The most comprehensive compilation of information on the status of
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Latest items for Nigeria

June 14, 2019, 2:55 p.m.
Countries: Nigeria
Variables: LRW-LAW-1

"On May 25, the government enacted the Violence Against Persons Prohibition (VAPP) Act. It addresses sexual violence, physical violence, psychological violence, harmful traditional practices, and socioeconomic violence. Under the VAPP, spousal battery, forceful ejection from home, forced financial dependence or economic abuse, harmful widowhood practices, female genital mutilation/cutting (FGM/C), harmful traditional practices, substance attacks (such as acid attacks), political violence, and violence by state actors (especially government security forces) are offenses. Victims and survivors of violence are entitled to comprehensive medical, psychological, social, and legal assistance by accredited service providers and government agencies, with their identities protected during court cases. The act makes the National Agency for the Prohibition of...more
June 14, 2019, 2:55 p.m.
Countries: Nigeria
Variables: ERBG-PRACTICE-1

"The practice of demanding sexual favors in exchange for employment or university grades remained common" (Pg 35). "Although the constitution provides the same legal status and rights for women as for men, women experienced considerable economic discrimination. The law does not mandate equal remuneration for work of equal value, and the law does not mandate nondiscrimination based on gender in hiring. No laws bar women from particular fields of employment, but women reportedly could not work in heavy manufacturing and construction in the same way as men. Women often experienced discrimination under traditional and religious practices (see section 7.d.)" (Pg 35). "Gender-based discrimination in employment and occupation occurred (see section...more
June 14, 2019, 2:55 p.m.
Countries: Nigeria
Variables: AOM-PRACTICE-1, AOM-LAW-1, AOM-DATA-2

"The law sets a minimum age of 18 years for marriage for both boys and girls. According to the 2013 NDHS, 43 percent of women between ages 20 and 24 reported being married or in a union before age 18, and 17 percent reported being married or in a union before age 15. Fewer than half the country’s state assemblies adopted the Child Rights Act of 2003, which sets the minimum marriage age, and most states, especially northern states, did not uphold the federal official minimum age for marriage. The government engaged religious leaders, emirs, and sultans on the problem, pointing out the health hazards and improving their awareness of...more
June 14, 2019, 2:55 p.m.
Countries: Nigeria
Variables: IIP-PRACTICE-2, IIP-LAW-2

"Sexual harassment remained a common problem. No statutes prohibit sexual harassment, but authorities may prosecute violent harassment under assault statutes. The VAPP criminalizes stalking, with terms of imprisonment of up to two years, a maximum fine of 500,000 naira ($2,500), or both. It does not explicitly criminalize sexual harassment, which it legally defines as physical, verbal, or nonverbal conduct of a sexual nature, based on sex or gender, which is persistent or serious and demeans, humiliates, or creates a hostile or intimidating environment. The act criminalizes emotional, verbal, and psychological abuse and acts of intimidation" (Pg 34-35).
June 14, 2019, 2:55 p.m.
Countries: Nigeria
Variables: ERBG-LAW-1

"Gender-based discrimination in employment and occupation occurred (see section 6, Women). No laws bar women from particular fields of employment, but women often experienced discrimination under traditional and religious practices. The Nigeria Police Regulations provide for special recruitment requirements and conditions of service applying to women, particularly the criteria and provisions relating to pregnancy and marital status. NGOs expressed concern over continued discrimination against women in the private sector, particularly in access to employment, promotion to higher professional positions, and salary equity. According to credible reports, many businesses implemented a “get pregnant, get fired” policy. Women remained underrepresented in the formal sector but played active and vital roles in the...more
June 14, 2019, 2:55 p.m.
Countries: Nigeria
Variables: DV-PRACTICE-1

"Domestic violence remained widespread, and many considered it socially acceptable. CLEEN Foundation’s National Crime Victimization and Safety Survey for 2013 reported that 30 percent of male and female respondents countrywide claimed to have been victims of domestic violence" (Pg 33).
June 14, 2019, 2:55 p.m.
Countries: Nigeria
Variables: LBHO-DATA-1

"In the National Assembly inaugurated on June 9, men encumbered more than 94 percent of seats. Twenty of the 360 members of the House of Representatives and eight of the 109 senators were women. Six of the 36 cabinet members who took office in mid-November were women" (Pg 28). "In the House of Representatives, the percentage of female representatives fell from 5 percent to 4 percent. There were 1,772 House of Representatives candidates, 270 of whom were female (15 percent). The political parties with the highest number of candidates were the APC--358; PDP--360; APGA--88; and LP--187. Of these, there were 27 APC female candidates (7.5 percent), 19 PDP (5.3 percent),...more
June 14, 2019, 2:55 p.m.
Countries: Nigeria
Variables: CONST-LAW-1

"The constitution and law prohibit discrimination based on community, place of origin, ethnic group, sex, religion, or political opinion, but the government did not enforce the law effectively. The constitution prohibits discrimination based on the circumstances of a person’s birth" (Pg 31).
June 14, 2019, 2:55 p.m.
Countries: Nigeria
Variables: DV-LAW-2

"No laws of nationwide applicability criminalize gender-based violence. The VAPP provides for up to three years’ imprisonment, a maximum fine of 200,000 naira ($1,000), or both for spousal battery. It defines spousal/partner battery as the intentional use of force or violence upon a person to include touching, beating, or striking with the intention of causing bodily harm. The act provides up to one year’s imprisonment for anyone found guilty of intimidation by conveying a threat that induces fear, anxiety, or discomfort. It also authorizes courts to issue protection orders upon application by a victim and directs NAPTIP to appoint a coordinator for the prevention of domestic violence to submit an...more
June 14, 2019, 2:55 p.m.
Countries: Nigeria
Variables: AFE-DATA-1

"According to the 2010 Nigeria Education Data Survey, the most recent information available, attendance rates in primary schools ranged from 35 to 80 percent. The lowest attendance rates were in the Northeast (43 percent for boys and 38 percent for girls) and the Northwest, where rates for boys and girls hovered around 47 percent and 35 percent, respectively. Overall 63 percent of boys and 58 percent of girls attended school. According to UNICEF, for every 10 girls in school, more than 22 boys attended. Approximately 25 percent of young persons between ages 17 and 25 had fewer than two years of education. Boko Haram attacks prevented thousands of children from...more
June 14, 2019, 2:55 p.m.
Countries: Nigeria
Variables: LBHO-PRACTICE-3, LBHO-LAW-1, VOTE-PRACTICE-1, VOTE-LAW-1

"No laws prevent women or minority members from voting, running for office, or serving as electoral monitors, but cultural and traditional practices inhibited women’s ability to do so" (Pg 27-28).
June 14, 2019, 2:55 p.m.
Countries: Nigeria
Variables: INFIB-PRACTICE-1, INFIB-DATA-2

"According to a 2008 World Health Organization study, 29.6 percent of girls and women ages 15 to 49 had undergone FGM/C, and the UN Children’s Fund (UNICEF) reported in 2013 that 14 percent of girls from newborn to age 14 had undergone FGM/C. The age at which women and girls were subjected to the practice varied from the first week of life until after a woman delivered her first child. Most victims were subjected to FGM/C before their first birthday. The highest prevalence among adult women was in the South (77 percent), followed by the Southeast (68 percent) and Southwest (65 percent), and was practiced on a smaller scale in...more
June 14, 2019, 2:55 p.m.
Countries: Nigeria
Variables: DACH-PRACTICE-2, CWC-DATA-2, CRPLB-PRACTICE-1, MMR-DATA-1

"Couples and individuals generally had the right to decide the number, spacing, and timing of children, but information on reproductive health and access to quality reproductive health services and emergency obstetric care was not widely available. The 2013 NDHS reported the maternal mortality rate was 576 deaths per 100,000 live births, due to such factors as lack of access to antenatal care, skilled birth attendants, emergency obstetric care, and other medical services. According to 2013 estimates by the UN, World Health Organization, and World Bank, there were approximately 40,000 maternal deaths in 2013, and a woman’s lifetime risk of maternal death was one in 31. Skilled health-care personnel attended a...more
June 14, 2019, 2:55 p.m.
Countries: Nigeria
Variables: DV-DATA-1

"Domestic violence remained widespread, and many considered it socially acceptable. CLEEN Foundation’s National Crime Victimization and Safety Survey for 2013 reported that 30 percent of male and female respondents countrywide claimed to have been victims of domestic violence. Police often refused to intervene in domestic disputes or blamed the victim for provoking the abuse. In rural areas courts and police were reluctant to intervene to protect women who formally accused their husbands of abuse if the level of alleged abuse did not exceed local customary norms. In 2014 NGOs highlighted the death sentence handed down to Akolade Arowolo, a man who stabbed his wife to death in Lagos in 2011...more
June 14, 2019, 2:55 p.m.
Countries: Nigeria
Variables: LO-PRACTICE-1, LO-LAW-1, IAW-PRACTICE-1

"Women generally remained marginalized. No laws prohibit women from owning land, but customary land tenure systems allowed only men to own land, with women gaining access to land only via marriage or family. Many customary practices also did not recognize a woman’s right to inherit her husband’s property, and many widows became destitute when their in-laws took virtually all the deceased husband’s property" (Pg 36).
June 14, 2019, 2:55 p.m.
Countries: Nigeria
Variables: MARR-PRACTICE-1

"Large-scale abductions by the group continued. According to nongovernmental organizations (NGOs), between November 2014 and February, Boko Haram abducted more than 500 women and 1,000 children from one local government area in Borno State alone. The group subjected many abducted women and girls to sexual and gender-based violence, including forced marriages and rape" (Pg 2). "Women and girls abducted by Boko Haram were subjected to physical and psychological abuse; forced labor; forced marriage; forced religious conversions; forced participation in military operations; and sexual abuse, including rape" (Pg 17).
June 14, 2019, 2:55 p.m.
Countries: Nigeria
Variables: IIP-LAW-1

"In the 12 states that adopted sharia, sharia and social norms affected women to varying degrees. In Zamfara State local governments enforced laws requiring the separation of Muslim men and women in transportation and health care. In 2013 the Kano State government issued a statement declaring that men and women must remain separate while using public transportation" (Pg 36).
June 14, 2019, 2:55 p.m.
Countries: Nigeria
Variables: LRW-DATA-1

"Rape remained widespread. According to a study published in February, almost 20 percent of college students surveyed reported at least one incident of rape. In 2013 Positive Action for Treatment Access, an NGO focused on HIV treatment, released a countrywide survey of 1,000 preadolescents and adolescents (ages 10 to 19), which noted three in 10 girls reported their first sexual encounter was rape" (Pg 32).
June 14, 2019, 2:55 p.m.
Countries: Nigeria
Variables: GP-DATA-1

"In the National Assembly inaugurated on June 9, men encumbered more than 94 percent of seats. Twenty of the 360 members of the House of Representatives and eight of the 109 senators were women. Six of the 36 cabinet members who took office in mid-November were women" (Pg 28).
June 14, 2019, 2:55 p.m.
Countries: Nigeria
Variables: LRW-PRACTICE-1

"Large-scale abductions by the group continued. According to nongovernmental organizations (NGOs), between November 2014 and February, Boko Haram abducted more than 500 women and 1,000 children from one local government area in Borno State alone. The group subjected many abducted women and girls to sexual and gender-based violence, including forced marriages and rape" (Pg 2). "Women and girls abducted by Boko Haram were subjected to physical and psychological abuse; forced labor; forced marriage; forced religious conversions; forced participation in military operations; and sexual abuse, including rape" (Pg 17). "Rape remained widespread. According to a study published in February, almost 20 percent of college students surveyed reported at least one incident...more
June 14, 2019, 2:55 p.m.
Countries: Nigeria
Variables: LRW-LAW-2

"The law criminalizes rape. The VAPP provides penalties ranging from 12 years’ to life imprisonment for offenders older than 14 and a maximum of 14 years’ imprisonment for all others. It also provides for a public register of convicted sexual offenders and appointment of protection officers at the local government level to coordinate with courts and ensure victims receive various forms of assistance (e.g., medical, psychosocial, legal, rehabilitative, reintegrative) provided by the VAPP. The act also includes a provision empowering courts to award appropriate compensation to victims of rape" (Pg 32).
June 14, 2019, 2:55 p.m.
Countries: Nigeria
Variables: LRW-PRACTICE-2

"Societal pressure and the stigma associated with rape reduced the percentage of rapes reported and the penalties imposed for conviction. Sentences for persons convicted of rape and sexual assault were inconsistent and often minor. In the Northeast Boko Haram continued to abduct women and girls, subjecting them to sexual violence and forcing them into domestic and sexual slavery, sometimes under the guise of forced marriage" (Pg 32).
June 14, 2019, 2:55 p.m.
Countries: Nigeria
Variables: SEGI-PRACTICE-1

"Federal law criminalizes female circumcision or genital mutilation, but the federal government took no legal action to curb the practice. While 12 states have banned FGM/C, but once a state legislature criminalizes FGM/C, NGOs found they had to convince local authorities that state laws apply in their districts. The Ministry of Health, women’s groups, and many NGOs sponsored public awareness projects to educate communities about the health hazards of FGM/C. Underfunding and logistical obstacles limited their contact with health-care workers" (Pg 34).
June 14, 2019, 2:55 p.m.
Countries: Nigeria
Variables: AFE-LAW-1

"Public schools remained substandard, and limited facilities precluded access to education for many children. Under the constitution, education is a mere directive policy and not a legal entitlement. The law requires every government in the country to provide free, compulsory, and universal basic education for every child of primary and junior secondary school age. It also specifies fines and terms of imprisonment for parents or guardians that breach the law by failing to ensure that their children attend school. Authorities, however, often charged school fees and rarely complied with the law" (Pg 36).
June 14, 2019, 2:55 p.m.
Countries: Nigeria
Variables: DTCP-PRACTICE-1

"According to credible reports, security services committed rape and other forms of violence against women and girls, often with impunity. For example, on April 30, the police arrested a police corporal for allegedly raping a seven-year-old girl inside the Mangoron Mahauta Police Brigade Quarters in Kano State. There was no further information on the case as of December" (Pg 5). "Female inmates in some cases faced the threat of rape...Authorities sometimes held female and male prisoners together, especially in rural areas. Prisons had no facilities to care for pregnant women or nursing mothers. Infants born to inmate mothers usually remained with the mother until weaned. Prison authorities often held juvenile...more
June 14, 2019, 2:55 p.m.
Countries: Nigeria
Variables: LRW-LAW-3, DV-LAW-3

"Sharia courts usually accorded the testimony of women and non-Muslims less weight than that of men. Under common law, women and members of other groups could testify in civil or criminal proceedings and give testimony that carried the same weight as testimony of other witnesses. Some sharia court judges allowed different evidentiary requirements to prove adultery or fornication for male and female defendants. Pregnancy, for example, was admissible evidence of a woman’s adultery or fornication in some sharia courts. In contrast sharia courts could convict men only if they confessed or there was eyewitness testimony regarding their crime. Sharia courts, however, provided women with certain benefits, including increased access to...more
June 14, 2019, 2:55 p.m.
Countries: Nigeria
Variables: CWC-DATA-3

"International NGOs cited the IDPs’ greatest immediate needs as food, shelter, and protection. Other needs included health care, nutrition, water, sanitation, and education. NGOs reported there were insufficient resources available to IDP victims of sexual and gender-based violence (SGBV). Women faced dangers in and outside camps, and SGBV survivors had limited access to safe, confidential psychosocial counseling and medical services or safe space to discuss SGBV. Women and girls, as well as the babies born as a result of rape during Boko Haram captivity, faced stigmatization and community isolation" (Pg 24).
June 14, 2019, 2:55 p.m.
Countries: Nigeria
Variables: DSFMF-LAW-1

"Sharia courts usually accorded the testimony of women and non-Muslims less weight than that of men. Under common law, women and members of other groups could testify in civil or criminal proceedings and give testimony that carried the same weight as testimony of other witnesses. Some sharia court judges allowed different evidentiary requirements to prove adultery or fornication for male and female defendants. Pregnancy, for example, was admissible evidence of a woman’s adultery or fornication in some sharia courts. In contrast sharia courts could convict men only if they confessed or there was eyewitness testimony regarding their crime. Sharia courts, however, provided women with certain benefits, including increased access to...more
June 14, 2019, 2:55 p.m.
Countries: Nigeria
Variables: ERBG-PRACTICE-3

"Although the constitution provides the same legal status and rights for women as for men, women experienced considerable economic discrimination. The law does not mandate equal remuneration for work of equal value, and the law does not mandate nondiscrimination based on gender in hiring. No laws bar women from particular fields of employment, but women reportedly could not work in heavy manufacturing and construction in the same way as men. Women often experienced discrimination under traditional and religious practices (see section 7.d.)" (Pg 35). "Gender-based discrimination in employment and occupation occurred (see section 6, Women). No laws bar women from particular fields of employment, but women often experienced discrimination under...more
June 14, 2019, 2:55 p.m.
Countries: Nigeria
Variables: AFE-PRACTICE-1

"The practice of demanding sexual favors in exchange for employment or university grades remained common" (Pg 35). "In many parts of the country, social and economic factors resulted in discrimination against girls in access to education. In the face of economic hardship, many families favored boys over girls in deciding which children to enroll in elementary and secondary schools. Girls often left school to engage in domestic work, trading, and street vending" (Pg 37).