The most comprehensive compilation of information on the status of
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Latest items for Syria

Oct. 18, 2019, 3:05 p.m.
Countries: Armenia, Azerbaijan, Bahamas, Bahrain, Bangladesh, Barbados, Bhutan, Bosnia-Herzegovina, Brazil, Burkina Faso, Burma/Myanmar, Cambodia, Cape Verde, Chad, Chile, China, Colombia, Congo, Cote D'Ivoire, Croatia, Cyprus, Czech Republic, Egypt, Equatorial Guinea, Eritrea, Fiji, Gabon, Georgia, Ghana, Greece, Guatemala, Guinea, Guinea-Bissau, Honduras, Hungary, India, Indonesia, Ireland, Israel, Jamaica, Jordan, Kenya, Kyrgyzstan, Lesotho, Liberia, Libya, Lithuania, Luxembourg, Madagascar, Malawi, Malaysia, Malta, Mauritania, Mauritius, Mongolia, Montenegro, Morocco, Niger, North Korea, Pakistan, Panama, Paraguay, Romania, Russia, Saudi Arabia, Sierra Leone, Singapore, Slovakia, Slovenia, Somalia, South Korea, Syria, Tajikistan, Thailand, Togo, Turkey, Turkmenistan, Ukraine, United Arab Emirates, United States, Uruguay, Uzbekistan, Venezuela, Zambia
Variables: GP-SCALE-2

2.0
Oct. 18, 2019, 12:59 p.m.
Countries: Algeria, Bangladesh, Bosnia-Herzegovina, Comoros, East Timor, Egypt, Fiji, India, Iran, Iraq, Jordan, Lebanon, Libya, Mauritania, Moldova, Morocco, Oman, Pakistan, Saudi Arabia, Senegal, Somalia, Sri Lanka, Sudan, Suriname, Syria, Tajikistan, Tunisia, Turkey, Yemen
Variables: ERBG-SCALE-1

2.0
Oct. 16, 2019, 10:40 a.m.
Countries: Syria
Variables: TRAFF-PRACTICE-1

"Decree No.3 of 2011 appeared to criminalize some forms of sex trafficking and labor trafficking, but did not include a clear definition of human trafficking. This decree prescribed a minimum punishment of seven years’ imprisonment and a fine between 1 million and 3 million Syrian pounds ($1,940 to $5,830), a penalty that was sufficiently stringent but, with respect to sex trafficking, not commensurate with those prescribed for other serious crimes, such as rape. Law No.11/2013 criminalized all forms of recruitment and use of children younger than the age of 18 by armed forces and armed groups" (451).
Oct. 16, 2019, 10:40 a.m.
Countries: Syria
Variables: TRAFF-PRACTICE-3

"The government continued to severely punish victims for unlawful acts traffickers compelled them to commit, such as child soldiering and prostitution. It routinely arrested, detained, raped, tortured, and executed children for alleged association with armed groups; the government made no effort to offer these children any protection services. The government neither encouraged trafficking victims to assist in investigations or prosecutions of their traffickers nor provided foreign victims with legal alternatives to their removal to countries in which they may face hardship or retribution" (451).
Oct. 16, 2019, 10:37 a.m.
Countries: Syria
Variables: TRAFF-PRACTICE-2

"As reported over the past five years, human traffickers exploit domestic and foreign victims in Syria, and traffickers exploit Syrian victims abroad (…) While ISIS has lost the majority of the Syrian territory it once controlled, throughout 2018 it continued to force local Syrian girls and women in ISIS-controlled areas into marriages with its fighters and it routinely subjected women and girls from minority groups into forced marriages, domestic servitude, systematic rape, and other forms of sexual violence (...) In December 2014, ISIS publicly released guidelines on how to capture, forcibly hold, and sexually abuse female slaves (...) International organizations continue to report a high number of child and early...more
Oct. 16, 2019, 10:37 a.m.
Countries: Syria
Variables: TRAFF-PRACTICE-1

"The Government of Syria does not fully meet the minimum standards for the elimination of trafficking and is not making significant efforts to do so; therefore Syria remained on Tier 3. The government did not hold any traffickers criminally accountable, including complicit government officials, nor did it identify or protect any trafficking victims. The government’s actions directly contributed to the population’s vulnerability to trafficking and it continued to perpetrate human trafficking crimes routinely. The government and pro-Syrian regime affiliated militias continued to forcibly recruit and use child soldiers, resulting in children facing extreme violence and retaliation by opposition forces; it also did not protect and prevent children from recruitment and...more
Oct. 16, 2019, 10:36 a.m.
Countries: Syria
Variables: TRAFF-DATA-1

"The government did not identify or protect trafficking victims" (451).
Oct. 15, 2019, 3:53 p.m.
Countries: Syria
Variables: MARR-PRACTICE-1

"While ISIS has lost the majority of the Syrian territory it once controlled, throughout 2018 it continued to force local Syrian girls and women in ISIS-controlled areas into marriages with its fighters and it routinely subjected women and girls from minority groups into forced marriages, domestic servitude, systematic rape, and other forms of sexual violence" (451).
Oct. 15, 2019, 11:13 a.m.
Countries: Syria
Variables: MARR-PRACTICE-1

"While ISIS has lost the majority of the Syrian territory it once controlled, throughout 2018 it continued to force local Syrian girls and women in ISIS-controlled areas into marriages with its fighters and it routinely subjected women and girls from minority groups into forced marriages, domestic servitude, systematic rape, and other forms of sexual violence" (451).
Oct. 15, 2019, 11:13 a.m.
Countries: Syria
Variables: CWC-DATA-3, MARR-PRACTICE-1, GEW-PRACTICE-1

"Syrians that remain in the country and those living as refugees in neighboring countries are extremely vulnerable to traffickers. Syrian children are reportedly vulnerable to forced early marriages—which can lead to commercial sexual exploitation and forced labor—and children displaced within the country continue to be subjected to forced labor, particularly by organized begging rings" (451).
Sept. 24, 2019, 9:17 p.m.
Countries: Syria
Variables: PW-PRACTICE-1

"Syrian refugee women and girls are also vulnerable to forced or 'temporary marriages'—for the purpose of prostitution and other forms of exploitation—and sex trafficking in refugee camps, Jordan, and cities in the Iraqi Kurdistan Region (IKR), including Sulaimaniya" (452).
Sept. 20, 2019, 10:37 a.m.
Countries: Afghanistan, Bahrain, Bangladesh, Brunei, Burma/Myanmar, Burundi, Cameroon, Central African Rep, Chad, Colombia, Congo, Cote D'Ivoire, D R Congo, Djibouti, Egypt, El Salvador, Eritrea, Gabon, Gambia, Guatemala, Guinea, Guinea-Bissau, Guyana, Haiti, Honduras, India, Iran, Iraq, Jordan, Kenya, Kuwait, Lesotho, Liberia, Malawi, Mali, Mauritania, Mexico, Morocco, Niger, Nigeria, North Korea, Oman, Pakistan, Palestine, Papua New Guinea, Peru, Qatar, Russia, Saudi Arabia, Senegal, Solomon Islands, Somalia, South Africa, South Korea, South Sudan, Sri Lanka, Sudan, Swaziland, Syria, Tajikistan, Tanzania, Togo, Tunisia, Ukraine, United Arab Emirates, Yemen, Zimbabwe
Variables: MULTIVAR-SCALE-1

4.0
July 20, 2019, 8:20 a.m.
Countries: Syria
Variables: AOM-PRACTICE-1, AOM-LAW-1

"The legal age for marriage is 18 for men and 17 for women. A boy as young as 15 or a girl as young as 13 may marry if a judge deems both parties willing and 'physically mature,' and if the fathers or grandfathers of both parties consent" (Pg 48).
July 20, 2019, 8:20 a.m.
Countries: Syria
Variables: NGOFW-DATA-1

"The use of psychological torture by the government also reportedly increased. One commonly reported practice was detention of victims overnight in cells with corpses of previous victims. The SNHR reported that psychological torture methods included forcing prisoners to witness the rape of other prisoners, threatening the rape of family members (in particular female family members), forcing prisoners to undress, and insulting prisoners’ beliefs. Various NGOs, including HRW, AI, and the SNHR, continued to report widespread instances of rape and sexual abuse, including of minors. The COI reported receiving reports of interrogators raping and sexually abusing male detainees held in Branch 285 of the General Directorate of Intelligence in Damascus. The...more
July 20, 2019, 8:20 a.m.
Countries: Syria
Variables: EWCMS-PRACTICE-1

"According to media reports, the SDF trained 210 women to participate in the battle against ISIS in Raqqa. This was in addition to the 8,000-strong Women’s Protection Units, widely reported on in the media, and originally formed with the aim of defending the Kurdish population from regime oppression, but eventually transitioning to broader anti-ISIS efforts. Volunteers joined this force from Syria and also from Iraq, Turkey, Iran, and other points of origin" (Pg 47).
July 20, 2019, 8:20 a.m.
Countries: Syria
Variables: ATDW-PRACTICE-2

"The law generally permits women to initiate divorce proceedings against their spouses" (Pg 46).
July 20, 2019, 8:20 a.m.
Countries: Syria
Variables: ERBG-LAW-1

"The law prohibits discrimination in employment on the basis of gender but does not explicitly prohibit sexual harassment" (Pg 45). "Although the constitution provides for equality between men and women and the 'right of every citizen to earn his wage according to the nature and yield of the work,' the law does not explicitly stipulate equal pay for equal work. Moreover, a number of sections of family and criminal law do not treat men and women equally" (Pg 46). "Women participated in public life and in most professions, including the armed forces, although violence in many regions reduced women’s access to the public sphere. Women and men have equal legal...more
July 20, 2019, 8:20 a.m.
Countries: Syria
Variables: DTCP-PRACTICE-1

"The use of psychological torture by the government also reportedly increased. One commonly reported practice was detention of victims overnight in cells with corpses of previous victims. The SNHR reported that psychological torture methods included forcing prisoners to witness the rape of other prisoners, threatening the rape of family members (in particular female family members), forcing prisoners to undress, and insulting prisoners’ beliefs. Various NGOs, including HRW, AI, and the SNHR, continued to report widespread instances of rape and sexual abuse, including of minors. The COI reported receiving reports of interrogators raping and sexually abusing male detainees held in Branch 285 of the General Directorate of Intelligence in Damascus. The...more
July 20, 2019, 8:20 a.m.
Countries: Syria
Variables: LBHO-DATA-1

"In 2016, 13 percent of members of parliament were women" (Pg 43).
July 20, 2019, 8:20 a.m.
Countries: Syria
Variables: DV-PRACTICE-2

"The law does not specifically prohibit domestic violence, and violence against women was extensive and generally went unpunished. Victims did not report the vast majority of domestic violence and sexual assault cases. Security forces consistently treated violence against women as a social rather than a criminal matter. Observers reported that when some abused women tried to file a police report, police did not investigate their reports thoroughly, if at all, and that in other cases police officers responded by abusing the women, including by sexual harassment, verbal abuse, hair pulling, and slapping" (Pg 44-45). "In previous years several domestic violence centers operated in Damascus, and the government licensed and affiliated...more
July 20, 2019, 8:20 a.m.
Countries: Syria
Variables: LBHO-PRACTICE-2, LBHO-PRACTICE-3, ATFPA-PRACTICE-3

"Women and minorities generally participated in the political system without formal restriction, although significant cultural and social barriers largely excluded women from decision-making positions" (Pg 42).
July 20, 2019, 8:20 a.m.
Countries: Syria
Variables: GEW-PRACTICE-1

"The use of psychological torture by the government also reportedly increased. One commonly reported practice was detention of victims overnight in cells with corpses of previous victims. The SNHR reported that psychological torture methods included forcing prisoners to witness the rape of other prisoners, threatening the rape of family members (in particular female family members), forcing prisoners to undress, and insulting prisoners’ beliefs. Various NGOs, including HRW, AI, and the SNHR, continued to report widespread instances of rape and sexual abuse, including of minors. The COI reported receiving reports of interrogators raping and sexually abusing male detainees held in Branch 285 of the General Directorate of Intelligence in Damascus. The...more
July 20, 2019, 8:20 a.m.
Countries: Syria
Variables: ERBG-PRACTICE-1, CWC-DATA-2, LO-PRACTICE-1, LO-LAW-1

"Women participated in public life and in most professions, including the armed forces, although violence in many regions reduced women’s access to the public sphere. Women and men have equal legal rights in owning or managing land or other property, although cultural and religious norms impeded women’s rights, especially in rural areas. Various sources observed that women constituted a minority of lawyers, university professors, and other professions" (Pg 46).
July 20, 2019, 8:20 a.m.
Countries: Syria
Variables: LRW-PRACTICE-2

"Observers of the refugee crisis reported women, men, and community leaders consistently identified sexual violence as a primary reason their families fled the country. The COI reported rape was widespread, and government and progovernment forces used rape to terrorize and punish women, men, and children perceived as associated with the opposition (see section 1.g. for additional information, including on abuses committed by extremist groups). The COI concluded that underreporting and delayed reporting of sexual violence was endemic, rendering an assessment of its magnitude difficult. Reports by the SNHR, HRW, and other NGOs included interviews with female former prisoners, who reported that rape by guards and security forces was common in...more
July 20, 2019, 8:20 a.m.
Countries: Syria
Variables: DACH-PRACTICE-1

"Female victims subjected to sexual violence lacked access to health care. Violence throughout the country made accessing medical care both costly and dangerous, and the COI reported that the government and armed extremists sometimes denied pregnant women passage through checkpoints, forcing them to give birth in unsterile and often dangerous conditions, without pain medication or adequate medical treatment. In January 2016 UNFPA estimated that approximately 540,000 women in the country and in nearby refugee camps were pregnant and needed care. It also estimated that 70,000 would likely experience complications related to pregnancy or delivery. According to numerous sources, government forces deliberately denied medical care to persons in areas controlled by...more
July 20, 2019, 8:20 a.m.
Countries: Syria
Variables: FSCB-PRACTICE-1, ABO-PRACTICE-1

"There were reports that ISIS transferred some Yezidi women captives from Iraq to Syria (see section 1.g.). There was limited information available regarding their treatment in 2017; however, previous reports from Iraq found that ISIS forced Yezidi women whom they had impregnated to have abortions. There were no reports of involuntary sterilization. Estimates on maternal mortality and contraceptive prevalence are available at: www.who.int/reproductivehealth/publications/monitoring/maternal-mortality2015/en/" (Pg 45).
July 20, 2019, 8:20 a.m.
Countries: Syria
Variables: LBHO-LAW-1, VOTE-LAW-1

"No laws limit participation of women and/or members of minorities in the political process, and they did participate" (Pg 42).
July 20, 2019, 8:20 a.m.
Countries: Syria
Variables: LRW-PRACTICE-1

"Rape is a felony, subject to punishment by at least 15 years in prison, but the government did not enforce the law...Observers of the refugee crisis reported women, men, and community leaders consistently identified sexual violence as a primary reason their families fled the country. The COI reported rape was widespread, and government and progovernment forces used rape to terrorize and punish women, men, and children perceived as associated with the opposition (see section 1.g. for additional information, including on abuses committed by extremist groups). The COI concluded that underreporting and delayed reporting of sexual violence was endemic, rendering an assessment of its magnitude difficult. Reports by the SNHR, HRW,...more
July 20, 2019, 8:20 a.m.
Countries: Syria
Variables: LRCM-LAW-1

"There are no laws against spousal rape" (Pg 44).
July 20, 2019, 8:20 a.m.
Countries: Syria
Variables: ABO-LAW-1

"Some opposition groups and extremist elements reportedly banned women from teaching and girls from attending school, particularly in ISIS-controlled areas of Deir al-Zour Governorate. According to activists from Raqqa Governorate, ISIS segregated classrooms and removed women from the local councils in territories it controlled" (Pg 46-47).