The most comprehensive compilation of information on the status of
women in the world.

Latest items for Rwanda

Dec. 7, 2019, 10:51 a.m.
Countries: Rwanda
Variables: LBHO-LAW-2

"The countries that were able to achieve some measure of gender parity all have one thing in common: They initially or continue to rely on quotas to increase representation of women in parliament. Rwanda’s post-genocide constitution requires that 30 percent of all decision-making bodies be made up of women" (2).
Dec. 7, 2019, 10:51 a.m.
Countries: Rwanda
Variables: LBHO-DATA-1

"Although women make up roughly 49.6 percent of the world’s population, only two countries in the world had parliaments that exceeded that ratio as of August 2016. Rwanda leads—57.5 percent of its parliament is made up of women—and Bolivia follows with 51.8 percent" (2).
Dec. 7, 2019, 10:51 a.m.
Countries: Rwanda
Variables: LBHO-PRACTICE-2

"Other East African countries certainly have issues in terms of how women politicians are viewed and treated by their male peers. There are many who argue that leaders like Paul Kagame in Rwanda and Yoweri Museveni in Uganda court women as a political bloc, because they view them as more malleable or susceptible to influence. But the fact remains that these leaders interact with women as a political force to be reckoned with. Women are part of the conversation in these countries in a way that they are not in Kenya and Somalia" (6).
Dec. 7, 2019, 10:43 a.m.
Countries: Rwanda
Variables: LBHO-DATA-1

"Only two countries in the world had parliaments that exceeded that ratio as of August 2016. Rwanda leads—57.5 percent of its parliament is made up of women" (2).
Oct. 18, 2019, 3:05 p.m.
Countries: Belgium, Bolivia, Costa Rica, Cuba, Finland, Mexico, Namibia, New Zealand, Nicaragua, Norway, Rwanda, Senegal, South Africa, Spain, Sweden
Variables: GP-SCALE-2

0.0
Oct. 18, 2019, 12:59 p.m.
Countries: Angola, Bahamas, Benin, Burundi, Cambodia, Cameroon, Congo, D R Congo, Eritrea, Ethiopia, Guinea-Bissau, Iceland, Laos, Madagascar, Malawi, Mozambique, Nepal, Niger, North Korea, Peru, Rwanda, South Sudan, Tanzania, Togo, Uganda, Vietnam, Zambia, Zimbabwe
Variables: ERBG-SCALE-1

0.0
Oct. 16, 2019, 10:40 a.m.
Countries: Rwanda
Variables: TRAFF-PRACTICE-1

"In September 2018, the government adopted a standalone anti-trafficking law, the Law on the Prevention, Suppression, and Punishment of Trafficking-in-Persons and Exploitation of Others, which criminalized sex trafficking and labor trafficking. The law prescribed penalties of 10 to 15 years’ imprisonment and a fine of 10 million to 15 million Rwandan francs ($11,240 to $16,850), which increased to 20 to 25 years’ imprisonment and a fine of 20 million to 25 million Rwandan francs ($22,470 to $28,090) if the offense was transnational in nature. These penalties were sufficiently stringent, and with regard to sex trafficking, commensurate with those prescribed for other serious crimes, such as rape. However, the law defined...more
Oct. 16, 2019, 10:40 a.m.
Countries: Rwanda
Variables: TRAFF-PRACTICE-3

"The antitrafficking law did not provide foreign trafficking victims with specific legal alternatives to their removal to a country where they may face hardship or retribution; but, in practice, the government made efforts not to deport foreign victims who faced retribution in their home country. Government assistance to victims was not contingent upon a victim’s participation in law enforcement investigations" (405).
Oct. 16, 2019, 10:37 a.m.
Countries: Rwanda
Variables: TRAFF-PRACTICE-2

"As reported over the past five years, human traffickers exploit domestic and foreign victims in Rwanda, and traffickers exploit victims from Rwanda abroad. Traffickers exploit Rwandan children and young adults, some of whom are secondary school students between the ages of 13 to 18, in commercial sex in hotels, at times with the cooperation of hotel owners (...) Traffickers subject some Rwandan men, women, and children to sex trafficking and forced labor in domestic work and in agricultural and industrial sectors in destinations around the world; the primary destinations for Rwandan victims are Uganda, the DRC, and other parts of East Africa exploit Rwandan victims in domestic servitude in the...more
Oct. 16, 2019, 10:37 a.m.
Countries: Rwanda
Variables: TRAFF-PRACTICE-1

"The Government of Rwanda does not fully meet the minimum standards for the elimination of trafficking but is making significant efforts to do so. The government demonstrated overall increasing efforts compared to the previous reporting period; therefore Rwanda remained on Tier 2. The government demonstrated overall increasing efforts by investigating and prosecuting more suspected perpetrators of transnational trafficking crimes. The government adopted a comprehensive anti-trafficking law and provided rehabilitation services to more former child combatants associated with armed groups in the Democratic Republic of the Congo (DRC). The government reported providing protection services to victim witnesses in government-run safe houses and training more front line officials than the previous reporting...more
Oct. 16, 2019, 10:36 a.m.
Countries: Rwanda
Variables: TRAFF-DATA-1

"Law enforcement and immigration officials identified 33 transnational trafficking victims in 2018; officials referred all 33 victims for assistance at the government’s one-stop centers, and provided rehabilitation assistance for 19 ex-child combatants in 2018. This compared to 56 transnational victims and four internal victims identified and assisted in 2017" (405).
Sept. 20, 2019, 10:37 a.m.
Countries: Albania, Algeria, Angola, Armenia, Azerbaijan, Bahamas, Barbados, Belarus, Belize, Benin, Bhutan, Bolivia, Botswana, Brazil, Burkina Faso, Cambodia, China, Comoros, Cuba, Dominican Republic, East Timor, Ecuador, Equatorial Guinea, Ethiopia, Fiji, Georgia, Ghana, Indonesia, Israel, Jamaica, Kazakhstan, Kosovo, Kyrgyzstan, Laos, Lebanon, Libya, Lithuania, Madagascar, Malaysia, Mongolia, Mozambique, Namibia, Nepal, Nicaragua, Panama, Paraguay, Philippines, Rwanda, Sierra Leone, Singapore, Suriname, Trinidad/Tobago, Turkey, Turkmenistan, Uganda, United States, Uruguay, Uzbekistan, Vanuatu, Venezuela, Vietnam, Zambia
Variables: MULTIVAR-SCALE-1

3.0
Aug. 3, 2019, 7:10 p.m.
Countries: Botswana, Morocco, Rwanda, Tunisia
Variables: POLY-LAW-1

"Polygamy is prohibited in Botswana, Rwanda and Tunisia, and highly restricted in Morocco, and so women who marry into these arrangements have no legal protection" (10)
June 20, 2019, 3:46 p.m.
Countries: Rwanda
Variables: CONST-LAW-1

The constitution provides that all citizens are equal before the law, without discrimination based on ethnic origin, tribe, clan, color, sex, region, social origin, religion or faith, political opinion, economic status, culture, language, social status, or physical or mental disability. The constitution and law are silent on discrimination based on sexual orientation, gender identity, age, language, HIV-positive status or having other communicable diseases. The government generally enforced the law’s provisions, although problems remained" (Pg 30).
June 20, 2019, 3:46 p.m.
Countries: Rwanda
Variables: GP-DATA-3

"The government continued a whole-of-government, multistakeholder campaign against GBV, child abuse, and other types of domestic violence. GBV was a required training module for police and military at all levels, and was included as a module for all troops and police deploying to peacekeeping missions abroad" (Pg 31). "The government-funded National Women’s Council served as a forum for women’s issues and consulted with the government on land, inheritance, and child protection laws. The Ministry of Gender led government programs to address women’s issues and coordinated programs with other ministries, police, and NGOs, including the national action plan for the implementation of UN Security Council Resolution 1325 on women, peace, and...more
June 20, 2019, 3:46 p.m.
Countries: Rwanda
Variables: IAW-LAW-1, IAD-LAW-1

"The law allows women to inherit property from their fathers and husbands, and couples may make their own legal property arrangements" (Pg 33).
June 20, 2019, 3:46 p.m.
Countries: Rwanda
Variables: LRW-LAW-1

"The law criminalizes rape and spousal rape, and the government handled rape cases as a judicial priority. Penalties for rape ranged from five-years to life imprisonment with fines of 500,000 to one million Rwandan francs ($696 to $1,392). Penalties for spousal rape ranged from two months to life imprisonment with fines of 100,000 to 300,000 Rwandan francs ($139 to $417)" (Pg 30). "The law states sexual relations with a child under age 18 constitute child defilement and are punishable by life in prison and a fine of 100,000 to one million Rwandan francs ($139 to $1,392). According to 2013 RNP statistics, statutory rape topped the GBV crime list, representing 47...more
June 20, 2019, 3:46 p.m.
Countries: Rwanda
Variables: LRW-LAW-2, LRCM-LAW-2

"The law criminalizes rape and spousal rape, and the government handled rape cases as a judicial priority. Penalties for rape ranged from five-years to life imprisonment with fines of 500,000 to one million Rwandan francs ($696 to $1,392). Penalties for spousal rape ranged from two months to life imprisonment with fines of 100,000 to 300,000 Rwandan francs ($139 to $417)" (Pg 30).
June 20, 2019, 3:46 p.m.
Countries: Rwanda
Variables: ERBG-PRACTICE-1, ERBG-LAW-2, IIP-PRACTICE-2, IIP-LAW-2

"The law prohibits sexual harassment by employers or any other person and provides for penalties for conviction of two months’ to two years’ imprisonment and fines from 100,000 to 500,000 Rwandan francs ($139 to $696). Nevertheless, advocacy organizations reported sexual harassment remained common. The City of Kigali continued a program to combat sexual harassment of women and girls in public spaces, and government officials frequently spoke against sexual harassment and GBV. The effectiveness of government enforcement efforts was unknown" (Pg 32).
June 20, 2019, 3:46 p.m.
Countries: Rwanda
Variables: ERBG-DATA-1

"The law requires equal pay for equal work and prohibits discrimination in hiring decisions (see section 7.d.). Women, however, were more likely to be paid in kind than in cash, and only one-third of married women with earnings made as much as their husband" (Pg 33).
June 20, 2019, 3:46 p.m.
Countries: Rwanda
Variables: CWC-DATA-2, MARR-PRACTICE-1, MARR-LAW-1, AOM-PRACTICE-1, AOM-LAW-1

"The minimum age for marriage is 21. Anecdotal evidence suggested child marriage was more common in rural areas and refugee camps than in urban areas" (Pg 35).
June 20, 2019, 3:46 p.m.
Countries: Rwanda
Variables: LRW-PRACTICE-2, DV-PRACTICE-2

"Police headquarters in Kigali had a hotline for domestic violence. Several other government ministries also had free GBV hotlines. Each of the 78 police stations nationwide had its own gender desk, an average of three officers trained in handling domestic violence and GBV cases, and a public outreach program. The RNP Directorate against GBV handled all cases of such violence and child protection. Fifteen one-stop centers were established throughout the country, providing medical, psychological, legal, and police assistance at no cost to victims of domestic violence. The government continued to expand the network of one-stop centers in hospitals, districts, and refugee camps" (Pg 31).
June 20, 2019, 3:46 p.m.
Countries: Rwanda
Variables: ATC-DATA-6

"The government-funded National Women’s Council served as a forum for women’s issues and consulted with the government on land, inheritance, and child protection laws. The Ministry of Gender led government programs to address women’s issues and coordinated programs with other ministries, police, and NGOs, including the national action plan for the implementation of UN Security Council Resolution 1325 on women, peace, and security. The government provided scholarships for girls in primary and secondary school and loans to rural women. A number of women’s groups actively promoted women and children’s concerns, particularly those of widows, orphaned girls, and households headed by children. The government-run Gender Monitoring Office tracked the mainstreaming of...more
June 20, 2019, 3:46 p.m.
Countries: Rwanda
Variables: INFIB-LAW-1

"The law considers all sex-based practices carried out on children, regardless of form or method and including FGM/C, to be defilement, which is punishable by life in prison and a fine of 100,000 to one million Rwandan francs ($139 to $1,392). There were no reports of FGM/C perpetrated against children during the year" (Pg 31).
June 20, 2019, 3:46 p.m.
Countries: Rwanda
Variables: CWC-DATA-3, AFE-PRACTICE-1

"Authorities generally provided adequate security and physical protection within refugee camps. The RNP worked with UNHCR to station police officers in refugee camps, and refugees were free to file complaints at area police stations. Gender-based violence (GBV) continued to be a problem, and refugee leaders reported limited access to education after grade nine contributed to delinquency and GBV among youth. RNP officers at refugee camps received GBV training and instruction on investigation and protection in these cases" (Pg 21).
June 20, 2019, 3:46 p.m.
Countries: Rwanda
Variables: LO-PRACTICE-1

"Women experienced some difficulties pursuing property claims due to lack of knowledge, procedural bias against women in inheritance matters, multiple spousal claims due to polygyny, and the threat of GBV" (Pg 33).
June 20, 2019, 3:46 p.m.
Countries: Rwanda
Variables: GP-DATA-1

"Women comprised 64 percent of the Chamber of Deputies and one-third of cabinet ministers, but were a minority in district and sector-level government positions. The July organic law on cell- and sector-level Mediation Committees decreed that at least 30 percent of Mediation Committee members must be women. According to the Ministry of Industry and Commerce’s 2011 Establishment Census, women managed approximately 26 percent of all formal enterprises. Men owned the major assets of most households, however, particularly those at the lower end of the economic spectrum, making bank credit inaccessible to many women and rendering it difficult to start or expand a business" (Pg 33).
June 20, 2019, 3:46 p.m.
Countries: Rwanda
Variables: CRPLB-PRACTICE-1, MMR-PRACTICE-1, MMR-DATA-1

"According to the United Nations, the estimated maternal mortality ratio in during the year was 290 deaths per 100,000 live births, with a lifetime risk of maternal death of one in 66. Major factors influencing maternal mortality included lack of skilled health-care attendants at birth, lack of access to health facilities due to cost or distance, and unhygienic conditions. According to the UN Population Fund, skilled birth attendants attended 91 percent of births in 2014" (Pg 32).
June 20, 2019, 3:46 p.m.
Countries: Rwanda
Variables: AFE-DATA-1

"Attendance was higher among girls than boys for both levels of education: 89 percent for girls versus 87 percent for boys in primary school, and 25 percent for girls versus 21 percent for boys in secondary school" (Pg 34).
June 20, 2019, 3:46 p.m.
Countries: Rwanda
Variables: ABO-PRACTICE-1, ABO-LAW-1, ABO-DATA-1

"Ipas and the Great Lakes Initiative for Human Rights Development reported that an average of 25 percent of women in prison were serving sentences for illegal abortion, and were often arrested after seeking emergency health care for the management of complications arising from abortion. The RCS disputed the findings, stating only 2 percent of women in prison were serving sentences for illegal abortion" (Pg 32-33).