The most comprehensive compilation of information on the status of
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Latest items for Syria

July 20, 2019, 8:20 a.m.
Countries: Syria
Variables: AOM-PRACTICE-1, AOM-LAW-1

"The legal age for marriage is 18 for men and 17 for women. A boy as young as 15 or a girl as young as 13 may marry if a judge deems both parties willing and 'physically mature,' and if the fathers or grandfathers of both parties consent" (Pg 48).
July 20, 2019, 8:20 a.m.
Countries: Syria
Variables: NGOFW-DATA-1

"The use of psychological torture by the government also reportedly increased. One commonly reported practice was detention of victims overnight in cells with corpses of previous victims. The SNHR reported that psychological torture methods included forcing prisoners to witness the rape of other prisoners, threatening the rape of family members (in particular female family members), forcing prisoners to undress, and insulting prisoners’ beliefs. Various NGOs, including HRW, AI, and the SNHR, continued to report widespread instances of rape and sexual abuse, including of minors. The COI reported receiving reports of interrogators raping and sexually abusing male detainees held in Branch 285 of the General Directorate of Intelligence in Damascus. The...more
July 20, 2019, 8:20 a.m.
Countries: Syria
Variables: EWCMS-PRACTICE-1

"According to media reports, the SDF trained 210 women to participate in the battle against ISIS in Raqqa. This was in addition to the 8,000-strong Women’s Protection Units, widely reported on in the media, and originally formed with the aim of defending the Kurdish population from regime oppression, but eventually transitioning to broader anti-ISIS efforts. Volunteers joined this force from Syria and also from Iraq, Turkey, Iran, and other points of origin" (Pg 47).
July 20, 2019, 8:20 a.m.
Countries: Syria
Variables: ATDW-PRACTICE-2

"The law generally permits women to initiate divorce proceedings against their spouses" (Pg 46).
July 20, 2019, 8:20 a.m.
Countries: Syria
Variables: ERBG-LAW-1

"The law prohibits discrimination in employment on the basis of gender but does not explicitly prohibit sexual harassment" (Pg 45). "Although the constitution provides for equality between men and women and the 'right of every citizen to earn his wage according to the nature and yield of the work,' the law does not explicitly stipulate equal pay for equal work. Moreover, a number of sections of family and criminal law do not treat men and women equally" (Pg 46). "Women participated in public life and in most professions, including the armed forces, although violence in many regions reduced women’s access to the public sphere. Women and men have equal legal...more
July 20, 2019, 8:20 a.m.
Countries: Syria
Variables: DTCP-PRACTICE-1

"The use of psychological torture by the government also reportedly increased. One commonly reported practice was detention of victims overnight in cells with corpses of previous victims. The SNHR reported that psychological torture methods included forcing prisoners to witness the rape of other prisoners, threatening the rape of family members (in particular female family members), forcing prisoners to undress, and insulting prisoners’ beliefs. Various NGOs, including HRW, AI, and the SNHR, continued to report widespread instances of rape and sexual abuse, including of minors. The COI reported receiving reports of interrogators raping and sexually abusing male detainees held in Branch 285 of the General Directorate of Intelligence in Damascus. The...more
July 20, 2019, 8:20 a.m.
Countries: Syria
Variables: LBHO-DATA-1

"In 2016, 13 percent of members of parliament were women" (Pg 43).
July 20, 2019, 8:20 a.m.
Countries: Syria
Variables: DV-PRACTICE-2

"The law does not specifically prohibit domestic violence, and violence against women was extensive and generally went unpunished. Victims did not report the vast majority of domestic violence and sexual assault cases. Security forces consistently treated violence against women as a social rather than a criminal matter. Observers reported that when some abused women tried to file a police report, police did not investigate their reports thoroughly, if at all, and that in other cases police officers responded by abusing the women, including by sexual harassment, verbal abuse, hair pulling, and slapping" (Pg 44-45). "In previous years several domestic violence centers operated in Damascus, and the government licensed and affiliated...more
July 20, 2019, 8:20 a.m.
Countries: Syria
Variables: LBHO-PRACTICE-2, LBHO-PRACTICE-3, ATFPA-PRACTICE-3

"Women and minorities generally participated in the political system without formal restriction, although significant cultural and social barriers largely excluded women from decision-making positions" (Pg 42).
July 20, 2019, 8:20 a.m.
Countries: Syria
Variables: GEW-PRACTICE-1

"The use of psychological torture by the government also reportedly increased. One commonly reported practice was detention of victims overnight in cells with corpses of previous victims. The SNHR reported that psychological torture methods included forcing prisoners to witness the rape of other prisoners, threatening the rape of family members (in particular female family members), forcing prisoners to undress, and insulting prisoners’ beliefs. Various NGOs, including HRW, AI, and the SNHR, continued to report widespread instances of rape and sexual abuse, including of minors. The COI reported receiving reports of interrogators raping and sexually abusing male detainees held in Branch 285 of the General Directorate of Intelligence in Damascus. The...more
July 20, 2019, 8:20 a.m.
Countries: Syria
Variables: ERBG-PRACTICE-1, CWC-DATA-2, LO-PRACTICE-1, LO-LAW-1

"Women participated in public life and in most professions, including the armed forces, although violence in many regions reduced women’s access to the public sphere. Women and men have equal legal rights in owning or managing land or other property, although cultural and religious norms impeded women’s rights, especially in rural areas. Various sources observed that women constituted a minority of lawyers, university professors, and other professions" (Pg 46).
July 20, 2019, 8:20 a.m.
Countries: Syria
Variables: LRW-PRACTICE-2

"Observers of the refugee crisis reported women, men, and community leaders consistently identified sexual violence as a primary reason their families fled the country. The COI reported rape was widespread, and government and progovernment forces used rape to terrorize and punish women, men, and children perceived as associated with the opposition (see section 1.g. for additional information, including on abuses committed by extremist groups). The COI concluded that underreporting and delayed reporting of sexual violence was endemic, rendering an assessment of its magnitude difficult. Reports by the SNHR, HRW, and other NGOs included interviews with female former prisoners, who reported that rape by guards and security forces was common in...more
July 20, 2019, 8:20 a.m.
Countries: Syria
Variables: DACH-PRACTICE-1

"Female victims subjected to sexual violence lacked access to health care. Violence throughout the country made accessing medical care both costly and dangerous, and the COI reported that the government and armed extremists sometimes denied pregnant women passage through checkpoints, forcing them to give birth in unsterile and often dangerous conditions, without pain medication or adequate medical treatment. In January 2016 UNFPA estimated that approximately 540,000 women in the country and in nearby refugee camps were pregnant and needed care. It also estimated that 70,000 would likely experience complications related to pregnancy or delivery. According to numerous sources, government forces deliberately denied medical care to persons in areas controlled by...more
July 20, 2019, 8:20 a.m.
Countries: Syria
Variables: FSCB-PRACTICE-1, ABO-PRACTICE-1

"There were reports that ISIS transferred some Yezidi women captives from Iraq to Syria (see section 1.g.). There was limited information available regarding their treatment in 2017; however, previous reports from Iraq found that ISIS forced Yezidi women whom they had impregnated to have abortions. There were no reports of involuntary sterilization. Estimates on maternal mortality and contraceptive prevalence are available at: www.who.int/reproductivehealth/publications/monitoring/maternal-mortality2015/en/" (Pg 45).
July 20, 2019, 8:20 a.m.
Countries: Syria
Variables: LBHO-LAW-1, VOTE-LAW-1

"No laws limit participation of women and/or members of minorities in the political process, and they did participate" (Pg 42).
July 20, 2019, 8:20 a.m.
Countries: Syria
Variables: LRW-PRACTICE-1

"Rape is a felony, subject to punishment by at least 15 years in prison, but the government did not enforce the law...Observers of the refugee crisis reported women, men, and community leaders consistently identified sexual violence as a primary reason their families fled the country. The COI reported rape was widespread, and government and progovernment forces used rape to terrorize and punish women, men, and children perceived as associated with the opposition (see section 1.g. for additional information, including on abuses committed by extremist groups). The COI concluded that underreporting and delayed reporting of sexual violence was endemic, rendering an assessment of its magnitude difficult. Reports by the SNHR, HRW,...more
July 20, 2019, 8:20 a.m.
Countries: Syria
Variables: LRCM-LAW-1

"There are no laws against spousal rape" (Pg 44).
July 20, 2019, 8:20 a.m.
Countries: Syria
Variables: ABO-LAW-1

"Some opposition groups and extremist elements reportedly banned women from teaching and girls from attending school, particularly in ISIS-controlled areas of Deir al-Zour Governorate. According to activists from Raqqa Governorate, ISIS segregated classrooms and removed women from the local councils in territories it controlled" (Pg 46-47).
July 20, 2019, 8:20 a.m.
Countries: Syria
Variables: CWC-DATA-3

"UNHCR reported a rise in sexual- and gender-based violence and child protection concerns among refugees, including child labor, school dropouts, and early marriages" (Pg 40). "Observers of the refugee crisis reported women, men, and community leaders consistently identified sexual violence as a primary reason their families fled the country. The COI reported rape was widespread, and government and progovernment forces used rape to terrorize and punish women, men, and children perceived as associated with the opposition (see section 1.g. for additional information, including on abuses committed by extremist groups). The COI concluded that underreporting and delayed reporting of sexual violence was endemic, rendering an assessment of its magnitude difficult. Reports...more
July 20, 2019, 8:20 a.m.
Countries: Syria
Variables: IIP-PRACTICE-1

"Women participated in public life and in most professions, including the armed forces, although violence in many regions reduced women’s access to the public sphere. Women and men have equal legal rights in owning or managing land or other property, although cultural and religious norms impeded women’s rights, especially in rural areas. Various sources observed that women constituted a minority of lawyers, university professors, and other professions" (Pg 46). "In areas under its control, ISIS published a 'Civilization Document' with 16 points that a woman must follow or face the death penalty. They included staying at home and not leaving it without an immediate male relative (mahram); wearing a wide...more
July 20, 2019, 8:20 a.m.
Countries: Syria
Variables: DV-PRACTICE-1, DV-LAW-1

"The law does not specifically prohibit domestic violence, and violence against women was extensive and generally went unpunished. Victims did not report the vast majority of domestic violence and sexual assault cases. Security forces consistently treated violence against women as a social rather than a criminal matter. Observers reported that when some abused women tried to file a police report, police did not investigate their reports thoroughly, if at all, and that in other cases police officers responded by abusing the women, including by sexual harassment, verbal abuse, hair pulling, and slapping" (Pg 44-45).
July 20, 2019, 8:20 a.m.
Countries: Syria
Variables: ATDW-LAW-1

"The law does not entitle a divorced woman to alimony in some cases, such as if she gave up her right to alimony to persuade her husband to agree to the divorce" (Pg 46).
July 20, 2019, 8:20 a.m.
Countries: Syria
Variables: DSFMF-LAW-1

"By law if a man and a woman separately commit the same criminal act of adultery, the woman’s punishment is double that of the man’s" (Pg 46).
July 20, 2019, 8:20 a.m.
Countries: Syria
Variables: CLCW-LAW-2

"Women over age 18 have the legal right to travel without the permission of male relatives, but a husband may file a request with the Interior Ministry to prohibit his wife from departing the country. ISIS explicitly prohibited women from foreign travel" (Pg 38).
July 20, 2019, 8:20 a.m.
Countries: Syria
Variables: AFE-LAW-1

"The government provided free public education to citizen children from primary school through university. Education is compulsory for all children between the ages of six and 12. Noncitizen children could also attend public schools at no cost but required permission from the Ministry of Education" (Pg 47).
July 20, 2019, 8:20 a.m.
Countries: Syria
Variables: CRPLB-PRACTICE-1

"The UN Population Fund (UNFPA) reported that infrastructure damage reduced the number of facilities and health personnel able to provide pregnant women with antenatal and postnatal care and skilled attendance at delivery. Female victims subjected to sexual violence lacked access to health care. Violence throughout the country made accessing medical care both costly and dangerous, and the COI reported that the government and armed extremists sometimes denied pregnant women passage through checkpoints, forcing them to give birth in unsterile and often dangerous conditions, without pain medication or adequate medical treatment. In January 2016 UNFPA estimated that approximately 540,000 women in the country and in nearby refugee camps were pregnant and...more
July 20, 2019, 8:20 a.m.
Countries: Syria
Variables: LRW-LAW-1

"Rape is a felony, subject to punishment by at least 15 years in prison, but the government did not enforce the law" (Pg 44).
July 20, 2019, 8:20 a.m.
Countries: Syria
Variables: MURDER-PRACTICE-1, MURDER-LAW-1

"The law permits judges to reduce legal penalties for murder and assault if the defendant asserts an “honor” defense, which often occurred. The government kept no official statistics on use of this defense in murder and assault cases. There were no officially reported honor killings during the year, but local human rights groups asserted the practice continued, reportedly at previous levels, despite or even because of the continuing violence. NGOs working with refugees reported families killed some rape victims inside the country, including those raped by government forces, for reasons of honor. NGOs also reported the conflict led to a significant rise in honor killings due to the pervasive use...more
July 20, 2019, 8:20 a.m.
Countries: Syria
Variables: IAW-LAW-1, IAD-LAW-1

"The government’s interpretation of Islamic law is the basis of inheritance law for all citizens except Christians. Accordingly, courts usually granted Muslim women half of the inheritance share of male heirs. In all communities male heirs must provide financial support to female relatives who inherit less. If they do not, women have the right to sue" (Pg 46).
July 20, 2019, 8:20 a.m.
Countries: Syria
Variables: AFE-PRACTICE-1

"According to several reports, ISIS segregated classrooms (including teachers) by gender, dismissed students for dress code violations, imposed its curriculum on teachers, and closed private schools and educational centers. According to local sources, ISIS forces prevented young women in Raqqa Governorate from traveling to complete their university exams. ISIS also banned several basic education subjects, such as chemistry" (Pg 48).