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Latest items for Nepal

Dec. 8, 2019, 5:09 p.m.
Countries: Nepal
Variables: CRPLB-PRACTICE-1

"Our hospital-based study is focused on women who gave birth in health facilities in Nepal, and this sample is selective and might not be representative of all births nationally, as 57% of all live births in five years preceding the 2016 DHS took place in a health facility" (8).
Dec. 8, 2019, 5:09 p.m.
Countries: Nepal
Variables: ISSA-PRACTICE-1

"In Nepal, son preference has been documented, but it has primarily manifested in women’s contraceptive use and preferential care for male children, including more and higher quality food and better medical care, consistent with the ‘femineglect’ in health and education seen elsewhere in Asia" (2). "Though sex-determination tests and sex-selective abortion are illegal in Nepal, punishable by imprisonment from 3 months to 6 months, evidence suggests that it does occur. Abortion providers report difficulty ascertaining whether families are seeking abortion for sex-selection purposes and fear that women will resort to unsafe abortion if they are under pressure to bear sons but unable to access safe abortion services. A comparison of...more
Dec. 8, 2019, 5:09 p.m.
Countries: Nepal
Variables: ISSA-LAW-1

"Though sex-determination tests and sex-selective abortion are illegal in Nepal, punishable by imprisonment from 3 months to 6 months, evidence suggests that it does occur" (2).
Dec. 8, 2019, 5:09 p.m.
Countries: Nepal
Variables: ISSA-DATA-1

"The marginalised status of women, coupled with increasing access to sex-selection technology and lack or weak enforcement of the law is further skewing SRBs in Nepal" (9).
Dec. 8, 2019, 5:09 p.m.
Countries: Nepal
Variables: ISSA-DATA-2

"The biological ratio is 105, and according to Nepal census 2011, the SRB for Nepal is 107.24. The ratio of births at the study hospitals is substantially higher than either the biological ratio or the national average. We observe the highest SRB at Western Regional and Bharatpur hospital, with the ratio of 121 and 120 male births per 100 female births, respectively. The SRB in our overall sample is also significantly higher than the national average of 107—we find that 117 male births took place in the study hospitals for every 100 female births" (3-4).
Oct. 18, 2019, 3:05 p.m.
Countries: Afghanistan, Albania, Algeria, Angola, Argentina, Australia, Austria, Belarus, Bulgaria, Burundi, Cameroon, Canada, Denmark, Djibouti, Dominican Republic, East Timor, Ecuador, El Salvador, Estonia, Ethiopia, France, Germany, Guyana, Iceland, Iraq, Italy, Kazakhstan, Laos, Latvia, Macedonia, Moldova, Mozambique, Nepal, Netherlands, Peru, Philippines, Poland, Portugal, Serbia, South Sudan, Suriname, Switzerland, Tanzania, Trinidad/Tobago, Tunisia, Uganda, United Kingdom, Vietnam, Zimbabwe
Variables: GP-SCALE-2

1.0
Oct. 18, 2019, 12:59 p.m.
Countries: Angola, Bahamas, Benin, Burundi, Cambodia, Cameroon, Congo, D R Congo, Eritrea, Ethiopia, Guinea-Bissau, Iceland, Laos, Madagascar, Malawi, Mozambique, Nepal, Niger, North Korea, Peru, Rwanda, South Sudan, Tanzania, Togo, Uganda, Vietnam, Zambia, Zimbabwe
Variables: ERBG-SCALE-1

0.0
Oct. 16, 2019, 10:40 a.m.
Countries: Nepal
Variables: TRAFF-PRACTICE-1

"The 2007 HTTCA criminalized some forms of sex trafficking and labor trafficking. The HTTCA criminalized slavery and bonded labor, but did not criminalize the recruitment, transportation, harboring, or receipt of persons by force, fraud, or coercion for the purpose of forced labor. It criminalized sex trafficking but, inconsistent with international law, required a demonstration of force, fraud, or coercion to constitute a child sex trafficking offense, and therefore did not criminalize all forms of child sex trafficking. Prescribed penalties range from 10 to 20 years’ imprisonment and a fine, which were sufficiently stringent and, with respect to sex trafficking, commensurate with those prescribed for other serious crimes, such as rape....more
Oct. 16, 2019, 10:37 a.m.
Countries: Nepal
Variables: TRAFF-PRACTICE-2

"As reported over the past five years, human traffickers exploit domestic and foreign victims in Nepal, and traffickers exploit victims from Nepal abroad. Traffickers exploit Nepali women and girls in sex trafficking and domestic servitude in Nepal; India; the Middle East, especially Gulf countries; Asia, and East Africa, including Kenya. Traffickers subject Nepali men, women, and children to forced labor in Nepal; India; the Middle East; Asia, including Malaysia and Japan; and Europe, including Portugal; on farms and in construction, factories, mines, domestic work, begging, and the adult entertainment industry. Some manpower agencies and individual agents engage in fraudulent recruitment practices and impose high fees to facilitate forced labor. Unregistered...more
Oct. 16, 2019, 10:37 a.m.
Countries: Nepal
Variables: TRAFF-PRACTICE-1

"The Government of Nepal does not fully meet the minimum standards for the elimination of trafficking but is making significant efforts to do so. The government demonstrated overall increasing efforts compared to the previous reporting period; therefore Nepal remained on Tier 2. These efforts included identifying significantly more male trafficking victims than in previous years and creating and funding a law enforcement bureau dedicated solely to human trafficking crimes—the Anti-Trafficking-in-Persons Bureau (Anti-TIP Bureau). However, the government did not meet the minimum standards in several key areas. Its laws do not criminalize all forms of forced labor and sex trafficking, and despite a large number of Nepali male trafficking victims overseas,...more
Oct. 16, 2019, 10:36 a.m.
Countries: Nepal
Variables: TRAFF-DATA-1

"Authorities did not systematically track the total number of victims identified, but NPWC reported identifying 546 victims connected to the 313 trafficking investigations, an increase from 368 victims identified the previous fiscal year. Of NPWC’s 546 identified victims, suspected traffickers subjected 106 victims to sex trafficking and 209 to labor trafficking; reports did not specify the type of trafficking for the other 231 victims. The 546 victims included 180 victims younger than age 18 and 119 males identified in three cases—a significant increase from the past year, when officials identified only four male victims. NPWC did not disaggregate domestic versus transnational trafficking. From April to December 2018, CIB identified an...more
Sept. 20, 2019, 10:37 a.m.
Countries: Albania, Algeria, Angola, Armenia, Azerbaijan, Bahamas, Barbados, Belarus, Belize, Benin, Bhutan, Bolivia, Botswana, Brazil, Burkina Faso, Cambodia, China, Comoros, Cuba, Dominican Republic, East Timor, Ecuador, Equatorial Guinea, Ethiopia, Fiji, Georgia, Ghana, Indonesia, Israel, Jamaica, Kazakhstan, Kosovo, Kyrgyzstan, Laos, Lebanon, Libya, Lithuania, Madagascar, Malaysia, Mongolia, Mozambique, Namibia, Nepal, Nicaragua, Panama, Paraguay, Philippines, Rwanda, Sierra Leone, Singapore, Suriname, Trinidad/Tobago, Turkey, Turkmenistan, Uganda, United States, Uruguay, Uzbekistan, Vanuatu, Venezuela, Vietnam, Zambia
Variables: MULTIVAR-SCALE-1

3.0
Aug. 3, 2019, 6:17 p.m.
Countries: Nepal
Variables: PW-LAW-1, PW-DATA-1

"Although, according to the Chapter on marriage of the Country Code, polygamy is a crime punished by law, it is still widely practiced. Moreover, the law does not invalidate the second marriage itself and allows men to take a second wife under special circumstances. Section 10 of the Country Code states that the second marriage of a man may be recognized if he copes with the provisions set by the law" (para 23)
Aug. 3, 2019, 6:15 p.m.
Countries: Nepal
Variables: IAW-LAW-1, IAD-LAW-1

"Although Article 20(1) of the Constitution states that women are not to be discriminated against on the basis of gender, the Country Code still contains discriminatory provisions as to inheritance and property. For instance, married daughters are not considered in the succession line and unmarried daughters can dispose of only 50 percent of their immovable property on will, while they need the consent of a male guardian for the disposal of the remaining 50 percent. Moreover, a daughter has the right to her mother’s exclusive property only if her father and brother are not alive. Despite Article 20(4) of the Constitution states that sons and daughters have equal rights to...more
Aug. 3, 2019, 6:12 p.m.
Countries: Nepal
Variables: IAW-PRACTICE-1, IAD-PRACTICE-1

"In spite of the cultural differences across the various ethnic and religious groups, generally land passes from father to son in almost all communities. Hindu practices follow patrilineal descent and patrifocal residence systems. Property holders, either the holders of tenancies or the owners of land, are normally patrilineal segments, comprising two or three generations. In most communities, women do not inherit land. When a man dies, his assets are taken over by his brothers - if he has no son, or if his son is not of age - leaving his widow dependent on his patrilineage. Some cultures, however, allow women to inherit land, although they are expected to hold...more
July 19, 2019, 12:22 p.m.
Countries: Nepal
Variables: AFE-LAW-1

"The constitution makes basic primary education free and compulsory nationwide. The 2016 Education Act divides the education system into Basic Education (Early Childhood Development and grades one to eight), which is free and compulsory, and Secondary Education (grades nine to 12), which is free but not compulsory. The government reported that during the 2015-16 school year 96.6 percent of school-age children attended primary schools with gender parity" (Pg 28).
July 19, 2019, 12:22 p.m.
Countries: Nepal
Variables: CLCC-LAW-1

"The constitution does not allow women to convey citizenship to their children independent of the citizenship of the child’s father (see section 2.d.) and has no specific provision for naturalization of foreign husbands married to Nepali wives. According to the constitution, citizenship is derived from one Nepali parent, but a child born to a Nepali woman and a foreign citizen father may obtain citizenship only through naturalization. The constitution also states that children of unknown fathers may obtain citizenship through their mothers. Despite a 2011 Supreme Court decision that permits applicants to seek citizenship through either their father or mother, in practice many have been denied citizenship due to lack...more
July 19, 2019, 12:22 p.m.
Countries: Nepal
Variables: WR-PRACTICE-2, IAD-PRACTICE-1, IAD-LAW-1

"Dalit women in particular faced discrimination by virtue of their gender and caste status. The law grants women equal shares of their parents’ inheritance and the right to keep their property after marriage, but many women were not aware of their rights, and others were afraid to challenge existing practice. The law also grants widows complete access and authority to the estate of their deceased husbands; however, traditional attitudes stigmatizing and shunning widows persisted, and communities often ignored the law, while the government did not take sufficient measures to enforce it" (Pg 28).
July 19, 2019, 12:22 p.m.
Countries: Nepal
Variables: ISTD-PRACTICE-1

"Societal discrimination and stigma against persons with HIV remained common, according to NGOs. NGOs stated LGBTI persons, persons who injected drugs, and women from disadvantaged groups faced higher levels of discrimination. In the 2016 NDHS, 40 percent of women and 33 percent of men reported discriminatory attitudes towards persons with HIV" (Pg 35).
July 19, 2019, 12:22 p.m.
Countries: Nepal
Variables: LRW-PRACTICE-2, LRCM-PRACTICE-2, DV-PRACTICE-2

"The Office of the Prime Minister and Council of Ministers’ 2011 standard operating procedure for prevention of and response to GBV has led to the establishment of service centers in 17 districts, rehabilitation centers in eight districts, and hospital-based one-stop crisis management centers in 17 districts to provide treatment, protection, and psychosocial and legal support for survivors of GBV. Gender experts say the standard operating procedure has led to improved coordination among police, NHRC, National Women’s Commission, chief district officers, local authorities, community mediation centers, and NGOs working to address violence against women and girls" (Pg 26).
July 19, 2019, 12:22 p.m.
Countries: Nepal
Variables: LR-DATA-1

"The literacy rate for women was approximately 57 percent, compared to 75 percent for men, according to the 2011 census" (Pg 29).
July 19, 2019, 12:22 p.m.
Countries: Nepal
Variables: ERBG-LAW-2, IIP-PRACTICE-2, IIP-LAW-2

"The law allows the top administrative official in a district to impose up to six months’ imprisonment, a maximum fine of NRs 50,000 ($500), or both, against a perpetrator, once a series of internal workplace processes to address a complaint have been exhausted. According to women’s rights activists, the law provides adequate protective measures and compensation for victims, but the penalties are insufficiently severe and the law does not cover the informal sector, where sexual harassment is most common" (Pg 27).
July 19, 2019, 12:22 p.m.
Countries: Nepal
Variables: MURDER-PRACTICE-1

"Traditional beliefs about witchcraft negatively affected rural women, especially widows, the elderly, persons of low economic status, or members of the Dalit caste. Shamans or family members publicly beat and otherwise physically abused alleged witches as part of exorcism ceremonies. Media and NGOs reported numerous cases of such violence, and civil society organizations raised public awareness of the problem. Women, and in some instances men, accused of witchcraft were severely traumatized and suffered physical and mental abuse. In recent years those accused of witchcraft have faced various punishments, including being fed human excreta, being hit with hot spoons in different parts of the body, being forced to touch hot irons...more
July 19, 2019, 12:22 p.m.
Countries: Nepal
Variables: CWC-DATA-3

"It is not known what proportion of this population is unable or unwilling to return to their homes. Many remained in camps or informal settlements because they did not hold a title to land and were occupying it illegally when the earthquake occurred. Others stayed because their homes remained vulnerable to or were destroyed by subsequent landslides. In May the government approved a policy to provide approximately NRs 200,000 ($2,000) for the purchase of new land for landless households and those that required relocation due to natural hazards. As a medium-term solution, the government began building community shelters to house multiple families of earthquake-displaced populations. As of August the Ministry...more
July 19, 2019, 12:22 p.m.
Countries: Nepal
Variables: AFE-DATA-1

"The constitution makes basic primary education free and compulsory nationwide. The 2016 Education Act divides the education system into Basic Education (Early Childhood Development and grades one to eight), which is free and compulsory, and Secondary Education (grades nine to 12), which is free but not compulsory. The government reported that during the 2015-16 school year 96.6 percent of school-age children attended primary schools with gender parity" (Pg 28). "A gender gap in secondary education, however, persisted, with two-thirds of adolescent girls in rural areas reportedly not attending school" (Pg 29).
July 19, 2019, 12:22 p.m.
Countries: Nepal
Variables: LRCM-LAW-1, LRCM-LAW-2

"In July parliament passed the new criminal code that will not come into effect until 2018. In the meantime the existing law requires prison sentences for rape that vary between five and 15 years depending on the victim’s age. The law also mandates five years’ additional imprisonment in the case of gang rape, rape of pregnant women, or rape of a woman with disabilities. The victim’s compensation depends on the degree of mental and physical abuse. Under the 2015 Act to Amend Some Nepal Acts to Maintain Gender Equality and End Gender-Based Violence, the sentence for marital rape is three to five years’ imprisonment and the statute of limitations for...more
July 19, 2019, 12:22 p.m.
Countries: Nepal
Variables: MARR-PRACTICE-5, MARR-LAW-4

"The constitution criminalizes violence against or oppression of women based on religious, social, or cultural traditions and gives victims the right to compensation. The new criminal code makes the practice of paying dowries illegal and imposes penalties of up to NRs 30,000 ($300), prison sentences of up to three years, or both. The legislation also criminalizes violence committed against one’s spouse in connection to a dowry, imposing fines of up to NRs 50,000 ($500), prison sentences of up to five years, or both. Additionally, the 2015 Act to Amend Some Nepal Acts to Maintain Gender Equality and End Gender-Based Violence stipulates that any psychological abuse of women, including asking for...more
July 19, 2019, 12:22 p.m.
Countries: Nepal
Variables: ERBG-DATA-1

"Although the law requires equal pay for equal work for men and women, the government did not implement those provisions, particularly in many state industries" (Pg 39).
July 19, 2019, 12:22 p.m.
Countries: Nepal
Variables: SMPP-PRACTICE-1, SMPP-LAW-1

"The practice of 'chhaupadi' (expelling women and girls from their homes during menstruation and sometimes following childbirth, including forcing women and girls to reside in cattle sheds) continued to be a serious problem. Chhaupadi persists despite a 2005 Supreme Court decision outlawing the practice and guidelines on eliminating it issued in 2008 by the Ministry of Women, Children, and Social Welfare. The new criminal code adopted in August formally criminalizes the practice by stipulating a punishment of up to three months’ imprisonment, a maximum fine of NRs 3,000 ($30), or both" (Pg 27).
July 19, 2019, 12:22 p.m.
Countries: Nepal
Variables: CONST-LAW-1

"The Gender Equality Act adopted in 2006--along with more than 60 other laws-- contain discriminatory provisions. For example, the law on property rights favors men in land tenancy and the division of family property. The law encourages bigamy by allowing men to remarry without divorcing if the first wife is incapacitated or infertile. The constitution, however, confers rights for women that had not previously received legal protection, including rights equal to those of their spouses in property and family affairs, and special opportunities in education, health, and social security" (Pg 28). "The constitution prohibits discrimination on the basis of religion, race, sex, caste, tribe, geographical or social origin, language, marital...more