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Latest items for Panama

Dec. 26, 2017, 10:52 p.m.
Countries: Panama
Variables: IRP-LAW-5

"The penal code also punishes individuals for selling or negotiating the purchase of sexual favors from persons in prostitution with penalties of up to 10 years’ imprisonment when the victim is younger than 18. Sex tourism involving children is also punishable. The government did not collect statistics on sex tourism involving children"(18)
Dec. 26, 2017, 10:52 p.m.
Countries: Panama
Variables: AFE-LAW-1

"The law prohibits sexual harassment in cases of established employer-employee relations in the public and private sectors and in teacher-student relations.Violators face a maximum three-year prison sentence"(17)
Dec. 26, 2017, 10:52 p.m.
Countries: Panama
Variables: LRW-PRACTICE-2

"The law criminalizes rape, including spousal rape, with prison terms of five to 10 years, or eight to 10 years under aggravating circumstances, such as use of a weapon. The government generally implemented criminal aspects of the law better than protection aspects of the law"(16)."NGOs reported that many women were reluctant to report rapes due to fear of retaliation, inadequate response, and social stigma"(16)."There is a lack of shelters for victims of domestic abuse. The government, through the National Institute for Women Affairs (INAMU), operated a shelter in Panama City for victims of domestic abuse and offered social, psychological, medical, and legal services. During the year INAMU reopened its shelter...more
Dec. 26, 2017, 10:52 p.m.
Countries: Panama
Variables: UVAW-PRACTICE-1

"Other human rights abuses reported included prolonged pretrial detention, violence against women and children"(1)."In August, journalist Carmen Boyd, a critic of the government’s treatment of journalists and former employee in the Martinelli administration, claimed vandals broke into her car and stole documents and records of former officials who were part of the movement to remove President Varela. In December, Boyd fell victim to another act of vandalism where only her car’s window was broken after she and other members of the Democratic Change political party criticized the government during a press conference. Boyd claimed the government was responsible for both incidents"(9)."The law against gender violence stipulates stiff penalties for harassment...more
Dec. 26, 2017, 10:52 p.m.
Countries: Panama
Variables: AOM-LAW-1

"The minimum legal age for marriage is 18. During the year the government amended the law to remove provisions permitting an earlier age of marriage with parental permission"(18)
Dec. 26, 2017, 10:52 p.m.
Countries: Panama
Variables: PRN-LAW-1

"Sexual abuse of children was reported in urban and rural areas, as well as within indigenous communities. As of September government statistics showed 792 cases of child pornography, although how many individuals were charged was unclear"(18)."The law provides for prison terms of three to five years for anyone who practices, facilitates, or promotes the corruption of a minor, and it criminalizes child pornography with the same penalty"(18)
Dec. 26, 2017, 10:52 p.m.
Countries: Panama
Variables: IRP-LAW-1

"The penal code also punishes individuals for selling or negotiating the purchase of sexual favors from persons in prostitution with penalties of up to 10 years’ imprisonment when the victim is younger than 18. Sex tourism involving children is also punishable. The government did not collect statistics on sex tourism involving children"(18)
Dec. 26, 2017, 10:52 p.m.
Countries: Panama
Variables: CWC-DATA-4

"The law provides for freedom of internal movement, foreign travel, emigration, and repatriation, and the government generally respected these rights, except for some instances of internal movement in Darien province"(10)."Many indigenous laborers migrated seasonally from the country to Costa Rica, and both governments were concerned about public health risks associated with these movements. The Ministry of Health established centers for primary health care near the border crossings for vaccinations and regular health exams for this migrant population"(24). "The law prohibits all forms of forced labor of adults or children. The law establishes penalties of 15 to 20 years’ imprisonment for forced labor involving movement (either cross-border or within the country)...more
Dec. 26, 2017, 10:52 p.m.
Countries: Panama
Variables: GP-DATA-3

"Domestic violence continued to be a serious and underreported problem. Statistics varied widely between reporting authorities. The Integrated National System for Criminal Statistics (SIEC) reported an average of 1,500 domestic violence cases per month nationwide, an increase of 11 percent from 2014. Through October, 25 women and one man were reported killed by their domestic partners or their domestic partners’ former spouses, according to government statistics. A SIEC report noted, however, that there was a substantial difference in the statistics reported by the PNP from police stations and those reported by the DIJ"(16)."The penal code also punishes individuals for selling or negotiating the purchase of sexual favors from persons in...more
Dec. 26, 2017, 10:52 p.m.
Countries: Panama
Variables: IIP-PRACTICE-2

"In August, journalist Carmen Boyd, a critic of the government’s treatment of journalists and former employee in the Martinelli administration, claimed vandals broke into her car and stole documents and records of former officials who were part of the movement to remove President Varela. In December, Boyd fell victim to another act of vandalism where only her car’s window was broken after she and other members of the Democratic Change political party criticized the government during a press conference. Boyd claimed the government was responsible for both incidents"(9)
Dec. 26, 2017, 10:52 p.m.
Countries: Panama
Variables: LRCM-PRACTICE-1

"The law criminalizes rape, including spousal rape, with prison terms of five to 10 years, or eight to 10 years under aggravating circumstances, such as use of a weapon. The government generally implemented criminal aspects of the law better than protection aspects of the law"(16)."NGOs reported that many women were reluctant to report rapes due to fear of retaliation, inadequate response, and social stigma"(16)
Dec. 26, 2017, 10:52 p.m.
Countries: Panama
Variables: TRAFF-DATA-1

"Other human rights abuses reported included prolonged pretrial detention, violence against women and children, trafficking in persons"(1)."Other human rights abuses reported included prolonged pretrial detention, violence against women and children, trafficking in persons...and child labor"(1)."The penal code also punishes individuals for selling or negotiating the purchase of sexual favors from persons in prostitution with penalties of up to 10 years’ imprisonment when the victim is younger than 18. Sex tourism involving children is also punishable. The government did not collect statistics on sex tourism involving children"(18)."There were anecdotal reports that Chinese citizens were forced to work in grocery stores and laundries in situations of debt bondage, as well as reports...more
Dec. 26, 2017, 10:52 p.m.
Countries: Panama
Variables: LO-PRACTICE-1, LO-DATA-3, IAW-LAW-1

"The law prohibits discrimination based on gender, and women enjoyed the same legal status and rights as men under family, labor, property, and inheritance law. The law recognizes joint property in marriages"(17)
Dec. 26, 2017, 10:52 p.m.
Countries: Panama
Variables: ERBG-LAW-2

"The law prohibits sexual harassment in cases of established employer-employee relations in the public and private sectors and in teacher-student relations.Violators face a maximum three-year prison sentence. The extent of the problem was difficult to determine, because convictions for sexual harassment were rare, and pre-employment sexual harassment was not actionable"(17)."Despite a lack of statistics, the Ombudsman’s Office shared anecdotal information of a perceived increase in recently hired women who were fired once their pregnancies were known. Although an illegal practice, many potential employers requested pregnancy tests"(18)."The law does not prohibit discrimination based on sexual orientation, and there was societal discrimination based on sexual orientation and gender identity, which often led...more
Dec. 26, 2017, 10:52 p.m.
Countries: Panama
Variables: DSFMF-DATA-1

"The law prohibits discrimination against persons with HIV/AIDS in employment and education, but discrimination continued to be common due to ignorance of the law and a lack of mechanisms for ensuring compliance"(25). This data point is speaking about HIV among the general population, not specifically among women (ENB-Coder Comment)
Dec. 26, 2017, 10:52 p.m.
Countries: Panama
Variables: MURDER-PRACTICE-2

"The law against gender violence stipulates stiff penalties for harassment and both physical and emotional abuse and provides for prison terms of up to 30 years for murder. The law criminalizes domestic abuse and family violence with prison terms of two to four years and makes domestic violence an aggravating circumstance in homicide cases"(16)."Domestic violence continued to be a serious and underreported problem. Statistics varied widely between reporting authorities. The Integrated National System for Criminal Statistics (SIEC) reported an average of 1,500 domestic violence cases per month nationwide, an increase of 11 percent from 2014. Through October, 25 women and one man were reported killed by their domestic partners or...more
Dec. 26, 2017, 10:52 p.m.
Countries: Panama
Variables: DTCP-PRACTICE-1

"Prison conditions for women were generally better than for men, but conditions for both populations remained poor, with overcrowded facilities, poor medical care, and a lack of basic supplies for personal hygiene"(2)."In August the government awarded a contract to improve sanitation at the women’s prison in Panama City, which held more than 800 inmates"(5)."Rapes constituted the majority of sexual crimes investigated by the PNP and the PNP’s Directorate of Judicial Investigation. NGOs reported that many women were reluctant to report rapes due to fear of retaliation, inadequate response, and social stigma"(16)."Domestic violence continued to be a serious and underreported problem. Statistics varied widely between reporting authorities. The Integrated National System...more
Dec. 26, 2017, 10:52 p.m.
Countries: Panama
Variables: ERBG-DATA-2

"Of the 1,230 juvenile inmates held in six detention centers, 222 were convicted, and 267 were in pretrial detention, with the remaining juveniles under house arrest. There were only 141 custodians (most of them women) for the six centers and eight medical providers"(3)."Despite a lack of statistics, the Ombudsman’s Office shared anecdotal information of a perceived increase in recently hired women who were fired once their pregnancies were known. Although an illegal practice, many potential employers requested pregnancy tests"(18)
Dec. 26, 2017, 10:52 p.m.
Countries: Panama
Variables: AW-PRACTICE-1

"The country’s laws provide for the granting of asylum or refugee status, and the government has established a system for providing protection to refugees. The process of obtaining refugee status generally took as long as a year, but ONPAR [National Office for Attention to Refugees] considered expediting cases involving vulnerable applicants, such as pregnant women and minors"(10)
Dec. 26, 2017, 10:52 p.m.
Countries: Panama
Variables: AOM-PRACTICE-1

"The minimum legal age for marriage is 18. During the year the government amended the law to remove provisions permitting an earlier age of marriage with parental permission"(18)
Dec. 26, 2017, 10:52 p.m.
Countries: Panama
Variables: TRAFF-PRACTICE-1

"Other human rights abuses reported included prolonged pretrial detention, violence against women and children, trafficking in persons"(1)."The penal code also punishes individuals for selling or negotiating the purchase of sexual favors from persons in prostitution with penalties of up to 10 years’ imprisonment when the victim is younger than 18. Sex tourism involving children is also punishable. The government did not collect statistics on sex tourism involving children"(18)."The National Office for Children, Youth, and Family implemented programs to identify children engaged in the worst forms of child labor, to remove them from exploitative situations, and to provide them with services. The Ministry of Labor offered training on the topic of...more
Dec. 26, 2017, 10:52 p.m.
Countries: Panama
Variables: IRP-LAW-4

"Sex tourism involving children is also punishable. The government did not collect statistics on sex tourism involving children"(18)
Dec. 26, 2017, 10:52 p.m.
Countries: Panama
Variables: LRCM-PRACTICE-2

"The law criminalizes rape, including spousal rape, with prison terms of five to 10 years, or eight to 10 years under aggravating circumstances, such as use of a weapon. The government generally implemented criminal aspects of the law better than protection aspects of the law"(16)
Dec. 26, 2017, 10:52 p.m.
Countries: Panama
Variables: ERBG-PRACTICE-2

"Of the 1,230 juvenile inmates held in six detention centers, 222 were convicted, and 267 were in pretrial detention, with the remaining juveniles under house arrest. There were only 141 custodians (most of them women) for the six centers and eight medical providers"(3)."Despite a lack of statistics, the Ombudsman’s Office shared anecdotal information of a perceived increase in recently hired women who were fired once their pregnancies were known. Although an illegal practice, many potential employers requested pregnancy tests"(18)."Discrimination in employment and occupation occurred with respect to race, sex, gender, disability, sexual orientation and/or gender identity, and HIV-positive status (see section 6)"(32)
Dec. 26, 2017, 10:52 p.m.
Countries: Panama
Variables: CWC-DATA-2

"Couples and individuals generally have the right to decide the number, spacing, and timing of their children; manage their reproductive health; and have access to the information and means to do so, free from discrimination, coercion, or violence. Access to information on contraception and skilled attendance at delivery and in postpartum care were widely available except in provincial-level indigenous regions, where it was limited, according to the American Red Cross and the Ombudsman’s Office"(17)."Sexual abuse of children was reported in urban and rural areas, as well as within indigenous communities"(18)
Dec. 26, 2017, 10:52 p.m.
Countries: Panama
Variables: CWC-DATA-3

"The government generally cooperated with the Office of the UN High Commissioner for Refugees (UNHCR) and other humanitarian organizations in providing protection and assistance to refugees, persons under temporary humanitarian protection (THP), asylum seekers, and other persons of concern"(10)."The country’s laws provide for the granting of asylum or refugee status, and the government has established a system for providing protection to refugees. The process of obtaining refugee status generally took as long as a year, but ONPAR [National Office for Attention to Refugees] considered expediting cases involving vulnerable applicants, such as pregnant women and minors"(10)
Dec. 26, 2017, 10:52 p.m.
Countries: Panama
Variables: ERBG-PRACTICE-1

"Of the 1,230 juvenile inmates held in six detention centers, 222 were convicted, and 267 were in pretrial detention, with the remaining juveniles under house arrest. There were only 141 custodians (most of them women) for the six centers and eight medical providers"(3)."In August, journalist Carmen Boyd, a critic of the government’s treatment of journalists and former employee in the Martinelli administration, claimed vandals broke into her car and stole documents and records of former officials who were part of the movement to remove President Varela. In December, Boyd fell victim to another act of vandalism where only her car’s window was broken after she and other members of the...more
Dec. 26, 2017, 10:52 p.m.
Countries: Panama
Variables: ERBG-DATA-3, CBMC-PRACTICE-2

"Despite a lack of statistics, the Ombudsman’s Office shared anecdotal information of a perceived increase in recently hired women who were fired once their pregnancies were known. Although an illegal practice, many potential employers requested pregnancy tests"(18)
Dec. 26, 2017, 10:52 p.m.
Countries: Panama
Variables: LRW-LAW-1, LRW-LAW-2

"The law criminalizes rape, including spousal rape, with prison terms of five to 10 years, or eight to 10 years under aggravating circumstances, such as use of a weapon"(16)."The law against gender violence stipulates stiff penalties for harassment and both physical and emotional abuse and provides for prison terms of up to 30 years for murder"(16)."The law prohibits sexual harassment in cases of established employer-employee relations in the public and private sectors and in teacher-student relations.Violators face a maximum three-year prison sentence. The extent of the problem was difficult to determine, because convictions for sexual harassment were rare, and pre-employment sexual harassment was not actionable"(17)."The law prohibits consensual sex between...more
Dec. 26, 2017, 10:52 p.m.
Countries: Panama
Variables: IRP-PRACTICE-1

"The penal code also punishes individuals for selling or negotiating the purchase of sexual favors from persons in prostitution with penalties of up to 10 years’ imprisonment when the victim is younger than 18. Sex tourism involving children is also punishable. The government did not collect statistics on sex tourism involving children"(18)."There were anecdotal reports that Chinese citizens were forced to work in grocery stores and laundries in situations of debt bondage, as well as reports that Nicaraguan and Colombian women were subjected to domestic servitude. According to leaders of the Central General Autonomy for Workers, forced labor continued to be a growing problem, particularly in the commercial sex industry"(29-30)more