The most comprehensive compilation of information on the status of
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Latest items for Somalia

Dec. 7, 2019, 10:50 a.m.
Countries: Somalia
Variables: GP-DATA-1

"Still, this does not deter women like Fadumo Dayib, who, in 2014, became the first woman to declare her candidacy for president in Somalia" (5).
Dec. 7, 2019, 10:50 a.m.
Countries: Somalia
Variables: LBHO-LAW-2

"In Somalia, the Electoral Implementation Team—a donor-supported body that has devised and will be implementing the rules under which the 2016 election will occur—promised that 30 percent of all the seats in the incoming parliament would be reserved for women" (2-3).
Dec. 7, 2019, 10:50 a.m.
Countries: Somalia
Variables: INFIB-DATA-2, DV-DATA-1

"TrustLaw, part of the Thomson Reuters Legal Foundation, determined in a 2011 survey that 'Somalia was the fifth worst place in the world to be a woman,' due to risk of female genital mutilation and domestic violence. Indeed, the minister for development and social affairs at the time, Maryan Qasim, told The Guardian that she was surprised that Somalia was not in first place, because for women it is 'a living hell' (3).
Dec. 7, 2019, 10:50 a.m.
Countries: Somalia
Variables: ATDW-LAW-2

"This system negates the many progressive electoral and legal changes that were put in place in Somalia before the war. In 1975, for instance, changes to the family law made men and women equal in the eyes of the legal system and secured matrimonial property for women in the event of a divorce. This law is no longer in use in Somalia—nor even in Somaliland, an autonomous region that considers itself more progressive than Mogadishu" (5).
Dec. 7, 2019, 10:50 a.m.
Countries: Somalia
Variables: LBHO-PRACTICE-2

"Meanwhile, Anisa Hajimumin, minister for Women Development and Family Affairs in the semi-autonomous Puntland region, is emphatic that the 30 percent quota should just be the beginning. Hajimumin argues that women have always played a major role in keeping Somalia running, especially during the war years, and they deserve to have their concerns about development and social protection articulated in the legislature. 'By claiming that women will be no part of politics, [these politicians are saying] only men will rule and be ruled—an indirect denial of access to development for women and children,' the minister said. For Hajimumin, there is nothing un-Somali or un-Islamic about women in government: 'Neither the...more
Dec. 7, 2019, 10:50 a.m.
Countries: Somalia
Variables: UVAW-PRACTICE-1

"Terrorism has only made things worse. Aside from defining strict domestic roles for women, the presence of al-Shabab has increased the risk of gender-based violence and generalized violence against women" (5).
Dec. 7, 2019, 10:50 a.m.
Countries: Somalia
Variables: LBHO-PRACTICE-3

"This phenomenon is also prevalent across the border in Somalia, where conflict and the influence from more conservative Gulf nations have already constricted the space for women in public life. Negotiated democracy only aggravates this situation. Elections in Somalia are not by direct, universal suffrage but by nomination and quotas based on the country’s four major clans. Here, too, it is the council of elders who determines which candidates will be allowed to speak for the group, and again the councils rarely allow women to take up the mantle. In fact, on Oct. 2, a council of religious elders denounced the 30 percent parliamentary quota as a 'foreign-led initiative.' (5)....more
Dec. 7, 2019, 10:50 a.m.
Countries: Somalia
Variables: LBHO-DATA-1

"And yet at 20.8 percent and 13.8 percent respectively, Kenya and Somalia have the lowest proportions of women in parliament in East Africa" (3).
Dec. 7, 2019, 10:50 a.m.
Countries: Somalia
Variables: SEGI-PRACTICE-1

"In the lead up to the 2016 election, one sheikh in Mogadishu seemed to suggest that equality of men and women was contrary to Islamic teachings, though he has since retracted the statement" (5). "For Hajimumin, there is nothing un-Somali or un-Islamic about women in government: “Neither the Quran nor the Sunnah reject what current women political aspirants are aiming for,” which is simply a seat at the table" (6).
Dec. 7, 2019, 10:50 a.m.
Countries: Somalia
Variables: LBHO-PRACTICE-1

"Here, too, it is the council of elders who determines which candidates will be allowed to speak for the group, and again the councils rarely allow women to take up the mantle. In fact, on Oct. 2, a council of religious elders denounced the 30 percent parliamentary quota as a 'foreign-led initiative.' (5).
Dec. 7, 2019, 10:43 a.m.
Countries: Kenya, Somalia
Variables: LBHO-DATA-1

"And yet at 20.8 percent and 13.8 percent respectively, Kenya and Somalia have the lowest proportions of women in parliament in East Africa" (3).
Oct. 18, 2019, 3:05 p.m.
Countries: Armenia, Azerbaijan, Bahamas, Bahrain, Bangladesh, Barbados, Bhutan, Bosnia-Herzegovina, Brazil, Burkina Faso, Burma/Myanmar, Cambodia, Cape Verde, Chad, Chile, China, Colombia, Congo, Cote D'Ivoire, Croatia, Cyprus, Czech Republic, Egypt, Equatorial Guinea, Eritrea, Fiji, Gabon, Georgia, Ghana, Greece, Guatemala, Guinea, Guinea-Bissau, Honduras, Hungary, India, Indonesia, Ireland, Israel, Jamaica, Jordan, Kenya, Kyrgyzstan, Lesotho, Liberia, Libya, Lithuania, Luxembourg, Madagascar, Malawi, Malaysia, Malta, Mauritania, Mauritius, Mongolia, Montenegro, Morocco, Niger, North Korea, Pakistan, Panama, Paraguay, Romania, Russia, Saudi Arabia, Sierra Leone, Singapore, Slovakia, Slovenia, Somalia, South Korea, Syria, Tajikistan, Thailand, Togo, Turkey, Turkmenistan, Ukraine, United Arab Emirates, United States, Uruguay, Uzbekistan, Venezuela, Zambia
Variables: GP-SCALE-2

2.0
Oct. 18, 2019, 12:59 p.m.
Countries: Algeria, Bangladesh, Bosnia-Herzegovina, Comoros, East Timor, Egypt, Fiji, India, Iran, Iraq, Jordan, Lebanon, Libya, Mauritania, Moldova, Morocco, Oman, Pakistan, Saudi Arabia, Senegal, Somalia, Sri Lanka, Sudan, Suriname, Syria, Tajikistan, Tunisia, Turkey, Yemen
Variables: ERBG-SCALE-1

2.0
Oct. 16, 2019, 10:40 a.m.
Countries: Somalia
Variables: TRAFF-PRACTICE-1

"The pre-1991 penal code—applicable at the federal and regional levels—criminalized labor trafficking and some forms of sex trafficking. Article 455 criminalized slavery, prescribing penalties of five to 20 years’ imprisonment. Article 464 criminalized forced labor, prescribing penalties of six months’ to five years’ imprisonment. Article 457 criminalized the transferring, disposing, taking possession or holding of a person, and prescribed penalties of three to 12 years’ imprisonment. All of these penalties were sufficiently stringent. Article 408(1) criminalized compelled prostitution of a personthrough violence or threats, prescribing penalties of two to six years’ imprisonment, which was sufficiently stringent but not commensurate with those prescribed for other serious crimes, such as rape. The...more
Oct. 16, 2019, 10:40 a.m.
Countries: Somalia
Variables: TRAFF-PRACTICE-3

"Beyond the scope of an international organization’s migrant response centers, victims had limited access to protective provisions. In 2018, the FGS facilitated the repatriation of 585 returnees to Somalia, a marked increase from 24 Somali migrants it worked to repatriate from Libya, with auxiliary support from the EU, in 2017. There were no legal alternatives to the removal of foreign trafficking victims from Somalia to countries where they may face hardship or retribution" (517).
Oct. 16, 2019, 10:37 a.m.
Countries: Somalia
Variables: TRAFF-PRACTICE-2

"As reported over the past five years, human traffickers exploit domestic and foreign victims in Somalia, and traffickers exploit victims from Somalia abroad. Information regarding trafficking trends and victims in Somalia remains challenging to obtain or authenticate (...) In Somaliland, some women act as recruiters and intermediaries who transport victims to Puntland, Djibouti, and Ethiopia for the purposes of domestic servitude or sex trafficking (...) An increasing number of traffickers target and recruit children, without their parents’ awareness or support by false promises that no payment will be demanded until they reach their targeted destinations. Traffickers and smugglers reportedly take advantage of the vulnerability of IDP women and children, mostly...more
Oct. 16, 2019, 10:37 a.m.
Countries: Somalia
Variables: TRAFF-PRACTICE-1

"Somalia remains a Special Case for the 17th consecutive year. The country continued to face protracted conflict, insecurity, and ongoing humanitarian crises during the reporting period (…) The sustained insurgency by al-Shabaab continued to be the main obstacle to the government’s ability to address human trafficking in practice. The government demonstrated a slightly improved capacity to address most crimes; however, there was demonstrated minimal efforts demonstrated in all regions on prosecution, protection, and prevention of trafficking" (516). "The FGS, Somaliland, and Puntland authorities sustained minimal efforts to combat trafficking during the reporting period. Due to the protracted campaign to degrade al-Shabaab and establish law and order in Somalia, law enforcement,...more
Sept. 20, 2019, 10:37 a.m.
Countries: Afghanistan, Bahrain, Bangladesh, Brunei, Burma/Myanmar, Burundi, Cameroon, Central African Rep, Chad, Colombia, Congo, Cote D'Ivoire, D R Congo, Djibouti, Egypt, El Salvador, Eritrea, Gabon, Gambia, Guatemala, Guinea, Guinea-Bissau, Guyana, Haiti, Honduras, India, Iran, Iraq, Jordan, Kenya, Kuwait, Lesotho, Liberia, Malawi, Mali, Mauritania, Mexico, Morocco, Niger, Nigeria, North Korea, Oman, Pakistan, Palestine, Papua New Guinea, Peru, Qatar, Russia, Saudi Arabia, Senegal, Solomon Islands, Somalia, South Africa, South Korea, South Sudan, Sri Lanka, Sudan, Swaziland, Syria, Tajikistan, Tanzania, Togo, Tunisia, Ukraine, United Arab Emirates, Yemen, Zimbabwe
Variables: MULTIVAR-SCALE-1

4.0
July 12, 2019, 9:16 a.m.
Countries: Somalia
Variables: GEW-PRACTICE-1

"Perpetrators of sexual violence [towards women] include African Union Mission in Somalia (AMISOM) soldiers, government security forces, and Al-Shabaab" (8). "In addition to sexual and gender-based violence, Somali girls are often victim to forced marriages with Al-Shabaab insurgents. Although forced marriage is prohibited under Article 28.5 of the PFC and explicitly condemned in the Qur’an, Al-Shabaab abducts girls while they are at school, en route, or in other public places and uses intimidation and other fear tactics to ensure the girls, their families, and school teachers comply with their demands" (8-9).
July 12, 2019, 9:16 a.m.
Countries: Somalia
Variables: LRW-PRACTICE-2, DSFMF-PRACTICE-4

"Fear of reprisal and stigma, compounded with a culture of impunity and dearth of appropriate medical and social services, often deter victims of sexual assault from seeking justice and medical care. Survivors who pursue legal action are usually subject to the finger test of virginity, threatened by authorities, and/or imprisoned, as in the case of Lul Ali Osman Barake" (8).
July 12, 2019, 9:16 a.m.
Countries: Somalia
Variables: LRW-DATA-1

"Approximately 800 cases of sexual assault were reported in Mogadishu in the first six months of 2013, though the actual number is likely much higher due to chronic underreporting. Children and internally displaced persons remain particularly susceptible to sexual and genderbased violence and comprise more than one third of reported assaults in Somalia" (8).
July 12, 2019, 9:16 a.m.
Countries: Somalia
Variables: INFIB-LAW-1, INFIB-DATA-1

"Prevalence of FGM/C demonstrates persistent gender inequality in Somalia. Although Article 15.4 of the PFC prohibits female circumcision, 98 percent of Somali girls are reported to have undergone the procedure" (9).
July 12, 2019, 9:16 a.m.
Countries: Somalia
Variables: MARR-PRACTICE-1

"The Somali Government has a legal obligation to protect, enforce, and promote women’s rights and gender equality. However, the Somali Government perpetuates gender inequality by failing to develop, implement, and enforce policies that prevent violence against women, forced marriages, and female genital mutilation/cutting (FGM/C)" (8). "In addition to sexual and gender-based violence, Somali girls are often victim to forced marriages with Al-Shabaab insurgents. Although forced marriage is prohibited under Article 28.5 of the PFC and explicitly condemned in the Qur’an, Al-Shabaab abducts girls while they are at school, en route, or in other public places and uses intimidation and other fear tactics to ensure the girls, their families, and school...more
July 12, 2019, 9:16 a.m.
Countries: Somalia
Variables: CWC-DATA-4

"Many Somali refugee families report that one of the primary reasons they left Somalia is due to fear of forced marriage of their daughters" (9).
July 12, 2019, 9:16 a.m.
Countries: Somalia
Variables: EWCMS-PRACTICE-3

"Perpetrators of sexual violence [towards women] include African Union Mission in Somalia (AMISOM) soldiers, government security forces, and Al-Shabaab" (8).
July 12, 2019, 9:16 a.m.
Countries: Somalia
Variables: INFIB-PRACTICE-1

"The Somali Government has a legal obligation to protect, enforce, and promote women’s rights and gender equality. However, the Somali Government perpetuates gender inequality by failing to develop, implement, and enforce policies that prevent violence against women, forced marriages, and female genital mutilation/cutting (FGM/C)" (8). "Prevalence of FGM/C demonstrates persistent gender inequality in Somalia. Although Article 15.4 of the PFC prohibits female circumcision, 98 percent of Somali girls are reported to have undergone the procedure. FGM/C is deeply embedded in the Somali culture: girls cannot get married without undergoing the procedure, due to widespread beliefs that it is a religious requirement, purifies women, and reduces their sexual libido to maintain...more
July 12, 2019, 9:16 a.m.
Countries: Somalia
Variables: CWC-DATA-3

"Children and internally displaced persons remain particularly susceptible to sexual and genderbased violence and comprise more than one third of reported assaults in Somalia" (8).
July 12, 2019, 9:16 a.m.
Countries: Somalia
Variables: DV-PRACTICE-1

"The Somali Government has a legal obligation to protect, enforce, and promote women’s rights and gender equality. However, the Somali Government perpetuates gender inequality by failing to develop, implement, and enforce policies that prevent violence against women, forced marriages, and female genital mutilation/cutting (FGM/C)" (8).
July 12, 2019, 9:16 a.m.
Countries: Somalia
Variables: AFE-PRACTICE-1

"Refusal to cooperate with Al-Shabaab typically results in severe beatings or death, as well as death threats to loved ones. Fear of Al-Shabaab has severe consequences on adolescent girls’ enrolment and retention in school. In one instance, all girls over the age of fifteen dropped out of school after Al-Shabaab kidnapped twelve girls for marriage" (9). "Somali girls who undergo FGM/C as adolescents are often forced to discontinue their education due to excessive bleeding or because they are preparing for marriage" (9).
July 12, 2019, 9:16 a.m.
Countries: Somalia
Variables: MARR-LAW-1

"forced marriage is prohibited under Article 28.5 of the PFC and explicitly condemned in the Qur’an" (8).