressing domestic violence in Montenegro (115).