The most comprehensive compilation of information on the status of
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Latest items for North Korea

Nov. 10, 2017, 1:02 p.m.
Countries: North Korea
Variables: LRW-PRACTICE-2

"The 2015 White Paper on Human Rights in North Korea, published by the Korea Institute for National Unification (KINU), a South Korean government-affiliated think tank, and the 2014 UN Commission of Inquiry (COI) report stated that officials had in some cases prohibited live births in prison and ordered forced abortions as recently as 2013. The KINU white paper found that, in some cases of live birth, the prison guards killed the infant or left the baby to die, and reported cases of guards sexually abusing or exploiting female prisoners"(2-3)."Anecdotal reports from the NGO Database Center for North Korean Human Rights and the UN 2014 COI report stated that in some ...more
Nov. 10, 2017, 1:02 p.m.
Countries: North Korea
Variables: TRAFF-PRACTICE-3, TRAFF-LAW-3, IRP-LAW-2

"The law criminalizes defection and attempted defection, including the attempt to gain entry to a foreign diplomatic facility for the purpose of seeking political asylum. Individuals who cross the border with the purpose of defecting or seeking asylum in a third country are subject to a minimum of five years of 'labor correction.' In 'serious' cases defectors or asylum seekers are subjected to indefinite terms of imprisonment and forced labor, confiscation of property, or death. Many would-be refugees who were returned involuntarily were imprisoned under harsh conditions"(10)."The law does not provide for the granting of asylum or refugee status, nor has the government established a system for providing protection for ...more
Nov. 10, 2017, 1:02 p.m.
Countries: North Korea
Variables: AOM-PRACTICE-1, MABFC-DATA-1

"The law provides that the minimum ages for marriage are 18 for men and 17 for women"(14)
Nov. 10, 2017, 1:02 p.m.
Countries: North Korea
Variables: TRAFF-LAW-1, PRN-LAW-1

"Additionally, the law allows for capital punishment in less serious crimes such as theft, destruction of military facilities and national assets, fraud, kidnapping, distribution of pornography, and trafficking in persons"(1)
Nov. 10, 2017, 1:02 p.m.
Countries: North Korea
Variables: ATC-DATA-5

"The country is not a party to the 1980 Hague Convention on the Civil Aspects of International Child Abduction"(14)
Nov. 10, 2017, 1:02 p.m.
Countries: North Korea
Variables: LRW-DATA-1

"The 2015 White Paper on Human Rights in North Korea, published by the Korea Institute for National Unification (KINU), a South Korean government-affiliated think tank, and the 2014 UN Commission of Inquiry (COI) report stated that officials had in some cases prohibited live births in prison and ordered forced abortions as recently as 2013. The KINU white paper found that, in some cases of live birth, the prison guards killed the infant or left the baby to die, and reported cases of guards sexually abusing or exploiting female prisoners"(2-3)."Anecdotal reports from the NGO Database Center for North Korean Human Rights and the UN 2014 COI report stated that in some ...more
Nov. 10, 2017, 1:02 p.m.
Countries: North Korea
Variables: CWC-DATA-2

"The country reported in its 2009 National Human Rights Reportsubmitted to the UN Universal Periodic Review that 98 percent of women received professional help during childbirth. The 2012 UN Overview of Needs and Assistance in the DPRK report found that 68 percent of monthly deliveries took place at county hospitals or clinics at the village level, but approximately 42 percent of these facilities did not have resuscitation equipment for mothers and 36 percent did not have resuscitation equipment for newborns. A KINU survey of defectors found that 86 percent of respondents stated the family doctor system was 'useless'"(13)
Nov. 10, 2017, 1:02 p.m.
Countries: North Korea
Variables: LRW-LAW-2

"According to the KINU 2015 white paper, the 2012 revision of the country’s criminal code indicated a sentence reduction for rape and domestic violence"(12)."The law states that a man who has sexual intercourse with a girl under age 15 shall be 'punished gravely.' There was no reporting on whether the government upheld this law"(14)
Nov. 10, 2017, 1:02 p.m.
Countries: North Korea
Variables: LBHO-PRACTICE-2, LBHO-PRACTICE-3, LBHO-LAW-1, LBHO-DATA-1

"The constitution states that 'women hold equal social status and rights with men'; however, few women reached high levels of the party or the government"(13)
Nov. 10, 2017, 1:02 p.m.
Countries: North Korea
Variables: MMR-PRACTICE-1

"UNICEF reported that the deteriorating health system, lack of medicine, and emergency referrals affected the high rate of maternal mortality. The World Food Program found that 31 percent of women surveyed suffered from anemia, which increases the likelihood of maternal mortality. The country reported in its 2009 National Human Rights Reportsubmitted to the UN Universal Periodic Review that 98 percent of women received professional help during childbirth. The 2012 UN Overview of Needs and Assistance in the DPRK report found that 68 percent of monthly deliveries took place at county hospitals or clinics at the village level, but approximately 42 percent of these facilities did not have resuscitation equipment for ...more
Nov. 10, 2017, 1:02 p.m.
Countries: North Korea
Variables: ATC-DATA-1

"The country’s initial report to the Convention on the Elimination of All Forms of Discrimination Against Women, submitted in 2002, claimed 'family planning is mapped out by individual families in view of their actual circumstances and in compliance with laws, regulations, morality, and customs'"(13)
Nov. 10, 2017, 1:02 p.m.
Countries: North Korea
Variables: ERBG-PRACTICE-3

"Despite an extensive legal framework providing for equality for women, such as equal employment opportunities and equal pay, societal and legal discrimination continued. A 2013 report on the Status of Women’s Rights in the Context of Socio-Economic Changes in the DPRK, by the ROK-based NGO Citizens’ Alliance for North Korea Human Rights, stated that it could not detect any major changes as a result of the 2010 Women’s Rights Protection Act. The report noted the act was vague, lacked the designation of an administering agency, did not include punishments for noncompliance, and had no accompanying implementing legislation"(12)."KINU [Korean Institute for National Unification] reported that discrimination against women emerged in the ...more
Nov. 10, 2017, 1:02 p.m.
Countries: North Korea
Variables: TRAFF-PRACTICE-2

"There were reports of female victims of trafficking among refugees and workers crossing the border into China"(1)."There were reports of trafficking in young girls to destinations outside the country. Little information was available regarding the sexual exploitation of children"(14)."There were an estimated 50,000 to 60,000 North Korean citizens working as overseas laborers, primarily in Russia and China. The UN Special Rapporteur on the DPRK noted that, while most were sent to Russia and China to work, they were also reportedly found in Algeria, Angola, Cambodia, Equatorial Guinea, Ethiopia, Kuwait, Libya, Malaysia, Mongolia, Myanmar, Nigeria, Oman, Poland, Qatar, and the United Arab Emirates. Numerous NGOs noted that these citizens were in ...more
Nov. 10, 2017, 1:02 p.m.
Countries: North Korea
Variables: GP-DATA-3

"Violence against women was reported as a significant problem both inside and outside the home. No information was available on government efforts to combat rape, domestic violence, and other societal violence directed against women"(12)
Nov. 10, 2017, 1:02 p.m.
Countries: North Korea
Variables: MARR-PRACTICE-1

"The law provides that the minimum ages for marriage are 18 for men and 17 for women"(14)."There were reports of children born into kwanliso political prison camps as a result of 'reward marriages' between inmates. Reports noted that authorities subjected these children to forced labor for up to 12 hours per day and did not allow them to leave the camps"(14)
Nov. 10, 2017, 1:02 p.m.
Countries: North Korea
Variables: TRAFF-DATA-1

"There were reports of female victims of trafficking among refugees and workers crossing the border into China"(1)."There were reports of trafficking in young girls to destinations outside the country. Little information was available regarding the sexual exploitation of children"(14)."There were an estimated 50,000 to 60,000 North Korean citizens working as overseas laborers, primarily in Russia and China. The UN Special Rapporteur on the DPRK noted that, while most were sent to Russia and China to work, they were also reportedly found in Algeria, Angola, Cambodia, Equatorial Guinea, Ethiopia, Kuwait, Libya, Malaysia, Mongolia, Myanmar, Nigeria, Oman, Poland, Qatar, and the United Arab Emirates. Numerous NGOs noted that these citizens were in ...more
Nov. 10, 2017, 1:02 p.m.
Countries: North Korea
Variables: MMR-DATA-1

"According to UN Children’s Fund (UNICEF) statistics, the maternal mortality rate in 2013 was 87 per 100,000 live births. Final results from the 2012 National Nutrition Survey--conducted by the Central Bureau of Statistics, with technical assistance from the World Food Program, UNICEF, and World Health Organization--estimated that the maternal mortality rate from 2008 to 2010 decreased slightly, from 85 to 76 per 100,000 live births. UNICEF reported that the deteriorating health system, lack of medicine, and emergency referrals affected the high rate of maternal mortality"(13)."The KINU [The Korean Institute for National Unification] 2015 white paper also cited very high levels of maternal and infant mortality. Pregnant women sentenced to detention ...more
Nov. 10, 2017, 1:02 p.m.
Countries: North Korea
Variables: CRPLB-PRACTICE-1

"The 2015 White Paper on Human Rights in North Korea, published by the Korea Institute for National Unification (KINU), a South Korean government-affiliated think tank, and the 2014 UN Commission of Inquiry (COI) report stated that officials had in some cases prohibited live births in prison and ordered forced abortions as recently as 2013. The KINU white paper found that, in some cases of live birth, the prison guards killed the infant or left the baby to die, and reported cases of guards sexually abusing or exploiting female prisoners"(2-3)."UNICEF reported that the deteriorating health system, lack of medicine, and emergency referrals affected the high rate of maternal mortality. The World ...more
Nov. 10, 2017, 1:02 p.m.
Countries: North Korea
Variables: MARR-PRACTICE-6

"The Worker’s Party of Korea (WPK) is the key governing body in the country; party membership is dictated by social and family background and is the key determinant of social mobility. The government divided citizens into strict loyalty-based classes known as 'songbun,' which determined access to employment, higher education, place of residence, medical facilities, certain stores, marriage prospects, and food rations"(6)."The country is racially and ethnically homogenous. There are officially no minorities"(11)
Nov. 10, 2017, 1:02 p.m.
Countries: North Korea
Variables: CWC-DATA-4

"There were reports of female victims of trafficking among refugees and workers crossing the border into China"(1)."Nongovernmental organizations (NGOs) and press reports indicated that border guards had orders to shoot to kill individuals leaving the country without permission"(1)."After bilateral talks between the DPRK and Japan in May 2014, the DPRK agreed to reopen the investigation into the whereabouts of 12 Japanese citizens believed to have been abducted by the DPRK"(2)."ROK government and media reports noted that the DPRK also kidnapped other foreign nationals from locations abroad in the 1970s and 1980s. The DPRK continued to deny its involvement in the kidnappings. The ROK Ministry of Unification reported that an estimated ...more
Nov. 10, 2017, 1:02 p.m.
Countries: North Korea
Variables: CIWM-PRACTICE-1, CIWM-DATA-1, MURDER-DATA-1, IIP-PRACTICE-1

"According to the Hidden Gulag IV report, since late 2008, Jongo-ri (Camp 12) in North Hamkyung Province was expanded to include a women’s annex. Camp 12’s women’s annex holds approximately 1,000 women, most of whom were imprisoned after being repatriated from China. The existence of this women’s annex was corroborated by satellite imagery and defector testimony. Defector testimony cited food rations below subsistence levels, forced labor, and high rates of death due to starvation at Camp 12"(3)
Nov. 10, 2017, 1:02 p.m.
Countries: North Korea
Variables: DV-LAW-2

"According to the KINU [Korean Institute for National Unification] 2015 white paper, the 2012 revision of the country’s criminal code indicated a sentence reduction for rape and domestic violence"(12)."The law states that a man who has sexual intercourse with a girl under age 15 shall be 'punished gravely.' There was no reporting on whether the government upheld this law"(14)
Nov. 10, 2017, 1:02 p.m.
Countries: North Korea
Variables: DACH-DATA-1

"According to UN Children’s Fund (UNICEF) statistics, the maternal mortality rate in 2013 was 87 per 100,000 live births. Final results from the 2012 National Nutrition Survey--conducted by the Central Bureau of Statistics, with technical assistance from the World Food Program, UNICEF, and World Health Organization--estimated that the maternal mortality rate from 2008 to 2010 decreased slightly, from 85 to 76 per 100,000 live births. UNICEF reported that the deteriorating health system, lack of medicine, and emergency referrals affected the high rate of maternal mortality"(13)."The KINU [The Korean Institute for National Unification] 2015 white paper also cited very high levels of maternal and infant mortality. Pregnant women sentenced to detention ...more
Nov. 10, 2017, 1:02 p.m.
Countries: North Korea
Variables: ERBG-LAW-1

"Despite an extensive legal framework providing for equality for women, such as equal employment opportunities and equal pay, societal and legal discrimination continued. A 2013 report on the Status of Women’s Rights in the Context of Socio-Economic Changes in the DPRK, by the ROK-based NGO Citizens’ Alliance for North Korea Human Rights, stated that it could not detect any major changes as a result of the 2010 Women’s Rights Protection Act. The report noted the act was vague, lacked the designation of an administering agency, did not include punishments for noncompliance, and had no accompanying implementing legislation"(12)."Although the law provides that all citizens 'may enjoy equal rights in all spheres ...more
Nov. 10, 2017, 1:02 p.m.
Countries: North Korea
Variables: PPWA-DATA-1

"The World Food Program found that 31 percent of women surveyed suffered from anemia, which increases the likelihood of maternal mortality"(13)
Nov. 10, 2017, 1:02 p.m.
Countries: North Korea
Variables: CWC-DATA-3

"There were reports of female victims of trafficking among refugees and workers crossing the border into China"(1)."Defector and refugee reports noted instances in which the government executed political prisoners, opponents of the government, repatriated defectors, government officials, and others accused of crimes"(1)."Nongovernmental organizations (NGOs) and press reports indicated that border guards had orders to shoot to kill individuals leaving the country without permission"(1)."The law provides for the 'freedom to reside in or travel to any place'; however, the government did not respect this right. The government continued to control internal travel carefully. The government did not cooperate with the Office of the UN High Commissioner for Refugees or other humanitarian ...more
Nov. 10, 2017, 1:02 p.m.
Countries: North Korea
Variables: ERBG-DATA-2, ERBG-DATA-5

"The press and think tanks reported that while women were less likely than men to be assigned full-time jobs, they had more opportunity to work outside the socialist economy"(13)."A 2014 UN COI report noted that, despite the economic advancement of women, the state continued to discriminate against them and imposed many restrictions on the woman-dominated market"(18)
Nov. 10, 2017, 1:02 p.m.
Countries: North Korea
Variables: LRW-LAW-1

"Prison guards reportedly raped women in prison camps and forced them to have abortions"(12)."The law states that a man who has sexual intercourse with a girl under age 15 shall be 'punished gravely.' There was no reporting on whether the government upheld this law"(14)
Nov. 10, 2017, 1:02 p.m.
Countries: North Korea
Variables: SEGI-PRACTICE-1

"HRNK’s [Committee for Human Rights in North Korea] Hidden Gulag IV: Gender Repression & Prisoner Disappearances reported that the Sorimchon/Kumchon-ri zone within Yodok political penal-labor camp (Camp 15) in South Hamkyung Province was demolished in late 2014. The whereabouts of the former prisoners of this section of the camp remain unknown"(2)."The 2015 White Paper on Human Rights in North Korea, published by the Korea Institute for National Unification (KINU), a South Korean government-affiliated think tank, and the 2014 UN Commission of Inquiry (COI) report stated that officials had in some cases prohibited live births in prison and ordered forced abortions as recently as 2013. The KINU white paper found that, ...more
Nov. 10, 2017, 1:02 p.m.
Countries: North Korea
Variables: CLCW-PRACTICE-1

"Citizenship is derived from one’s parents and, in some cases, birth within the country’s territory"(13)