The most comprehensive compilation of information on the status of
women in the world.

Latest items for Zambia

Aug. 3, 2019, 7:13 p.m.
Countries: Kenya, South Africa, Zambia, Zimbabwe
Variables: POLY-LAW-1

"Kenya, South Africa, Zambia and Zimbabwe recognize the inheritance rights of multiple wives" (10)
July 9, 2019, 2:45 p.m.
Countries: Zambia
Variables: ISTD-PRACTICE-1, LRCM-PRACTICE-2

"Domestic violence against women was a serious problem, and spousal abuse was widespread. According to a May 26 Afro Barometer survey on the prevalence of GBV, 90 percent of persons with no formal education approved of wife beating. The NGO Women in Law in South Africa (WLSA) observed that customary marriage values taught women sexual intercourse was a man’s right and discouraged reporting spousal rape. The WLSA also observed that women who revealed sexual violations to authorities often faced societal stigma, which in turn diminished future reporting. Customary laws in certain chiefdoms allowed for spousal battery. In addition fear of violence, abandonment, and divorce discouraged women from seeking HIV care...more
July 9, 2019, 2:45 p.m.
Countries: Zambia
Variables: AOM-DATA-2

The legal age of marriage is 16 for boys and girls with parental consent and 21 without consent. There is no minimum age under customary law. According to the ZDHS, 45 percent of married women ages 25-49 were married by age 18. Prevalence was highest in rural areas. The government, parliamentarians, civil society organizations, and donors worked together to fight early and forced marriages. The Ministries of Chiefs and Traditional Affairs and Gender and Child Development, in collaboration with traditional leaders, NGOs, diplomatic missions, and other stakeholders, increasingly spoke out against early and forced marriages. Some leaders nullified forced and early marriages and placed the girls removed in school. In...more
July 9, 2019, 2:45 p.m.
Countries: Zambia
Variables: CWC-DATA-2

"The Anti-Gender-based Violence Act of 2010 criminalizes spousal rape, and the penal code criminalizes domestic violence between spouses and among family members living in one home. The law provides for prosecution of most GBV crimes, and penalties for conviction of assault range from a fine to 25 years in prison, depending on the severity of injury and whether a weapon was used during the assault. The law requires medical reports prepared by certified practitioners for the prosecution of cases of violence against women (and also against men), but there were few certified practitioners in rural areas. The law provides for protection orders for victims of domestic and gender violence, and...more
July 9, 2019, 2:45 p.m.
Countries: Zambia
Variables: ERBG-LAW-1

"The labor law prohibits discrimination in employment or occupation based on race, sex, disability, political opinion, social origin, and language but did not prohibit discrimination based on sexual orientation or gender identity" (Pg 33).
July 9, 2019, 2:45 p.m.
Countries: Zambia
Variables: CONST-LAW-1

"The constitution and law prohibit discrimination based on race, sex, religion, political opinion, place of origin, ethnic group (tribe), gender, marital status, color, disability, language, and social status. The government did not effectively enforce the law. Violence and discrimination against women and children, discrimination based on sexual orientation or gender identity, and discrimination against persons with disabilities continued" (Pg 19).
July 9, 2019, 2:45 p.m.
Countries: Zambia
Variables: AFE-PRACTICE-1

"In contrast to customary law, the constitution and statutory law provide for the same legal status and rights for women as for men, including under family, labor, property, and nationality laws. Nevertheless, the government did not adequately enforce the law, and women experienced discrimination in employment (see section 7.d.), education, inheritance, and ownership of land and other property" (Pg 23). "Although government policy provides for tuition-free education through grade seven, education was not compulsory, and many children did not attend school. Contrary to government policy, many teachers and school administrators required students to purchase uniforms or pay a fee before allowing them to attend classes, preventing some children from attending...more
July 9, 2019, 2:45 p.m.
Countries: Zambia
Variables: DTCP-PRACTICE-1

"In contrast with 2014, human rights nongovernmental organizations (NGOs) reported incidents of police who raped women and girls in their custody or demanded sex as a condition of release. For example on February 12, police in Kabwe in Central Province arrested an inspector accused of the rape of a woman detained at the Kasanda Police Station. The inspector was acquitted on April 26, when the woman did not appear before court" (Pg 2). "There were no prison facilities for breastfeeding and pregnant women. Incarcerated women who had no alternative for childcare could choose to have their infants and children under age four with them in prison. Although a law on...more
July 9, 2019, 2:45 p.m.
Countries: Zambia
Variables: LO-PRACTICE-1

"In contrast to customary law, the constitution and statutory law provide for the same legal status and rights for women as for men, including under family, labor, property, and nationality laws. Nevertheless, the government did not adequately enforce the law, and women experienced discrimination in employment (see section 7.d.), education, inheritance, and ownership of land and other property. Women’s movements noted women lacked adequate access to credit to acquire land or property. Lack of collateral meant women in most cases remained dependent on their husbands or male members of their family to cosign for loans. A lower percentage of women than men owned their own homes or businesses" (Pg 23).more
July 9, 2019, 2:45 p.m.
Countries: Zambia
Variables: LBHO-LAW-1, ATFPA-PRACTICE-3, GP-DATA-1

"There were no laws or cultural or traditional practices preventing women or members of minorities from voting, running for office, serving as electoral monitors, or otherwise participating in political life on the same basis as men or nonminority citizens. The Zambia National Women’s Lobby 2014 Gender Audit Report on the private and public sectors revealed low participation of women in decision-making positions within several government and quasi-government institutions and political parties. For instance the report revealed women’s participation in national executive committees of all political parties was very low, with the highest level of participation being 40 percent" (Pg 17).
July 9, 2019, 2:45 p.m.
Countries: Zambia
Variables: IAD-LAW-1

"Statutory law prescribes that a man’s children equally share half of an estate, the widow 20 percent, other dependents 10 percent, and the deceased’s parents 20 percent" (Pg 23).
July 9, 2019, 2:45 p.m.
Countries: Zambia
Variables: SEGI-PRACTICE-1, NGOFW-DATA-1

"The ZPS Victims Support Unit (VSU) was responsible for handling cases of domestic assault, wife beating, mistreatment of widows, and property expropriation (“grabbing”) by a deceased husband’s relatives. Police pursued reports of domestic violence more aggressively than in previous years, and the government established a fast-track court in Lusaka for GBV cases. Data on the extent of rape and domestic violence were limited. A WLSA Kasama One-Stop GBV Treatment Center recorded 6,506 cases of GBV as of September, compared with 5,188 during the first half of 2014. The VSU recorded 164 rapes countrywide during the period, compared with 118 in 2014" (Pg 21). "The legal age of marriage is 16...more
July 9, 2019, 2:45 p.m.
Countries: Zambia
Variables: LRW-LAW-2

"The law criminalizes rape, and courts have discretion to sentence convicted rapists to life imprisonment at hard labor. Rape was nonetheless widespread. The government increasingly enforced the law and obtained rape convictions with higher penalties" (Pg 20). "The minimum age for consensual sexual relations is 16. The law provides penalties of up to life imprisonment for conviction of statutory rape or defilement, which the law defines as the unlawful carnal knowledge of a child under age 16. The minimum penalty for conviction of defilement is 15 years in prison" (pg 24).
July 9, 2019, 2:45 p.m.
Countries: Zambia
Variables: LRW-PRACTICE-1

"The law criminalizes rape, and courts have discretion to sentence convicted rapists to life imprisonment at hard labor. Rape was nonetheless widespread. The government increasingly enforced the law and obtained rape convictions with higher penalties...On July 15, the president pardoned singer Clifford Dimba who had served one year of an 18-year sentence for statutory rape of a 14-year-old girl. His pardon and subsequent appointment by the president as an ambassador in the fight against gender-based violence was denounced by Dubravka Simonovi, UN special rapporteur on violence against women, as “outrageous” decisions that traumatized “the victim all over again” and discouraged other victims from reporting similar offenses. UN officials called on...more
July 9, 2019, 2:45 p.m.
Countries: Zambia
Variables: AOM-PRACTICE-1, AOM-LAW-1

"The legal age of marriage is 16 for boys and girls with parental consent and 21 without consent. There is no minimum age under customary law. According to the ZDHS, 45 percent of married women ages 25-49 were married by age 18. Prevalence was highest in rural areas. The government, parliamentarians, civil society organizations, and donors worked together to fight early and forced marriages. The Ministries of Chiefs and Traditional Affairs and Gender and Child Development, in collaboration with traditional leaders, NGOs, diplomatic missions, and other stakeholders, increasingly spoke out against early and forced marriages. Some leaders nullified forced and early marriages and placed the girls removed in school. In...more
July 9, 2019, 2:45 p.m.
Countries: Zambia
Variables: IAW-LAW-1

"Statutory law prescribes that a man’s children equally share half of an estate, the widow 20 percent, other dependents 10 percent, and the deceased’s parents 20 percent" (Pg 23). "Local customary law generally discriminates against women. It subordinates women with respect to property ownership, inheritance, and marriage. Land ownership was restricted for women: when a woman’s husband dies, only their son or the paternal side of the family may inherit his property" (Pg 23).
July 9, 2019, 2:45 p.m.
Countries: Zambia
Variables: DV-PRACTICE-1

"The Anti-Gender-based Violence Act of 2010 criminalizes spousal rape, and the penal code criminalizes domestic violence between spouses and among family members living in one home. The law provides for prosecution of most GBV crimes, and penalties for conviction of assault range from a fine to 25 years in prison, depending on the severity of injury and whether a weapon was used during the assault. The law requires medical reports prepared by certified practitioners for the prosecution of cases of violence against women (and also against men), but there were few certified practitioners in rural areas. The law provides for protection orders for victims of domestic and gender violence, and...more
July 9, 2019, 2:45 p.m.
Countries: Zambia
Variables: MMR-PRACTICE-1, MMR-DATA-1

"According to the 2013-2014 ZDHS, maternal mortality rate declined from 591 per 100,000 live births in 2007 to 398 in 2014. The Ministry of Health attributed 30 percent of maternal mortality cases to unsafe abortions, mostly among adolescent girls. The major direct causes of maternal mortality were complications arising during pregnancy and birth, such as hemorrhage, septicemia (blood poisoning), obstructed labor, hypertensive conditions, and unsafe abortion. Barriers that continued to limit access to reproductive health services included limited information, inadequate staffing of rural clinics, lack of infrastructure and transport, cost, religious reasons, and misperceptions surrounding contraceptive use" (Pg 22).
July 9, 2019, 2:45 p.m.
Countries: Zambia
Variables: IIP-PRACTICE-2, IIP-LAW-2

"Sexual harassment was common, but the government took some steps to prosecute harassment during the year. The penal code contains provisions under which some forms of sexual harassment of women may be prosecuted. The NGOCC stated it received many reports of sexual harassment in places of work but expressed concern that stringent evidence requirements in courts of law prevented victims from litigating. For example on May 17, the Zambia National Information Service reported a Chinese employer in Serenje, identified only as Tu, threatened to fire Caren Mupeta because she refused to have sexual relations with him. Women’s organizations expressed concern regarding increased incidents of unemployed youth on the street stripping...more
July 9, 2019, 2:45 p.m.
Countries: Zambia
Variables: DTCP-LAW-1

"The NGOCC and several of its member organizations observed that the country’s dual system of customary and statutory law made it difficult to end injustices against women. For instance polygyny is legally permitted under customary law. Women’s organizations stated that the bride price had entrenched societal patriarchal dominance. The practice of “sexual cleansing,” in which a widow is compelled to have sexual relations with her late husband’s relatives as part of a cleansing ritual, declined significantly; some local leaders banned the practice. The penal code prohibits “sexual cleansing” of girls under age 16" (Pg 21). "Local customary law generally discriminates against women. It subordinates women with respect to property ownership,...more
July 9, 2019, 2:45 p.m.
Countries: Zambia
Variables: WR-PRACTICE-2

"The NGOCC and several of its member organizations observed that the country’s dual system of customary and statutory law made it difficult to end injustices against women. For instance polygyny is legally permitted under customary law. Women’s organizations stated that the bride price had entrenched societal patriarchal dominance. The practice of “sexual cleansing,” in which a widow is compelled to have sexual relations with her late husband’s relatives as part of a cleansing ritual, declined significantly; some local leaders banned the practice. The penal code prohibits “sexual cleansing” of girls under age 16" (Pg 21). "Property grabbing from widows remained widespread, particularly in rural areas. Courts generally considered property grabbing...more
July 9, 2019, 2:45 p.m.
Countries: Zambia
Variables: DACH-PRACTICE-2, DACH-DATA-2, CRPLB-PRACTICE-1

"Couples and individuals have the right to decide the number, spacing, and timing of their children; manage their reproductive health; and have access to the information and means to do so, free from discrimination, coercion, or violence. A lack of access to information and services remained a problem, however. Many women lacked access to contraception and skilled attendance during childbirth, including essential prenatal, obstetric, and postpartum care. The 2013-14 Zambia Health and Demographic Survey (ZDHS) indicated significant improvements in these areas: 45 percent of women ages 15-49 accessed modern family planning methods in 2013-14, compared with 33 percent in 2007. The percentage of childbirths assisted by a skilled provider increased...more
July 9, 2019, 2:45 p.m.
Countries: Zambia
Variables: LRCM-LAW-1, LRCM-LAW-2, DV-LAW-1, DV-LAW-2

"The Anti-Gender-based Violence Act of 2010 criminalizes spousal rape, and the penal code criminalizes domestic violence between spouses and among family members living in one home. The law provides for prosecution of most GBV crimes, and penalties for conviction of assault range from a fine to 25 years in prison, depending on the severity of injury and whether a weapon was used during the assault. The law requires medical reports prepared by certified practitioners for the prosecution of cases of violence against women (and also against men), but there were few certified practitioners in rural areas. The law provides for protection orders for victims of domestic and gender violence, and...more
July 9, 2019, 2:45 p.m.
Countries: Zambia
Variables: POLY-LAW-1

"In a polygynous marriage, a widow’s share must be divided proportionally with other wives, based on the length of time each has stayed in the marriage" (Pg 23).
July 9, 2019, 2:45 p.m.
Countries: Zambia
Variables: CWC-DATA-3

"GBV was a problem, and authorities failed to provide adequate physical protection. According to the government’s 2012 Universal Periodic Review report to the UN Office of the High Commissioner for Human Rights, violence against girls and women--including defilement, rape, marriages of girls age 18 and under, and prostitution--was a major problem affecting female asylum seekers and refugees in camps and among those residing independently, especially in urban areas. Gender inequality, economic dependence on men, and impunity of perpetrators were among the factors contributing to abuse. According to the report, girls reported sexual harassment by teachers in schools in refugee settlements. To address these problems, during the year UNHCR, in conjunction...more
July 9, 2019, 2:45 p.m.
Countries: Zambia
Variables: DV-PRACTICE-2

"Domestic violence against women was a serious problem, and spousal abuse was widespread. According to a May 26 Afro Barometer survey on the prevalence of GBV, 90 percent of persons with no formal education approved of wife beating. The NGO Women in Law in South Africa (WLSA) observed that customary marriage values taught women sexual intercourse was a man’s right and discouraged reporting spousal rape. The WLSA also observed that women who revealed sexual violations to authorities often faced societal stigma, which in turn diminished future reporting. Customary laws in certain chiefdoms allowed for spousal battery. In addition fear of violence, abandonment, and divorce discouraged women from seeking HIV care...more
July 9, 2019, 2:45 p.m.
Countries: Zambia
Variables: LRW-DATA-1

"The ZPS Victims Support Unit (VSU) was responsible for handling cases of domestic assault, wife beating, mistreatment of widows, and property expropriation (“grabbing”) by a deceased husband’s relatives. Police pursued reports of domestic violence more aggressively than in previous years, and the government established a fast-track court in Lusaka for GBV cases. Data on the extent of rape and domestic violence were limited. A WLSA Kasama One-Stop GBV Treatment Center recorded 6,506 cases of GBV as of September, compared with 5,188 during the first half of 2014. The VSU recorded 164 rapes countrywide during the period, compared with 118 in 2014" (Pg 21).
July 9, 2019, 2:45 p.m.
Countries: Zambia
Variables: LRW-LAW-1

"The law criminalizes rape, and courts have discretion to sentence convicted rapists to life imprisonment at hard labor. Rape was nonetheless widespread. The government increasingly enforced the law and obtained rape convictions with higher penalties...On July 15, the president pardoned singer Clifford Dimba who had served one year of an 18-year sentence for statutory rape of a 14-year-old girl. His pardon and subsequent appointment by the president as an ambassador in the fight against gender-based violence was denounced by Dubravka Simonovi, UN special rapporteur on violence against women, as “outrageous” decisions that traumatized “the victim all over again” and discouraged other victims from reporting similar offenses. UN officials called on...more
July 9, 2019, 2:45 p.m.
Countries: Zambia
Variables: LRCM-PRACTICE-1

"The Anti-Gender-based Violence Act of 2010 criminalizes spousal rape, and the penal code criminalizes domestic violence between spouses and among family members living in one home. The law provides for prosecution of most GBV crimes, and penalties for conviction of assault range from a fine to 25 years in prison, depending on the severity of injury and whether a weapon was used during the assault. The law requires medical reports prepared by certified practitioners for the prosecution of cases of violence against women (and also against men), but there were few certified practitioners in rural areas. The law provides for protection orders for victims of domestic and gender violence, and...more
July 9, 2019, 2:45 p.m.
Countries: Zambia
Variables: MARR-PRACTICE-5, PW-LAW-1

"The NGOCC and several of its member organizations observed that the country’s dual system of customary and statutory law made it difficult to end injustices against women. For instance polygyny is legally permitted under customary law. Women’s organizations stated that the bride price had entrenched societal patriarchal dominance. The practice of “sexual cleansing,” in which a widow is compelled to have sexual relations with her late husband’s relatives as part of a cleansing ritual, declined significantly; some local leaders banned the practice. The penal code prohibits “sexual cleansing” of girls under age 16" (Pg 21).