The most comprehensive compilation of information on the status of
women in the world.

Latest items for Somalia

Oct. 18, 2019, 3:05 p.m.
Countries: Armenia, Azerbaijan, Bahamas, Bahrain, Bangladesh, Barbados, Bhutan, Bosnia-Herzegovina, Brazil, Burkina Faso, Burma/Myanmar, Cambodia, Cape Verde, Chad, Chile, China, Colombia, Congo, Cote D'Ivoire, Croatia, Cyprus, Czech Republic, Egypt, Equatorial Guinea, Eritrea, Fiji, Gabon, Georgia, Ghana, Greece, Guatemala, Guinea, Guinea-Bissau, Honduras, Hungary, India, Indonesia, Ireland, Israel, Jamaica, Jordan, Kenya, Kyrgyzstan, Lesotho, Liberia, Libya, Lithuania, Luxembourg, Madagascar, Malawi, Malaysia, Malta, Mauritania, Mauritius, Mongolia, Montenegro, Morocco, Niger, North Korea, Pakistan, Panama, Paraguay, Romania, Russia, Saudi Arabia, Sierra Leone, Singapore, Slovakia, Slovenia, Somalia, South Korea, Syria, Tajikistan, Thailand, Togo, Turkey, Turkmenistan, Ukraine, United Arab Emirates, United States, Uruguay, Uzbekistan, Venezuela, Zambia
Variables: GP-SCALE-2

2.0
Oct. 18, 2019, 12:59 p.m.
Countries: Algeria, Bangladesh, Bosnia-Herzegovina, Comoros, East Timor, Egypt, Fiji, India, Iran, Iraq, Jordan, Lebanon, Libya, Mauritania, Moldova, Morocco, Oman, Pakistan, Saudi Arabia, Senegal, Somalia, Sri Lanka, Sudan, Suriname, Syria, Tajikistan, Tunisia, Turkey, Yemen
Variables: ERBG-SCALE-1

2.0
Oct. 16, 2019, 10:40 a.m.
Countries: Somalia
Variables: TRAFF-PRACTICE-1

"The pre-1991 penal code—applicable at the federal and regional levels—criminalized labor trafficking and some forms of sex trafficking. Article 455 criminalized slavery, prescribing penalties of five to 20 years’ imprisonment. Article 464 criminalized forced labor, prescribing penalties of six months’ to five years’ imprisonment. Article 457 criminalized the transferring, disposing, taking possession or holding of a person, and prescribed penalties of three to 12 years’ imprisonment. All of these penalties were sufficiently stringent. Article 408(1) criminalized compelled prostitution of a personthrough violence or threats, prescribing penalties of two to six years’ imprisonment, which was sufficiently stringent but not commensurate with those prescribed for other serious crimes, such as rape. The...more
Oct. 16, 2019, 10:40 a.m.
Countries: Somalia
Variables: TRAFF-PRACTICE-3

"Beyond the scope of an international organization’s migrant response centers, victims had limited access to protective provisions. In 2018, the FGS facilitated the repatriation of 585 returnees to Somalia, a marked increase from 24 Somali migrants it worked to repatriate from Libya, with auxiliary support from the EU, in 2017. There were no legal alternatives to the removal of foreign trafficking victims from Somalia to countries where they may face hardship or retribution" (517).
Oct. 16, 2019, 10:37 a.m.
Countries: Somalia
Variables: TRAFF-PRACTICE-2

"As reported over the past five years, human traffickers exploit domestic and foreign victims in Somalia, and traffickers exploit victims from Somalia abroad. Information regarding trafficking trends and victims in Somalia remains challenging to obtain or authenticate (...) In Somaliland, some women act as recruiters and intermediaries who transport victims to Puntland, Djibouti, and Ethiopia for the purposes of domestic servitude or sex trafficking (...) An increasing number of traffickers target and recruit children, without their parents’ awareness or support by false promises that no payment will be demanded until they reach their targeted destinations. Traffickers and smugglers reportedly take advantage of the vulnerability of IDP women and children, mostly...more
Oct. 16, 2019, 10:37 a.m.
Countries: Somalia
Variables: TRAFF-PRACTICE-1

"Somalia remains a Special Case for the 17th consecutive year. The country continued to face protracted conflict, insecurity, and ongoing humanitarian crises during the reporting period (…) The sustained insurgency by al-Shabaab continued to be the main obstacle to the government’s ability to address human trafficking in practice. The government demonstrated a slightly improved capacity to address most crimes; however, there was demonstrated minimal efforts demonstrated in all regions on prosecution, protection, and prevention of trafficking" (516). "The FGS, Somaliland, and Puntland authorities sustained minimal efforts to combat trafficking during the reporting period. Due to the protracted campaign to degrade al-Shabaab and establish law and order in Somalia, law enforcement,...more
Sept. 20, 2019, 10:37 a.m.
Countries: Afghanistan, Bahrain, Bangladesh, Brunei, Burma/Myanmar, Burundi, Cameroon, Central African Rep, Chad, Colombia, Congo, Cote D'Ivoire, D R Congo, Djibouti, Egypt, El Salvador, Eritrea, Gabon, Gambia, Guatemala, Guinea, Guinea-Bissau, Guyana, Haiti, Honduras, India, Iran, Iraq, Jordan, Kenya, Kuwait, Lesotho, Liberia, Malawi, Mali, Mauritania, Mexico, Morocco, Niger, Nigeria, North Korea, Oman, Pakistan, Palestine, Papua New Guinea, Peru, Qatar, Russia, Saudi Arabia, Senegal, Solomon Islands, Somalia, South Africa, South Korea, South Sudan, Sri Lanka, Sudan, Swaziland, Syria, Tajikistan, Tanzania, Togo, Tunisia, Ukraine, United Arab Emirates, Yemen, Zimbabwe
Variables: MULTIVAR-SCALE-1

4.0
July 12, 2019, 9:16 a.m.
Countries: Somalia
Variables: GEW-PRACTICE-1

"Perpetrators of sexual violence [towards women] include African Union Mission in Somalia (AMISOM) soldiers, government security forces, and Al-Shabaab" (8). "In addition to sexual and gender-based violence, Somali girls are often victim to forced marriages with Al-Shabaab insurgents. Although forced marriage is prohibited under Article 28.5 of the PFC and explicitly condemned in the Qur’an, Al-Shabaab abducts girls while they are at school, en route, or in other public places and uses intimidation and other fear tactics to ensure the girls, their families, and school teachers comply with their demands" (8-9).
July 12, 2019, 9:16 a.m.
Countries: Somalia
Variables: LRW-PRACTICE-2, DSFMF-PRACTICE-4

"Fear of reprisal and stigma, compounded with a culture of impunity and dearth of appropriate medical and social services, often deter victims of sexual assault from seeking justice and medical care. Survivors who pursue legal action are usually subject to the finger test of virginity, threatened by authorities, and/or imprisoned, as in the case of Lul Ali Osman Barake" (8).
July 12, 2019, 9:16 a.m.
Countries: Somalia
Variables: LRW-DATA-1

"Approximately 800 cases of sexual assault were reported in Mogadishu in the first six months of 2013, though the actual number is likely much higher due to chronic underreporting. Children and internally displaced persons remain particularly susceptible to sexual and genderbased violence and comprise more than one third of reported assaults in Somalia" (8).
July 12, 2019, 9:16 a.m.
Countries: Somalia
Variables: INFIB-LAW-1, INFIB-DATA-1

"Prevalence of FGM/C demonstrates persistent gender inequality in Somalia. Although Article 15.4 of the PFC prohibits female circumcision, 98 percent of Somali girls are reported to have undergone the procedure" (9).
July 12, 2019, 9:16 a.m.
Countries: Somalia
Variables: MARR-PRACTICE-1

"The Somali Government has a legal obligation to protect, enforce, and promote women’s rights and gender equality. However, the Somali Government perpetuates gender inequality by failing to develop, implement, and enforce policies that prevent violence against women, forced marriages, and female genital mutilation/cutting (FGM/C)" (8). "In addition to sexual and gender-based violence, Somali girls are often victim to forced marriages with Al-Shabaab insurgents. Although forced marriage is prohibited under Article 28.5 of the PFC and explicitly condemned in the Qur’an, Al-Shabaab abducts girls while they are at school, en route, or in other public places and uses intimidation and other fear tactics to ensure the girls, their families, and school...more
July 12, 2019, 9:16 a.m.
Countries: Somalia
Variables: CWC-DATA-4

"Many Somali refugee families report that one of the primary reasons they left Somalia is due to fear of forced marriage of their daughters" (9).
July 12, 2019, 9:16 a.m.
Countries: Somalia
Variables: EWCMS-PRACTICE-3

"Perpetrators of sexual violence [towards women] include African Union Mission in Somalia (AMISOM) soldiers, government security forces, and Al-Shabaab" (8).
July 12, 2019, 9:16 a.m.
Countries: Somalia
Variables: INFIB-PRACTICE-1

"The Somali Government has a legal obligation to protect, enforce, and promote women’s rights and gender equality. However, the Somali Government perpetuates gender inequality by failing to develop, implement, and enforce policies that prevent violence against women, forced marriages, and female genital mutilation/cutting (FGM/C)" (8). "Prevalence of FGM/C demonstrates persistent gender inequality in Somalia. Although Article 15.4 of the PFC prohibits female circumcision, 98 percent of Somali girls are reported to have undergone the procedure. FGM/C is deeply embedded in the Somali culture: girls cannot get married without undergoing the procedure, due to widespread beliefs that it is a religious requirement, purifies women, and reduces their sexual libido to maintain...more
July 12, 2019, 9:16 a.m.
Countries: Somalia
Variables: CWC-DATA-3

"Children and internally displaced persons remain particularly susceptible to sexual and genderbased violence and comprise more than one third of reported assaults in Somalia" (8).
July 12, 2019, 9:16 a.m.
Countries: Somalia
Variables: DV-PRACTICE-1

"The Somali Government has a legal obligation to protect, enforce, and promote women’s rights and gender equality. However, the Somali Government perpetuates gender inequality by failing to develop, implement, and enforce policies that prevent violence against women, forced marriages, and female genital mutilation/cutting (FGM/C)" (8).
July 12, 2019, 9:16 a.m.
Countries: Somalia
Variables: AFE-PRACTICE-1

"Refusal to cooperate with Al-Shabaab typically results in severe beatings or death, as well as death threats to loved ones. Fear of Al-Shabaab has severe consequences on adolescent girls’ enrolment and retention in school. In one instance, all girls over the age of fifteen dropped out of school after Al-Shabaab kidnapped twelve girls for marriage" (9). "Somali girls who undergo FGM/C as adolescents are often forced to discontinue their education due to excessive bleeding or because they are preparing for marriage" (9).
July 12, 2019, 9:16 a.m.
Countries: Somalia
Variables: MARR-LAW-1

"forced marriage is prohibited under Article 28.5 of the PFC and explicitly condemned in the Qur’an" (8).
June 26, 2019, 11:12 a.m.
Countries: Somalia
Variables: CWC-DATA-2, MARR-PRACTICE-1, MARR-LAW-1, AOM-PRACTICE-1, AOM-LAW-1, AOM-DATA-2

"The provisional federal constitution does not specify a minimum legal age for marriage. It notes marriage requires the free consent of both the man and woman to be legal. Early marriages frequently occurred; 45 percent of women between the ages of 20 and 24 were married by age 18, and 8 percent were married by age 15. In rural areas parents often compelled daughters as young as 12 to marry. In areas under its control, al-Shabaab arranged compulsory marriages between its soldiers and young girls and used the lure of marriage as a recruitment tool. There were no known efforts by the government or regional authorities to prevent early and...more
June 26, 2019, 11:12 a.m.
Countries: Somalia
Variables: AFE-LAW-1

"The provisional constitution provides the right to a free education up to the secondary level, but education was neither tuition-free, compulsory, nor universal. Education needs were partially met by a patchwork of institutions, including a traditional system of Quranic schools; public primary and secondary school systems financed by communities, foreign donors, and the Somaliland and Puntland administrations; Islamic charity-run schools; and a number of privately run primary and secondary schools and vocational training institutes. In many areas children did not have access to schools other than madrassas. Attendance rates for girls remained lower than for boys" (Pg 36).
June 26, 2019, 11:12 a.m.
Countries: Somalia
Variables: LBHO-PRACTICE-1, LBHO-LAW-2

"The roadmap signatories agreed that, prior to the transition to a permanent government, the federal parliament should consist of at least 30 percent women, but women held only 14 percent of 275 seats in parliament" (Pg 29).
June 26, 2019, 11:12 a.m.
Countries: Somalia
Variables: INFIB-LAW-1, INFIB-DATA-1, INFIB-DATA-2

"Although the provisional federal constitution describes female circumcision as cruel and degrading, equates it with torture, and prohibits the circumcision of girls, FGM/C is almost universally practiced throughout the country. UNICEF reported that 98 percent of women and girls had undergone FGM/C and that the majority were subjected to infibulation--the most severe form--which involves cutting and sewing the genitalia. At least 80 percent of Somali girls who have undergone FGM/C had the procedure performed when they were between the ages of five and 14. International and local NGOs conducted education awareness programs on the dangers of FGM/C, but there were no reliable statistics to measure their success" (Pg 34).more
June 26, 2019, 11:12 a.m.
Countries: Somalia
Variables: DACH-PRACTICE-2, DACH-DATA-2

"A woman’s husband often made decisions regarding the couple’s reproduction. Women had very limited ability to decide freely and responsibly the number, spacing, and timing of their children or manage their reproductive health. Very limited information about and little access to contraception was available to women. According to the United Nations, an estimated 1.5 percent of girls and women between the ages of 15 and 49 had access to a modern method of contraception. Women rarely had skilled attendants during pregnancy and childbirth, emergency care for complications arising from abortion, or essential obstetric and postpartum care" (Pg 35).
June 26, 2019, 11:12 a.m.
Countries: Somalia
Variables: CONST-LAW-1

"The provisional federal constitution states that all citizens, regardless of sex, religion, social or economic status, political opinion, clan, disability, occupation, birth, dialect, age, race, color, tribe, ethnicity, culture, or wealth, shall have equal rights and duties before the law. The constitution and law do not prohibit discrimination based on national origin or citizenship, social origin, HIV status, or having other communicable diseases. The provisional constitution does not prohibit discrimination based on sexual orientation or gender identity. Authorities did not enforce antidiscrimination provisions effectively in any of the regions" (Pg 32-33).
June 26, 2019, 11:12 a.m.
Countries: Somalia
Variables: LO-LAW-1, LO-DATA-3, IAD-LAW-1

"While formal law and sharia provide women the right to own and dispose of property independently, various legal, cultural, and societal barriers often obstructed women from exercising such rights. By law girls and women could inherit only half the amount of property to which their brothers were entitled. A 2010 report from a local women’s organization in Somaliland indicated 75 percent of women did not own livestock, land, or other property. Only 15 to 20 percent received inheritance from male family members" (Pg 35-36).
June 26, 2019, 11:12 a.m.
Countries: Somalia
Variables: GEW-PRACTICE-1

"Government forces, allied militia, men wearing uniforms, and AMISOM troops committed sexual violence, including rape (see section 1.g.). Clan leaders in the Lower Juba Region accused the IJA of committing gross human right violations, including torture. On January 6, local politician Mohamed Aden accused IJA authorities of allowing their security forces to commit rape and torture with impunity" (Pg 4). "Government forces, allied militias, men wearing uniforms, and AMISOM troops committed sexual violence, including rape, of IDPs in and around Mogadishu. Al-Shabaab also committed sexual violence, including through forced marriages. A September 2014 Human Rights Watch report documented 24 cases of sexual exploitation and abuse by Ugandan and Burundian AMISOM...more
June 26, 2019, 11:12 a.m.
Countries: Somalia
Variables: ERBG-PRACTICE-1, ERBG-LAW-2

"The provisional federal constitution states that all workers, particularly women, shall have a special right of protection from sexual abuse and discrimination. There were no data on, laws pertaining to, or governmental programs addressing sexual harassment, although it was believed to be widespread in all regions" (Pg 34-35). "The law requires equal pay for equal work. Women formed a negligible part of those employed in both the formal public and private sectors because of girls’ low education level. Women were not subject to discrimination in owning or managing businesses, except in al-Shabaab-controlled areas. Al-Shabaab claimed women’s participation in economic activities was anti-Islamic" (Pg 35).
June 26, 2019, 11:12 a.m.
Countries: Somalia
Variables: MURDER-LAW-1

"Only men administered sharia, which was often applied in the interests of men. According to sharia and the local tradition of blood compensation, anyone found guilty of the death of a woman paid to the victim’s family only half the amount required to compensate for a man’s death" (Pg 35).
June 26, 2019, 11:12 a.m.
Countries: Somalia
Variables: LBHO-DATA-1

"The roadmap signatories agreed that, prior to the transition to a permanent government, the federal parliament should consist of at least 30 percent women, but women held only 14 percent of 275 seats in parliament" (Pg 29). "Somaliland had two women in its 86-member House of Representatives. The sole woman occupying a seat in the House of Elders gained appointment after her husband, who occupied the seat, resigned in 2012. Women traditionally were excluded from the House of Elders. There was one female minister among the 24 cabinet ministers. The Somaliland cabinet included no minorities" (Pg 30).