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Latest items for Swaziland

July 2, 2019, 2:25 p.m.
Countries: Swaziland
Variables: LO-PRACTICE-1

"Girls and women faced discrimination in rural areas by community elders and authority figures, who gave preference to boys in education. Women faced employment discrimination (see section 7.d.). While the constitution provides that women may open bank accounts, obtain passports, and take jobs without the permission of a male relative, these constitutional rights often conflicted with customary law, which classifies women as minors. Both traditional and Roman- Dutch civil law recognize women as dependents of their husbands or fathers. Although women routinely executed contracts and entered into a variety of transactions in their own names, banks often refused personal loans to married women without a male guarantor. The constitution provides...more
July 2, 2019, 2:25 p.m.
Countries: Swaziland
Variables: AFE-PRACTICE-1

"Legal provisions against sexual harassment were vague, and government enforcement was ineffective. No cases have ever been brought to trial. There were frequent reports of sexual harassment, most often of female students by teachers. During the year authorities either fired or suspended numerous teachers and some principals for inappropriate sexual conduct with students. Some teachers threatened female students with poor grades if they did not heed to the teachers’ sexual advances" (Pg 19). "Girls and women faced discrimination in rural areas by community elders and authority figures, who gave preference to boys in education. Women faced employment discrimination (see section 7.d.). While the constitution provides that women may open bank...more
July 2, 2019, 2:25 p.m.
Countries: Swaziland
Variables: ERBG-DATA-1

"Gender-based discrimination in employment and occupation occurred (see section 6). While women have constitutional rights to equal treatment and may take jobs without the permission of a male relative, and the law requires equal pay for equal work, there were few measures in effect protecting women from discrimination in hiring, particularly in the private sector. Despite the law, the average wage rates for men by skill category usually exceeded those of women" (Pg 30).
July 2, 2019, 2:25 p.m.
Countries: Swaziland
Variables: ERBG-PRACTICE-1

"Girls and women faced discrimination in rural areas by community elders and authority figures, who gave preference to boys in education. Women faced employment discrimination (see section 7.d.). While the constitution provides that women may open bank accounts, obtain passports, and take jobs without the permission of a male relative, these constitutional rights often conflicted with customary law, which classifies women as minors. Both traditional and Roman- Dutch civil law recognize women as dependents of their husbands or fathers. Although women routinely executed contracts and entered into a variety of transactions in their own names, banks often refused personal loans to married women without a male guarantor. The constitution provides...more
July 2, 2019, 2:25 p.m.
Countries: Swaziland
Variables: MARR-PRACTICE-1, MARR-LAW-1, AOM-PRACTICE-1, AOM-LAW-1

"The legal age of marriage is 18 years for both boys and girls, but with parental consent and approval from the minister of justice, girls may marry at 16. The government recognizes two types of marriage, civil marriage and marriage under traditional law and custom. Under traditional law marriages are permitted for girls as young as 13. Although the deputy prime minister spoke out against this practice, civil law was generally not enforced to prevent it. According to the Children’s Protection and Welfare Act, however, 'A child has the right to refuse to be compelled to undergo or uphold any custom or practices that are likely to negatively affect the...more
July 2, 2019, 2:25 p.m.
Countries: Swaziland
Variables: CWC-DATA-2

"Women have the right to charge their husbands with assault under both the Roman- Dutch and traditional legal systems, and urban women frequently did so, usually in extreme cases when intervention by extended family members failed to end such violence. Penalties for men found guilty of assault not involving rape against a woman depended on the court’s discretion. Rural women often had no relief if family intervention did not succeed because traditional courts were unsympathetic to “unruly” or “disobedient” women and were less likely than courts using Roman- Dutch-based law to convict men of spousal abuse. The Roman-Dutch legal system often gave light sentences in cases of conviction for abuse...more
July 2, 2019, 2:25 p.m.
Countries: Swaziland
Variables: IIP-PRACTICE-2, IIP-LAW-2

"Legal provisions against sexual harassment were vague, and government enforcement was ineffective. No cases have ever been brought to trial. There were frequent reports of sexual harassment, most often of female students by teachers. During the year authorities either fired or suspended numerous teachers and some principals for inappropriate sexual conduct with students. Some teachers threatened female students with poor grades if they did not heed to the teachers’ sexual advances" (Pg 19).
July 2, 2019, 2:25 p.m.
Countries: Swaziland
Variables: DTCP-PRACTICE-1

"Sexual violence, including rape, allegedly took place in prisons" (Pg 2).
July 2, 2019, 2:25 p.m.
Countries: Swaziland
Variables: MARR-LAW-3

"Girls and women faced discrimination in rural areas by community elders and authority figures, who gave preference to boys in education. Women faced employment discrimination (see section 7.d.). While the constitution provides that women may open bank accounts, obtain passports, and take jobs without the permission of a male relative, these constitutional rights often conflicted with customary law, which classifies women as minors. Both traditional and Roman- Dutch civil law recognize women as dependents of their husbands or fathers. Although women routinely executed contracts and entered into a variety of transactions in their own names, banks often refused personal loans to married women without a male guarantor. The constitution provides...more
July 2, 2019, 2:25 p.m.
Countries: Swaziland
Variables: ERBG-LAW-1

"The labor law prohibits discrimination in employment and occupation based on race, gender, language, HIV-positive status or other communicable diseases, or social status, but the law is silent on discrimination in employment and occupation based on disability, age, and sexual orientation or gender identity, and the government, in general, did not effectively enforce the law. One officer allegedly reported that she was not promoted because she had albinism" (Pg 30).
July 2, 2019, 2:25 p.m.
Countries: Swaziland
Variables: LRW-PRACTICE-1, LRW-PRACTICE-2, LRW-LAW-2, LRW-DATA-1

"Rape was common, and the government did not always enforce the law effectively. According to the Swaziland Action Group Against Abuse (SWAGAA), one in three girls and women between ages 13 and 24 had been the victim of sexual violence. Although rape is legally defined as a crime, many men regarded it as a minor offense. The number of reported cases was likely far lower than the actual number of cases, as many cases were dealt with at the family level. A sense of shame and helplessness often inhibited women from reporting such crimes, particularly when incest was involved. The maximum sentence for aggravated rape is 15 years in prison,...more
July 2, 2019, 2:25 p.m.
Countries: Swaziland
Variables: LRW-LAW-1, LRCM-LAW-1

"The law criminalizes rape, but no law specifically addresses spousal rape" (Pg 18).
July 2, 2019, 2:25 p.m.
Countries: Swaziland
Variables: DV-PRACTICE-1, DV-LAW-1

"Domestic violence, if charged as assault, is illegal. No legislation or law deals specifically with domestic violence and sexual abuse. Domestic violence against women, particularly wife beating, was common and sometimes resulted in death. Police efforts to combat the crime were inadequate. Civil society organizations urged Senate approval and the king’s assent of the Sexual Offenses and Domestic Violence Bill passed by the House of Assembly in 2014. In August the deputy prime minister tabled a revised version of the bill to the House of Assembly. At year’s end the bill had yet to be submitted to the Senate for approval and royal assent. Women have the right to charge...more
July 2, 2019, 2:25 p.m.
Countries: Swaziland
Variables: POLY-LAW-1

"Customary law allows a man to take more than one wife. A man who marries a woman under civil law may not legally have more than one wife, although this restriction was sometimes ignored" (Pg 20).
July 2, 2019, 2:25 p.m.
Countries: Swaziland
Variables: DACH-PRACTICE-2

"Couples and individuals have the right to decide the number, spacing, and timing of their children; manage their reproductive health; and have access to the information and means to do so, free from discrimination, coercion, or violence. There was wide access to contraception, including in public restrooms, clinics, and workplaces throughout the country" (Pg 19).
July 2, 2019, 2:25 p.m.
Countries: Swaziland
Variables: MMR-PRACTICE-1, MMR-DATA-1

"The 2014 UN Trends in Maternal Mortality Report estimated the maternal mortality rate at 310 deaths per 100,000 live births in 2013; 19 percent of these deaths were AIDS related. The UN Population Division estimated 61 percent of girls and women of reproductive age used a modern method of contraception in 2014. According to the Swaziland Multiple Indicator Cluster Survey of 2010 (MICS), three-quarters of all maternal deaths occurred during delivery and in the immediate postpartum period. Access to care was lower in rural than in urban areas" (Pg 19).
July 2, 2019, 2:25 p.m.
Countries: Swaziland
Variables: CONST-LAW-1

"The constitution prohibits discrimination based on race, gender, disability, age, ethnicity, religion, political opinion, or social status, but the government did not consistently enforce the law" (Pg 18).
July 2, 2019, 2:25 p.m.
Countries: Swaziland
Variables: IAD-LAW-1

"Inheritances pass to and through male children only" (Pg 20).
July 2, 2019, 2:25 p.m.
Countries: Swaziland
Variables: DACH-DATA-2

"The UN Population Division estimated 61 percent of girls and women of reproductive age used a modern method of contraception in 2014" (Pg 19).
July 2, 2019, 2:25 p.m.
Countries: Swaziland
Variables: LBHO-PRACTICE-1, LBHO-LAW-2

"The constitution provides for 55 of the 65 seats in the House of Assembly to be popularly contested and for the king to appoint the remaining 10 members. The constitution provides for five of the 10 to be women and for the other five to represent “interests, including marginalized groups not already adequately represented in the house.” In addition the constitution stipulates that if less than 30 percent of assembly members are women, four additional women shall be selected on a regional basis. The king appointed only three women to the House of Assembly following the elections, in which only one woman was elected, and although less than 30 percent...more
July 2, 2019, 2:25 p.m.
Countries: Swaziland
Variables: WR-PRACTICE-2

"Although the constitution states that “a woman shall not be compelled to undergo or uphold any custom to which she is in conscience opposed,” adherents of traditional family practices might treat a woman as an outcast if she refused to undergo the mourning rite, and a widow who did not participate might lose her home and inheritance. When the husband dies, tradition dictates that the widow must stay at her husband’s family’s residence in observance of a strict mourning period for one month, during which time she may not leave the house, and the husband’s family may move into the homestead and take control of its operations. The media reported...more
July 2, 2019, 2:25 p.m.
Countries: Swaziland
Variables: CUST-LAW-1

"Traditional marriages consider children to belong to the father and his family if the couple divorce" (Pg 20).
June 22, 2019, 8:06 p.m.
Countries: Swaziland
Variables: LRW-LAW-2

"The maximum sentence for conviction of rape is 15 years in prison, but the acquittal rate for rape was high, and sentences were generally lenient" (p. 16).
June 22, 2019, 8:06 p.m.
Countries: Swaziland
Variables: DV-LAW-1

"No legislation or law deals specifically with domestic violence" (p. 16).
June 22, 2019, 8:06 p.m.
Countries: Swaziland
Variables: IAD-LAW-1

"Inheritances pass to and through male children only" (p. 19).
June 22, 2019, 8:06 p.m.
Countries: Swaziland
Variables: DV-PRACTICE-2

"Women have the right to charge their husbands with assault under both the Roman-Dutch and traditional legal systems, and urban women frequently did so, usually in extreme cases when intervention by extended family members failed to end such violence" (p. 16).
June 22, 2019, 8:06 p.m.
Countries: Swaziland
Variables: CLCC-LAW-1

"Under the constitution, children derive citizenship from the father, unless the birth occurs outside marriage and the father does not claim paternity, in which case the child acquires the mother’s citizenship. If a Swazi woman marries a foreign man, however, even if he is a naturalized Swazi citizen, their children carry the father’s birth citizenship" (p. 19).
June 22, 2019, 8:06 p.m.
Countries: Swaziland
Variables: LRW-PRACTICE-2

"Prosecutors reported difficulty obtaining the evidence required to try rape and domestic violence cases because witnesses feared testifying against accused rapists. There were few social workers or other intermediaries to work with victims and witnesses in order to obtain evidence" (p. 16).
June 22, 2019, 8:06 p.m.
Countries: Swaziland
Variables: DV-LAW-2

"Penalties for men found guilty of assault not involving rape against a woman depended on the court’s discretion" (p. 16).
June 22, 2019, 8:06 p.m.
Countries: Swaziland
Variables: LRW-DATA-1

"According to the Swaziland Action Group against Abuse, one in three girls and women between ages 13 and 24 had been a victim of sexual violence" (p. 16).