The most comprehensive compilation of information on the status of
women in the world.

Latest items for North Korea

April 4, 2019, 7:27 a.m.
Countries: Albania, Algeria, Angola, Bahamas, Bangladesh, Barbados, Belarus, Brazil, Burma/Myanmar, Chad, Cyprus, Djibouti, Egypt, Eritrea, Ethiopia, Fiji, Guinea, India, Indonesia, Iran, Jordan, Kazakhstan, Kyrgyzstan, Laos, Lebanon, Lithuania, Madagascar, Malawi, Malaysia, Mongolia, Mozambique, Nepal, North Korea, Oman, Paraguay, Qatar, Russia, Saudi Arabia, South Sudan, Sudan, Swaziland, Ukraine, United States, Vanuatu
Variables: MURDER-SCALE-3

3.0
March 29, 2019, 4:08 p.m.
Countries: North Korea
Variables: LDS-PRACTICE-1

"Reports of various exploitation schemes targeting North Korean refugees, such as forced marriages, forced labor, and prostitution, were common" (page 43).
March 29, 2019, 4:07 p.m.
Countries: North Korea
Variables: TRAFF-PRACTICE-2

"Reports of various exploitation schemes targeting North Korean refugees, such as forced marriages, forced labor, and prostitution, were common" (page 43).
March 29, 2019, 4:06 p.m.
Countries: North Korea
Variables: TRAFF-PRACTICE-3, TRAFF-LAW-3

"Authorities continued to forcibly repatriate some North Korean refugees by treating them as illegal economic migrants, despite reports some North Korean female refugees in China were trafficking victims, although there were no specific reports of such refugees during the year. The government detained and deported such refugees to North Korea, where they possibly faced severe punishment, even death, including in North Korean forced-labor camps. The government did not provide North Korean trafficking victims with legal alternatives to repatriation. The government continued to bar UNHCR access to North Koreans in northeast China, and the lack of access to UNHCR assistance and forced repatriation left North Koreans vulnerable to traffickers. Authorities sometimes...more
March 21, 2019, 1:45 p.m.
Countries: Azerbaijan, Bahrain, Belarus, Belize, Bhutan, Brazil, Brunei, Burma/Myanmar, Comoros, Gambia, Guinea-Bissau, Hungary, Iran, Kuwait, Lebanon, Nepal, North Korea, Oman, Pakistan, Papua New Guinea, Qatar, Saudi Arabia, Solomon Islands, Sri Lanka, Turkey, Turkmenistan, Vanuatu, Vietnam, Yemen
Variables: GP-SCALE-1

4.0
March 18, 2019, 2:07 p.m.
Countries: North Korea
Variables: DV-PRACTICE-1

"According to the Office of the High Commissioner for Human Rights (OHCHR) in Seoul, approximately 70 percent of all defectors from North Korea were women, and many were victims of sexual violence and sex trafficking before arriving in South Korea" (12).
March 12, 2019, 12:45 p.m.
Countries: North Korea
Variables: AW-PRACTICE-1

"According to the 2017 KINU white paper, a defector reported that a 16-year-old victim of human trafficking in China was forcibly returned in 2014 and subsequently died due to malnourishment during a MSS investigation" (16).
March 12, 2019, 12:43 p.m.
Countries: North Korea
Variables: TRAFF-LAW-3

"According to the 2017 KINU white paper, a defector reported that a 16-year-old victim of human trafficking in China was forcibly returned in 2014 and subsequently died due to malnourishment during a MSS investigation" (16).
March 12, 2019, 12:43 p.m.
Countries: North Korea
Variables: LRW-PRACTICE-1

"The government appeared to criminalize rape, but no information was available on details of the law or how it was enforced. The UN COI report found the subjugation of inmates and a general climate of impunity created an environment in which guards and other prisoners in privileged positions raped female inmates. When cases of rape came to light, the perpetrator often escaped with mere dismissal or no punishment" (18-19).
March 12, 2019, 12:43 p.m.
Countries: North Korea
Variables: CLCC-LAW-1

"Children derive citizenship from one’s parents and, in some cases, birth within the country’s territory" (21).
March 12, 2019, 12:43 p.m.
Countries: North Korea
Variables: TRAFF-PRACTICE-1

"The people of North Korea faced egregious human rights violations by the government in nearly all reporting categories including...trafficking in persons" (1).
March 12, 2019, 12:43 p.m.
Countries: North Korea
Variables: FSCB-PRACTICE-1

"The people of North Korea faced egregious human rights violations by the government in nearly all reporting categories including...coerced abortion" (1). "Mothers were in some cases reportedly forced to watch the infanticide of their newborn infants" (4). "The KINU white paper found that, in some cases of live birth, the prison guards killed the infant or left the baby to die, and it reported cases of guards sexually abusing or exploiting female prisoners" (4).
March 12, 2019, 12:43 p.m.
Countries: North Korea
Variables: ISSA-PRACTICE-1

"Defectors also reported that the government carried out infanticide in cases of political prisoners, persons with disabilities, and where the mother was repatriated from China" (2).
March 12, 2019, 12:43 p.m.
Countries: North Korea
Variables: LBHO-PRACTICE-2

"The constitution states, 'women hold equal social status and rights with men'; however, few women reached high levels of the party or the government and defectors said gender equality was nonexistent" (19).
March 12, 2019, 12:43 p.m.
Countries: North Korea
Variables: NGOFW-DATA-1

"The government reported many organizations, including the Democratic Lawyers’ Association, General Association of Trade Unions, Agricultural Workers Union, and Democratic Women’s Union, engaged in human rights activities, but observers could not verify the activities of these organizations" (18).
March 12, 2019, 12:43 p.m.
Countries: North Korea
Variables: CONST-LAW-1

"The constitution states, 'women hold equal social status and rights with men'" (19).
March 12, 2019, 12:43 p.m.
Countries: North Korea
Variables: AW-PRACTICE-1

"The law provides for the 'freedom to reside in or travel to any place'; however, the government did not respect this right. The government continued to control internal travel carefully. The government did not cooperate with the Office of the UN High Commissioner for Refugees or other humanitarian organizations in providing protection and assistance to internally displaced persons, refugees, forcibly returned refugees, asylum seekers, stateless persons, or other persons" (14).
March 12, 2019, 12:43 p.m.
Countries: North Korea
Variables: TRAFF-LAW-1

"Additionally, the law allows for capital punishment in less serious crimes such as theft, destruction of military facilities and national assets, fraud, kidnapping, distribution of pornography, and trafficking in persons" (2).
March 12, 2019, 12:43 p.m.
Countries: North Korea
Variables: FSCB-LAW-1

"The White Paper on Human Rights in North Korea, published by the Korea Institute for National Unification (KINU), a South Korean government-affiliated think tank, the 2014 UN Commission of Inquiry (COI) report stated that officials had in some cases prohibited live births in prison and ordered forced abortions as recently as 2013" (4). "Defectors reported that the state security officials subjected women to forced abortions although it was done for political purposes and not population control" (19).
March 12, 2019, 12:43 p.m.
Countries: North Korea
Variables: IIP-PRACTICE-2

"Despite the 1946 Law on Equality of the Sexes, defectors reported the populace generally accepted sexual harassment of women due to patriarchal traditions, and reported there was little recourse for women who had been harassed" (19).
March 12, 2019, 12:43 p.m.
Countries: North Korea
Variables: MARR-PRACTICE-4

"There are no laws against consensual same-sex activity, but little information was available on discrimination based on sexual orientation or gender identity. In 2014 the Korean Central News Agency, the state news agency, denied the existence of consensual same-sex activity in the country and reported, 'The practice can never be found in the DPRK boasting of sound mentality and good morals'" (22).
March 12, 2019, 12:43 p.m.
Countries: North Korea
Variables: LRW-LAW-1

"The government appeared to criminalize rape, but no information was available on details of the law or how it was enforced" (18).
March 12, 2019, 12:43 p.m.
Countries: North Korea
Variables: ERBG-PRACTICE-1

"KINU reported that discrimination against women emerged in the form of differentiated pay scales, promotions, and types of work assigned to women. The foreign press and think tanks reported that, while women were less likely than men to be assigned full-time jobs, they had more opportunity to work outside the socialist economy" (19). "Despite the law according women equal social status and rights, societal and legal discrimination against women continued. The 2014 UN COI report noted that, despite the economic advancement of women, the state continued to discriminate against them and imposed many restrictions on the female-dominated market" (26).
March 12, 2019, 12:43 p.m.
Countries: North Korea
Variables: LBHO-DATA-1

"As of 2016 women constituted approximately 3.1 percent of members and 2.8 percent of candidate members of the Central Committee of the Workers’ Party of Korea (WPK) and held few key WPK leadership positions. The 2014 UN COI report indicated only 10 percent of central government officials are women" (17).
March 12, 2019, 12:43 p.m.
Countries: North Korea
Variables: CRPLB-PRACTICE-1

"The Citizens’ Alliance for North Korean Human Rights 2013 report on the Status of Women’s Rights in the Context of Socio-Economic Changes in the DPRK found that the birth of a baby with disabilities--regardless of circumstances--was considered a 'curse,' and doctors lacked training to diagnose and treat such persons" (22).
March 12, 2019, 12:43 p.m.
Countries: North Korea
Variables: IIP-PRACTICE-1

"The government continued to restrict freedom of movement for those lawfully within the state. Only members of a very small elite class and those with access to remittances from overseas reportedly had access to personal vehicles. A lack of infrastructure hampered movement, as did security checkpoints on main roads at entry and exit points from every town" (14).
March 12, 2019, 12:43 p.m.
Countries: North Korea
Variables: VOTE-PRACTICE-1

"The most recent national elections, held in 2014, were neither free nor fair" (1). "Citizens do not have the ability to choose their government peacefully" (16). "The most recent national elections to select representatives to the Supreme People’s Assembly (SPA) occurred in 2014. These elections were neither free nor fair. The government openly monitored voting, resulting in a reported 100 percent participation rate and 100 percent approval of the preselected government candidates. Local elections on July 2015 were likewise neither free nor fair. The government reported a 99.97 percent turnout, with 100 percent approval for the government candidates" (16). "The government regularly criticized the concept of free elections and competition...more
March 12, 2019, 12:43 p.m.
Countries: North Korea
Variables: DV-PRACTICE-1

"Defectors reported violence against women was a systematic problem both inside and outside the home. According to the 2015 KINU survey of defectors conducted from 2011-15, 81 percent of respondents believed domestic violence was 'common'" (19).
March 12, 2019, 12:43 p.m.
Countries: North Korea
Variables: ERBG-PRACTICE-3, ERBG-LAW-2

"Despite the law according women equal social status and rights, societal and legal discrimination against women continued. The 2014 UN COI report noted that, despite the economic advancement of women, the state continued to discriminate against them and imposed many restrictions on the female-dominated market" (26).
March 12, 2019, 12:43 p.m.
Countries: North Korea
Variables: DTCP-PRACTICE-1

"The KINU white paper found that, in some cases of live birth, the prison guards killed the infant or left the baby to die, and it reported cases of guards sexually abusing or exploiting female prisoners" (4). "According to the Hidden Gulag IV report, since late 2008 Jongori (formerly referred to as Camp 12) in North Hamkyung Province was expanded to include a women’s annex, which held approximately 1,000 women, most of whom the state imprisoned after forcibly returning them from China. Satellite imagery and defector testimony corroborated the existence of this women’s annex. Defector testimony also cited food rations below subsistence levels, forced labor, and high rates of death...more