The most comprehensive compilation of information on the status of
women in the world.

Latest items for Turkey

July 19, 2019, 12:48 p.m.
Countries: Turkey
Variables: LRW-PRACTICE-1, DTCP-PRACTICE-1

"Officials employed the tactic of countersuing individuals who alleged abuse. On August 10, in Izmir two women, 19-year-old Derya Kılıc and 22-year-old Seray Gurer, asked two police officers for help, claiming they were groped by two unidentified men on motorbikes. Security footage showed one of police officer starting to beat Kilic. According to Kilic’s formal complaint, the officer who hit her claimed the women were “dressed inappropriately.” A prosecutor in Izmir sought a prison sentence up to three and one-half years for the officer. The officer in the meantime filed criminal complaints against the women, alleging they had attacked him. The outcome of case and count remained unclear as of...more
July 19, 2019, 12:46 p.m.
Countries: Turkey
Variables: IIP-LAW-1, NGOFW-PRACTICE-1

"In November the HRA reported that women in the southeast were disproportionately affected by the state of emergency and cited restrictions on freedom of movement, the shuttering of women’s NGOs by emergency decree, and the impact of the arrest and removal of female DBP/HDP elected representatives" (page 25).
July 19, 2019, 12:46 p.m.
Countries: Turkey
Variables: LRW-PRACTICE-1, LRCM-PRACTICE-1

"In some cases the government did not effectively or fully enforce these laws or protect victims. The law prohibits violence against women, but human rights organizations claimed the government did not effectively enforce it . . . Women’s NGOs asserted there were not enough shelters to meet the needs of the increasing numbers of women applying for assistance and that shelter staff did not provide adequate care and services" (page 49).
July 19, 2019, 12:46 p.m.
Countries: Turkey
Variables: ISTD-PRACTICE-1

"Many persons with HIV/AIDS reported discrimination in access to employment, housing, public services, benefits, and health care. The Positive Living Association noted the country lacked laws protecting persons with HIV/AIDS from discrimination and that there were legal obstacles to anonymous HIV testing. Due to pervasive social stigma against those infected by HIV/AIDS, many individuals feared that the results of tests for HIV would be used against them and avoided testing" (page 59).
July 19, 2019, 12:46 p.m.
Countries: Turkey
Variables: FSCB-PRACTICE-1

"There were no reports of coerced abortion, involuntary sterilization, or other coercive population control methods" (page 51).
July 19, 2019, 12:46 p.m.
Countries: Turkey
Variables: LRCM-PRACTICE-2, LRCM-LAW-3, LRCM-DATA-2

"Incest involving children remained a problem, although prosecutions remained minimal. The law provides prison sentences of up to five years for incest" (page 53).
July 19, 2019, 12:46 p.m.
Countries: Turkey
Variables: AOM-PRACTICE-1

"NGOs reported children as young as 12 were at times married in unofficial religious ceremonies, particularly in poor and rural regions and among the Syrian population living in the country. Early and forced marriage was particularly prevalent in the southeast, and women’s rights activists reported the problem remained serious. Media noted that official marriages only captured a fraction of underage marriages, since many such marriages were concluded as religious marriages only" (page 52).
July 19, 2019, 12:46 p.m.
Countries: Turkey
Variables: LRW-LAW-4

"Courts gave reduced sentences to some men found guilty of committing violence against women, citing good behavior during the trial or “provocation” by women as an extenuating circumstance of the crime, and in some cases dismissed rape charges if the suspect married the victim" (page 50).
July 19, 2019, 12:46 p.m.
Countries: Turkey
Variables: FSCB-LAW-1

"In June an Edirne judge petitioned the Constitutional Court to revoke a provision in the Civil Code requiring the compulsory sterilization of transgender persons prior to the formal gender reassignment, asserting it was a human rights violation. In December the Constitutional Court supported the request and annulled the provision for the case before it. Nonetheless, the sterilization requirement remained in force at year’s end" (page 57-58).
July 19, 2019, 12:46 p.m.
Countries: Turkey
Variables: CWC-DATA-3

"Between January and November, authorities apprehended 361,000 individuals for crossing into the country from Syria, according to Turkish General Staff and Ministry of Interior data . . . Early marriage and child labor also remained significant problems among refugees . . . UNHCR reported more than 1,000 LGBTI asylum seekers and conditional refugees lived in the country, most from Iran. According to human rights groups, these refugees faced discrimination and hostility from both authorities and the local population due to their status as members of the LGBTI community. Commercial sexual exploitation also remained a significant problem in the LGBTI refugee community . . . Non-Syrian conditional refugees accepted by a...more
July 19, 2019, 12:46 p.m.
Countries: Turkey
Variables: DV-LAW-1

"The law authorizes police and local officials to grant various levels of protection and support services to victims of violence or to those at risk of violence. It requires the government to provide services to victims, such as shelter and temporary financial support, and empowers family courts to impose sanctions on those responsible for the violence" (page 52).
July 19, 2019, 12:46 p.m.
Countries: Turkey
Variables: TRAFF-PRACTICE-1

"Although government efforts to prevent trafficking continued with mixed effect, it made improvements in identifying trafficking victims nationwide . . . The government did not make data on the number of arrests and convictions related to trafficking publicly available" (page 62).
July 19, 2019, 12:46 p.m.
Countries: Turkey
Variables: AFE-PRACTICE-1

"The Education Reform Initiative, an NGO focusing on education, reported in its Education Monitoring Report for 2016-17 that the government took important positive steps to expand girls’ access to education, including by providing conditional cash transfers to incentivize poor families to continue education for their daughters" (page 51-52).
July 19, 2019, 12:46 p.m.
Countries: Turkey
Variables: CWC-DATA-2

"NGOs reported children as young as 12 were at times married in unofficial religious ceremonies, particularly in poor and rural regions and among the Syrian population living in the country" (page 52).
July 19, 2019, 12:46 p.m.
Countries: Turkey
Variables: LRW-LAW-1

"The law prohibits sexual assault, including rape and spousal rape, with penalties of two to 10 years’ imprisonment for conviction of attempted sexual violation and at least 12 years’ imprisonment for conviction of rape or sexual violation" (page 49). "By law, if the victim of abuse is between ages 12 and 18, molestation results in a three-to-eight-year prison sentence, sexual abuse in an eight-to-15-year sentence, and rape in a sentence of at least 16 years. If the victim is younger than 12, molestation results in a minimum five-year prison sentence, sexual abuse in a minimum 10-year sentence, and rape in a minimum 18-year sentence" (page 52). "The age of consent...more
July 19, 2019, 12:46 p.m.
Countries: Turkey
Variables: PRN-LAW-1

"The law prohibits producing or disseminating child pornography and stipulates a prison sentence of up to two years as well as a fine for violations" (page 53).
July 19, 2019, 12:46 p.m.
Countries: Turkey
Variables: AFE-LAW-1

"Human rights NGOs and others expressed concern that the law on compulsory education allows some female students to be kept at home and married early" (page 51).
July 19, 2019, 12:46 p.m.
Countries: Turkey
Variables: IIP-PRACTICE-2

"During the year there were several high-profile instances of violence against women in public, including on public transit, because of their clothing. On September 30 in the Atasehir neighborhood of Istanbul, a man punched a women wearing a headscarf; video footage showed the man hitting the victim and walking away. Authorities apprehended the perpetrator and sentenced him to five-plus months of imprisonment. He was subsequently released on probation. Some women’s rights NGOs asserted that weak legal enforcement of existing laws designed to protect women and light sentencing of violent perpetrators of crimes against women contributed to a climate of permissiveness for potential offenders. State of emergency provisions amended the Criminal...more
July 19, 2019, 12:46 p.m.
Countries: Turkey
Variables: ERBG-PRACTICE-1

"While women enjoy the same rights as men by law, societal and official discrimination were widespread. Women faced discrimination in employment (see section 7.d.). The constitution permits measures, including positive discrimination, to advance gender equality. To encourage the hiring of women, the state paid social services insurance premiums on behalf of employers for several months for any female employee above age 18" (page 51). "Discrimination in employment or occupation occurred with regard to sex, ethnicity, religion, sexual orientation, HIV-positive status, and presence of a disability. Sources also reported frequent discrimination based on political affiliation/views. Penalties, generally monetary fines, were insufficient to prevent violations. Women to faced discrimination in employment and...more
July 19, 2019, 12:46 p.m.
Countries: Turkey
Variables: LRW-LAW-2

"The law prohibits sexual assault, including rape and spousal rape, with penalties of two to 10 years’ imprisonment for conviction of attempted sexual violation and at least 12 years’ imprisonment for conviction of rape or sexual violation . . . The law covers all women and requires police and local authorities to grant various levels of protection and support services to survivors of violence or those at risk of violence. It also requires government services, such as shelter and temporary financial support, for victims and provides for family courts to impose sanctions on perpetrators. According to press reports, as of September 11, the MOFSP reported 300 women changed their identities...more
July 19, 2019, 12:46 p.m.
Countries: Turkey
Variables: CONST-LAW-1

"The law does not include specific protections based on sexual orientation or gender identity. The law allows for up to three years in prison for hate speech or injurious acts related to language, race, nationality, color, gender, disability, political opinion, philosophical belief, religion, or sectarian differences. Human rights groups criticized the law’s failure to include protections based on gender identity and noted the law was sometimes used to restrict freedom of speech rather than to protect minorities. LGBTI definitions were not included in the law, but authorities reported that protections for LGBTI individuals are provided under a general “gender” concept in the constitution" (page 57).
July 19, 2019, 12:46 p.m.
Countries: Turkey
Variables: SUICIDE-DATA-1

"The HDP reported several alleged suicides among accused Gulenists imprisoned since the coup attempt as well as the suicides of four female inmates in the southeast by self-immolation, allegedly in response to torture" (page 6).
July 19, 2019, 12:46 p.m.
Countries: Turkey
Variables: MURDER-PRACTICE-1

"So-called honor killings of women remained a problem. Human rights activists and academics alleged that the practice continued across the country. Individuals convicted of honor killings may receive life imprisonment, but NGOs reported that actual sentences often were reduced due to mitigating factors. The law allows judges, when establishing sentences, to take into account anger or passion caused by the “misbehavior” of the victim" (page 50).
July 19, 2019, 12:46 p.m.
Countries: Turkey
Variables: LRCM-LAW-2

"The law prohibits sexual assault, including rape and spousal rape, with penalties of two to 10 years’ imprisonment for conviction of attempted sexual violation and at least 12 years’ imprisonment for conviction of rape or sexual violation . . . The law covers all women and requires police and local authorities to grant various levels of protection and support services to survivors of violence or those at risk of violence. It also requires government services, such as shelter and temporary financial support, for victims and provides for family courts to impose sanctions on perpetrators. According to press reports, as of September 11, the MOFSP reported 300 women changed their identities...more
July 19, 2019, 12:46 p.m.
Countries: Turkey
Variables: ERBG-DATA-2

"According to government statistics based on 2015 data, women’s participation in the labor force was 27.5 percent, corresponding to more than eight million women" (page 63).
July 19, 2019, 12:46 p.m.
Countries: Turkey
Variables: GP-DATA-6

"The number of women in politics and the judiciary remained small" (page 45).
July 19, 2019, 12:46 p.m.
Countries: Turkey
Variables: DTCP-PRACTICE-1

"The HDP reported several alleged suicides among accused Gulenists imprisoned since the coup attempt as well as the suicides of four female inmates in the southeast by self-immolation, allegedly in response to torture" (page 6). "The government reported it housed children in separate prison facilities, where available; otherwise, children were held in separate sections within separate male and female adult prisons" (page 7).
July 19, 2019, 12:46 p.m.
Countries: Turkey
Variables: LRW-LAW-3

"Courts gave reduced sentences to some men found guilty of committing violence against women, citing good behavior during the trial or “provocation” by women as an extenuating circumstance of the crime, and in some cases dismissed rape charges if the suspect married the victim. For example, in August a court reduced the life imprisonment sentence of Kadri Tekin to 15 years for his conviction of the 2011 murder of his wife due to “good conduct" (page 50).
July 19, 2019, 12:46 p.m.
Countries: Turkey
Variables: IIP-LAW-2

"The law provides for up to five years’ imprisonment for sexual harassment. If the victim is a child, the recommended punishments are longer. Women’s rights activists reported that authorities rarely enforced these laws . . . State of emergency provisions amended the Criminal Procedural Law to increase the number of crimes, including crimes involving threats to women, which may be resolved through mediation instead of the court system. Critics complained the move lowered the severity of potential criminal punishments of perpetrators of violence against women, undermining women’s safety and potentially enabling impunity" (page 50-51).
July 19, 2019, 12:46 p.m.
Countries: Turkey
Variables: TRAFF-LAW-1

"The constitution requires the state to take measures to protect children from exploitation. The law criminalizes sexual exploitation of children and mandates a minimum sentence of eight years in prison. The penalty for conviction of encouraging or facilitating child prostitution is up to 10 years’ imprisonment; if violence or pressure is involved, the sentence may be doubled" (page 53). "The law generally prohibits all forms of forced or compulsory labor, but the government enforced such laws unevenly. Penalties (generally monetary fines) were insufficient to deter violations . . . Penalties for conviction of trafficking violations range from eight to 12 years’ imprisonment and were sufficiently stringent compared with other serious...more