The most comprehensive compilation of information on the status of
women in the world.

Latest items for Thailand

Oct. 18, 2019, 3:05 p.m.
Countries: Armenia, Azerbaijan, Bahamas, Bahrain, Bangladesh, Barbados, Bhutan, Bosnia-Herzegovina, Brazil, Burkina Faso, Burma/Myanmar, Cambodia, Cape Verde, Chad, Chile, China, Colombia, Congo, Cote D'Ivoire, Croatia, Cyprus, Czech Republic, Egypt, Equatorial Guinea, Eritrea, Fiji, Gabon, Georgia, Ghana, Greece, Guatemala, Guinea, Guinea-Bissau, Honduras, Hungary, India, Indonesia, Ireland, Israel, Jamaica, Jordan, Kenya, Kyrgyzstan, Lesotho, Liberia, Libya, Lithuania, Luxembourg, Madagascar, Malawi, Malaysia, Malta, Mauritania, Mauritius, Mongolia, Montenegro, Morocco, Niger, North Korea, Pakistan, Panama, Paraguay, Romania, Russia, Saudi Arabia, Sierra Leone, Singapore, Slovakia, Slovenia, Somalia, South Korea, Syria, Tajikistan, Thailand, Togo, Turkey, Turkmenistan, Ukraine, United Arab Emirates, United States, Uruguay, Uzbekistan, Venezuela, Zambia
Variables: GP-SCALE-2

2.0
Oct. 18, 2019, 12:59 p.m.
Countries: Afghanistan, Albania, Argentina, Armenia, Australia, Austria, Azerbaijan, Bahrain, Barbados, Belarus, Belgium, Belize, Bhutan, Bolivia, Botswana, Brazil, Brunei, Bulgaria, Burkina Faso, Burma/Myanmar, Canada, Cape Verde, Central African Rep, Chad, Chile, China, Colombia, Costa Rica, Cote D'Ivoire, Croatia, Cuba, Cyprus, Czech Republic, Denmark, Djibouti, Dominican Republic, Ecuador, El Salvador, Equatorial Guinea, Estonia, Finland, France, Gabon, Gambia, Georgia, Germany, Ghana, Greece, Guatemala, Guinea, Guyana, Haiti, Honduras, Hungary, Indonesia, Ireland, Israel, Italy, Jamaica, Japan, Kazakhstan, Kenya, Kuwait, Kyrgyzstan, Latvia, Lesotho, Liberia, Lithuania, Luxembourg, Macedonia, Malaysia, Maldives, Mali, Malta, Mauritius, Mexico, Mongolia, Montenegro, Namibia, Netherlands, New Zealand, Nicaragua, Nigeria, Norway, Panama, Papua New Guinea, Paraguay, Philippines, Poland, Portugal, Qatar, Romania, Russia, Serbia, Sierra Leone, Singapore, Slovakia, Slovenia, Solomon Islands, South Africa, South Korea, Spain, Sweden, Switzerland, Thailand, Trinidad/Tobago, Turkmenistan, Ukraine, United Arab Emirates, United Kingdom, United States, Uruguay, Uzbekistan, Vanuatu, Venezuela
Variables: ERBG-SCALE-1

1.0more
Oct. 16, 2019, 10:40 a.m.
Countries: Thailand
Variables: TRAFF-PRACTICE-1

"The 2008 anti-trafficking law, as amended, criminalized sex trafficking and labor trafficking and prescribed penalties of four to 12 years’ imprisonment and a fine of 400,000 to 1.2 million baht ($12,360-$37,090) for offenses involving an adult victim, and six to 20 years’ imprisonment and a fine of 600,000 to 2 million baht ($18,550-$61,820) for those involving a child victim. These penalties were sufficiently stringent and, with respect to sex trafficking, commensurate with penalties prescribed for other serious crimes, such as rape" (461-462).
Oct. 16, 2019, 10:40 a.m.
Countries: Thailand
Variables: TRAFF-PRACTICE-3

"NGOs reported the government did not consistently provide repatriation assistance to victims who declined to participate in law enforcement investigations. In collaboration with a foreign government, the government published a handbook for social workers to streamline the reintegration process for Thai victims" (462). "The law protected victims from prosecution for unlawful acts their traffickers compelled them to commit; however, flaws in the government’s implementation of victim identification procedures increased the risk of authorities penalizing victims, including for prostitution and immigration violations" (464).
Oct. 16, 2019, 10:37 a.m.
Countries: Thailand
Variables: TRAFF-PRACTICE-2

"As reported over the past five years, human traffickers exploit domestic and foreign victims in Thailand, and traffickers exploit Thai victims abroad. Traffickers subject Thai nationals to forced labor and sex trafficking in Thailand and in countries in North America, Europe, Africa, Asia, and the Middle East (...) Labor and sex traffickers exploit women, men, LGBTI individuals, and children from Thailand, other Southeast Asian countries, Sri Lanka, Russia, Uzbekistan, and some African countries in Thailand. Traffickers use Thailand as a transit country for victims from China, North Korea, Vietnam, Bangladesh, India, and Burma whom traffickers subject to sex trafficking and forced labor in countries such as Malaysia, Indonesia, Singapore, Russia,...more
Oct. 16, 2019, 10:37 a.m.
Countries: Thailand
Variables: TRAFF-PRACTICE-1

"The Government of Thailand does not fully meet the minimum standards for the elimination of trafficking but is making significant efforts to do so. The government demonstrated overall increasing efforts compared to the previous reporting period; therefore Thailand remained on Tier 2. These efforts included identifying more victims, sentencing convicted traffickers and complicit officials to significant prison terms, developing several manuals in partnership with civil society to standardize anti-trafficking trainings and policies. Labor inspectors, for the first time, identified and referred potential victims to multidisciplinary teams, resulting in the identification of labor trafficking victims. However, the government did not meet the minimum standards in several key areas. The government prosecuted...more
Oct. 16, 2019, 10:36 a.m.
Countries: Thailand
Variables: TRAFF-DATA-1

"The government identified 631 victims in 2018 (455 in 2017), 401 of whom the Ministry of Social Development and Human Security (MSDHS) reported assisting in government shelters (360 in 2017). Those identified and assisted by MSDHS included 152 Thai and 249 foreign victims, 186 victims of sex trafficking and 66 of labor trafficking; it was unclear what form of exploitation the remaining 149 victims faced. Authorities assisted in repatriating 201 foreign victims exploited in Thailand (111 in 2017) and facilitated the return of 103 Thais exploited abroad (45 in 2017) by providing funding for travel expenses, legal assistance, job placement, and other reintegration services" (462).
Sept. 20, 2019, 10:37 a.m.
Countries: Argentina, Belgium, Bosnia-Herzegovina, Bulgaria, Canada, Cape Verde, Chile, Costa Rica, Croatia, Cyprus, Czech Republic, Denmark, Estonia, Finland, Germany, Hungary, Iceland, Ireland, Italy, Japan, Latvia, Macedonia, Maldives, Malta, Mauritius, Moldova, Montenegro, Netherlands, New Zealand, Poland, Romania, Serbia, Slovakia, Slovenia, Sweden, Taiwan, Thailand, United Kingdom
Variables: MULTIVAR-SCALE-1

2.0
July 15, 2019, 3:24 p.m.
Countries: Thailand
Variables: TRAFF-LAW-3, AW-LAW-1

"The law allows victims of trafficking and witnesses who cooperate with pending court cases to work legally during and up to two years after the end of their trial involvement" (page 23).
July 15, 2019, 3:24 p.m.
Countries: Thailand
Variables: LRW-PRACTICE-1

"Rape is illegal, although the government did not always enforce the law effectively. The law permits authorities to prosecute spousal rape, and prosecutions occurred. The law specifies penalties for conviction of rape or forcible sexual assault ranging from four years’ imprisonment to the death penalty as well as fines , , , According to NGOs the government underfunded agencies tasked with addressing the problem, and victims often perceived police as incapable of bringing perpetrators to justice" (page 28).
July 15, 2019, 3:24 p.m.
Countries: Thailand
Variables: AOM-LAW-1

"The minimum legal age for marriage for both sexes is 17, while anyone younger than 20 requires parental consent. A court may grant permission for children between the ages of 15 and 16 to marry" (page 31).
July 15, 2019, 3:24 p.m.
Countries: Thailand
Variables: ERBG-LAW-1

"Union leaders stated the wage differences for men and women were generally minimal and were mostly due to different skills, duration of employment, types of jobs, as well as legal requirements, which prohibit the employment of women in hazardous work" (page 40).
July 15, 2019, 3:24 p.m.
Countries: Thailand
Variables: CONST-LAW-1

"The interim constitution purported to protect 'all human dignity, rights, liberties, and equality of the people.' The 2017 constitution provides that 'men and women shall enjoy equal rights and liberties. Unjust discrimination against a person on the grounds of differences in origin, race, language, sex, age, disability, physical or health condition, personal status, economic or social standing, religious belief, education or political view, shall not be permitted' . . . The law imposes a maximum jail term of six months or a maximum fine of 20,000 baht ($612) or both, for anyone committing gender discrimination. The law mandates nondiscrimination based on gender and sexual identity in policy, rule, regulation, notification,...more
July 15, 2019, 3:24 p.m.
Countries: Thailand
Variables: TRAFF-PRACTICE-2

"Child sex trafficking remained a problem and the country continued to be a destination for child sex tourism, although the government initiated new programs to combat the problem. Children from migrant populations, ethnic minorities, and poor families remained particularly vulnerable, and police arrested parents who forced their children into prostitution. Citizens and foreign sex tourists committed pedophilia crimes, including the commercial sexual exploitation of children" (page 31). "In 2016, 14 migrant workers filed a complaint with the NHRCT alleging forced labor, confiscation of documents, abusive working and living conditions, excessive overtime, unlawful salary deductions, and limited freedom of movement" (page 38). "Children from Thailand, Burma, Cambodia, Laos, and ethnic minority...more
July 15, 2019, 3:24 p.m.
Countries: Thailand
Variables: LRW-PRACTICE-2

"NGOs asserted that rape was a serious problem, and noted a measure in the law allows offenders younger than 18 to avoid prosecution by choosing to marry their victim. They also maintained that victims underreported rapes and domestic assaults, in part due to a lack of understanding by authorities that impeded effective implementation of the law regarding violence against women. According to NGOs the government underfunded agencies tasked with addressing the problem, and victims often perceived police as incapable of bringing perpetrators to justice" (page 28).
July 15, 2019, 3:24 p.m.
Countries: Thailand
Variables: TRAFF-LAW-1

"The law provides heavy penalties for persons who procure, lure, compel, or threaten children younger than 18 for the purpose of prostitution, with higher penalties for persons who purchase sexual intercourse with a child younger than 15. Authorities may punish parents who allow a child to enter into prostitution and revoke their parental rights . . . The law also imposes heavy penalties on persons convicted of sexually exploiting persons younger than 18, including for pimping, trafficking, and other sexual crimes against children" (page 31). "The law prohibits all forms of forced or compulsory labor, except in the case of national emergency, war, martial law, or imminent public calamity. The...more
July 15, 2019, 3:24 p.m.
Countries: Thailand
Variables: PRN-LAW-1

"The law prohibits the production, distribution, import, or export of child pornography" (page 31).
July 15, 2019, 3:24 p.m.
Countries: Thailand
Variables: IIP-LAW-2

"Sexual harassment is illegal in both the public and private sectors. The law specifies maximum fines of 20,000 baht ($612) for those convicted of sexual harassment, while abuse categorized as an indecent act may result in a maximum 15 years’ imprisonment and a maximum fine of 30,000 baht ($919). The law governing the civil service also prohibits sexual harassment and stipulates five levels of punishment: probation, docked wages, salary reduction, suspension, and termination. NGOs claimed the legal definition of harassment was vague and prosecution of harassment claims difficult, leading to ineffective enforcement of the law" (page 29).
July 15, 2019, 3:24 p.m.
Countries: Thailand
Variables: PRN-PRACTICE-1

Children from Thailand, Burma, Cambodia, Laos, and ethnic minority communities were engaged in labor in informal sectors in the country, including farming, fishing, restaurants, street vending, auto services, food processing, manufacturing, construction, domestic work, and begging. Some children engaged in the worst forms of child labor, including in commercial sexual exploitation, child pornography, as well as production and trafficking of drugs (see section 6, Children). Factors contributing to child labor can include poverty, family commitment, distance from schools, parents’ occupations, and importance placed on education by parents. Limited reports continued that insurgent groups in the southernmost provinces recruited children to commit arson or act as scouts or informants" (page 39).more
July 15, 2019, 3:24 p.m.
Countries: Thailand
Variables: DV-PRACTICE-1

"NGOs expressed concern the law’s family unity approach puts undue pressure on a victim to compromise without addressing safety issues and led to a low conviction rate. Authorities prosecuted some domestic violence crimes under provisions for assault or violence against a person, where they could seek harsher penalties. Women’s rights groups reported domestic violence frequently went unreported, however, and police often were reluctant to pursue reports of domestic violence" (page 28-29). "The law provides for the protection of children from abuse, and laws on rape and abandonment carry harsher penalties if the victim is a child. The law provides for protection of witnesses, victims, and offenders younger than 18 in...more
July 15, 2019, 3:24 p.m.
Countries: Thailand
Variables: INFIB-PRACTICE-1

"NGOs reported that FGM/C occurred in the Muslim-majority south, although statistics were unavailable" (page 29).
July 15, 2019, 3:24 p.m.
Countries: Thailand
Variables: DV-LAW-1

"The law establishes measures designed to facilitate both the reporting of domestic violence complaints and reconciliation between the victim and the perpetrator. Moreover, the law restricts media reporting on domestic violence cases in the judicial system. NGOs expressed concern the law’s family unity approach puts undue pressure on a victim to compromise without addressing safety issues and led to a low conviction rate" (page 28-29). "The law provides for the protection of children from abuse, and laws on rape and abandonment carry harsher penalties if the victim is a child. The law provides for protection of witnesses, victims, and offenders younger than 18 in abuse and pedophilia cases" (page 31).more
July 15, 2019, 3:24 p.m.
Countries: Thailand
Variables: ERBG-DATA-1

"Union leaders stated the wage differences for men and women were generally minimal and were mostly due to different skills, duration of employment, types of jobs, as well as legal requirements, which prohibit the employment of women in hazardous work. Nonetheless, a 2016 International Labor Organization (ILO) report on migrant women in the country’s construction sector found female migrant workers consistently received less than their male counterparts, and more than one-half were paid less than the official minimum wage, especially for overtime work" (page 40).
July 15, 2019, 3:24 p.m.
Countries: Thailand
Variables: EWCMS-LAW-1

"Ministry of Defense policy limits the percentage of female officers to not more than 25 percent in most units, with specialized hospital/medical, budgetary, and finance units permitted 35 percent" (page 30).
July 15, 2019, 3:24 p.m.
Countries: Thailand
Variables: CLCW-LAW-1

"The law bases citizenship on birth to at least one citizen parent, marriage to a male citizen, or naturalization" (page 24). "Women were unable to confer citizenship to their noncitizen spouses in the same way as male citizens" (page 30).
July 15, 2019, 3:24 p.m.
Countries: Thailand
Variables: CWC-DATA-3

"In 2015 authorities confined in IDCs and shelters approximately 870 Rohingya and Bangladeshi persons who arrived in the country irregularly by boat during the mass movement in the Bay of Bengal and Andaman Sea in May 2015. As of September approximately 140 persons (mostly Rohingya) remained in detention. Authorities continued to treat refugees and asylum seekers from Burma who lived outside of designated border camps, including Rohingya boat arrivals, as illegal migrants. Persons categorized as illegal migrants are legally subject to arrest and detention. Although reinstated in 2013, authorities had not permitted bail for detained refugees and asylum seekers since mid-2016. International humanitarian organizations noted concerns about congested conditions, lack...more
July 15, 2019, 3:24 p.m.
Countries: Thailand
Variables: LRW-LAW-3

"Most trials are public; however, the court may order a closed trial, particularly in cases involving national security, the royal family, children, or sexual abuse" (page 9).
July 15, 2019, 3:24 p.m.
Countries: Thailand
Variables: ERBG-LAW-2

"Sexual harassment is illegal in both the public and private sectors. The law specifies maximum fines of 20,000 baht ($612) for those convicted of sexual harassment, while abuse categorized as an indecent act may result in a maximum 15 years’ imprisonment and a maximum fine of 30,000 baht ($919). The law governing the civil service also prohibits sexual harassment and stipulates five levels of punishment: probation, docked wages, salary reduction, suspension, and termination. NGOs claimed the legal definition of harassment was vague and prosecution of harassment claims difficult, leading to ineffective enforcement of the law" (page 29). "The law imposes a maximum jail term of six months or a maximum...more
July 15, 2019, 3:24 p.m.
Countries: Thailand
Variables: CWC-DATA-4

"Authorities continued to treat refugees and asylum seekers from Burma who lived outside of designated border camps, including Rohingya boat arrivals, as illegal migrants. Persons categorized as illegal migrants are legally subject to arrest and detention. Although reinstated in 2013, authorities had not permitted bail for detained refugees and asylum seekers since mid-2016" (page 20-21). "The government allowed undocumented migrant workers from neighboring Burma, Cambodia, and Laos to work legally in certain economic sectors if they registered with authorities and followed a prescribed process to document their status" (page 23).
July 15, 2019, 3:24 p.m.
Countries: Thailand
Variables: LBHO-LAW-1

"No laws limit participation of women and members of minorities in the political process; however, their participation was limited" (page 26).