The most comprehensive compilation of information on the status of
women in the world.

Latest items for ACR-LAW-1

Aug. 21, 2017, 7:22 p.m.
Countries: India
Variables: ACR-LAW-1

“Commercial surrogacy is now against the law. Indian women can no longer be rented as breeders and exploited like cattle for the wealthy. Children can no longer be made-to-order commodities for purchase on the international market. This alone is cause for celebration” (para 2). “International surrogacy is prohibited and must be brought to an abrupt halt. Under the new law, only Indian citizens may avail themselves of surrogacy in the country” (para 3). “The number of women who may be used as surrogates is vastly curtailed. The law mandates that only close relatives of intended parents may act as surrogates” (para 4). “Only people with medically diagnosed infertility can use ...more
Aug. 7, 2017, 3:33 p.m.
Countries: India
Variables: ACR-LAW-1

"Commercial surrogacy is now against the law. Indian women can no longer be rented as breeders and exploited like cattle for the wealthy. Children can no longer be made-to-order commodities for purchase on the international market" (para 2). "Under the new law, only Indian citizens may avail themselves of surrogacy in the country. The number of women who may be used as surrogates is vastly curtailed. The law mandates that only close relatives of intended parents may act as surrogates. Only people with medically diagnosed infertility can use a surrogate to obtain a child. This will preclude both gay men and fertile heterosexuals from using surrogates to have children, further ...more
July 31, 2017, 2:23 p.m.
Countries: Thailand
Variables: TRAFF-LAW-1, ACR-LAW-1

"If the vials' contents are confirmed to be semen, Nithinon could face up to three years in prison for violating Thailand's surrogacy law - which forbids the smuggling of semen" (para 13).
June 12, 2017, 11:30 a.m.
Countries: India
Variables: ACR-LAW-1

"In October last year, the government told fertility clinics to stop all surrogate embryo transfers to foreigners. The move follows a proposed change in the law that would limit surrogacy to Indian couples, or where at least one of the commissioning parents has an Indian passport and residency" (p 4)
June 12, 2017, 11:30 a.m.
Countries: India
Variables: ACR-LAW-1

"In India...the industry – built on sex, race and class supremacy – is not only legal but estimated to be worth more than $1bn (£690m) a year" (p 10)
Jan. 26, 2017, 3:03 p.m.
Countries: China
Variables: ACR-PRACTICE-1, ACR-LAW-1

"Foreign fertility services are advertising for Chinese women who want to freeze their eggs — a process that is prohibited for single women in China — to have children later" (para 4).
Nov. 17, 2016, 4:20 p.m.
Countries: Uzbekistan
Variables: ACR-LAW-1

"Under article 27 of the Family Code, two married persons who have given written consent for implantation of an embryo in another woman for purposes of her carrying the baby to term may be recorded as parents of the child solely with the consent of the woman who gave birth to the child (the surrogate mother)" (44). "If two married persons who have given their written consent for the use of artificial insemination or to embryo implantation have a child by those methods, they are recorded as the parents in the Registry of Births" (44)
July 4, 2016, 9:14 p.m.
Countries: Argentina
Variables: ACR-LAW-1

"The passing in 2013 of Law 26.862 on assisted fertilization, allows all women free access to all scientific methods of fertilization" (4). "Given the existence of various and discordant interpretations of paragraph 2, which often result in the prosecution of cases of non-punishable abortion (NPA), in a recent ruling in March 2012, the Supreme Court of the nation laid down three clear rules on the subject: • The Argentine Constitution and human rights treaties prevent the punishment of abortions undertaken by any woman who is a victim of rape, and not only raped victims who suffer some mental disability, based on the principles of equality, dignity of persons and legality. ...more
May 25, 2016, 8:07 p.m.
Countries: South Korea
Variables: ACR-LAW-1

"Since a medical subsidy for couples with fertility difficulties was introduced in 2006 to help address the country’s low birth rate, multiple pregnancies have emerged as one of the major complications of in vitro fertilization. Guidelines for reducing the number of transferred embryos have been actively implemented since mid-2008, and the rate of multiple implantations, especially the rate of the implantation of triplets or more, which is closely related to complications, has declined as a result" (36).
May 14, 2016, 4:51 p.m.
Countries: Costa Rica
Variables: ACR-LAW-1

"On September 10, the president signed an executive order legalizing in-vitro fertilization to comply with the 2012 Inter-American Court of Human Rights order to reinstate women’s right to undergo the procedure. On October 7, the Constitutional Chamber of the Supreme Court admitted for review a complaint challenging the constitutionality of the executive order" (14).
April 4, 2016, 7:21 a.m.
Countries: Israel
Variables: ACR-LAW-1

"The Anti Trafficking Law...that came into force on October 29, 2006, applies a broad trafficking crime to a number of illegal practices such as prostitution, sexual crimes, slavery or forced labor, removal of organs, pornography, and using a person’s body to give birth to a baby who is then taken from her (section 377A(a) of the Penal Law). The crime is addressed with a punishment of 16 years of imprisonment, and 20 years of imprisonment if the offence is committed against a minor" (56). "As detailed in Israel’s previous report, fertility treatments in Israel remain highly developed and well subsidized. Each woman is entitled to IVF treatment until she gives ...more
Feb. 23, 2016, 8:52 p.m.
Countries: Ukraine
Variables: ACR-LAW-1

"On February 21, 2012, the Parliament of Ukraine passed on first hearing draft law No8282, from 23.03.2011, to amend some of the legislative acts of Ukraine (concerning use of assisted reproductive technologies) and ban women over 49 to use assisted reproductive technologies." (2)
Jan. 8, 2016, 2:56 p.m.
Countries: South Korea
Variables: ACR-LAW-1

"The Life Ethics and Safety Act (2008), establishing the requirement of informed and written consent in cases of donations or harvesting of eggs for reproductive purposes and limiting the frequency and number of donations per woman" (2)
Jan. 2, 2016, 10:23 a.m.
Countries: South Africa
Variables: ACR-LAW-1

"Since India legalized commercial surrogacy in 2001, thousands of fertility clinics have mushroomed across the country, making it a $1 billion to $2.3 billion business annually. Although there are no official figures available, a 2012 U.N. report said there were around 3,000 fertility clinics in India. The clinics have attracted couples from Britain, the United States, Australia, South Africa and Japan"(para 16-17). It can be inferred from this statement that commercial surrogacy is likely illegal in South Africa (ENB- Coder Comment)
Jan. 2, 2016, 10:23 a.m.
Countries: United States
Variables: ACR-LAW-1

"Since India legalized commercial surrogacy in 2001, thousands of fertility clinics have mushroomed across the country, making it a $1 billion to $2.3 billion business annually. Although there are no official figures available, a 2012 U.N. report said there were around 3,000 fertility clinics in India. The clinics have attracted couples from Britain, the United States, Australia, South Africa and Japan. A surrogate pregnancy costs around $20,000 to $35,000 in India, compared to around $150,000 in the United States, where surrogacy is permitted in many but not all states"(para 16-17)
Jan. 2, 2016, 10:23 a.m.
Countries: Thailand
Variables: ACR-LAW-1

"Thailand also had been a popular destination for those wanting a baby through surrogacy, but after recent scandals involving foreign clients, the country passed a law in August banning commercial surrogacy"(para 18)
Jan. 2, 2016, 10:23 a.m.
Countries: Australia
Variables: ACR-LAW-1

"Since India legalized commercial surrogacy in 2001, thousands of fertility clinics have mushroomed across the country, making it a $1 billion to $2.3 billion business annually. Although there are no official figures available, a 2012 U.N. report said there were around 3,000 fertility clinics in India. The clinics have attracted couples from Britain, the United States, Australia, South Africa and Japan"(para 16-17). It can be inferred from this statement that commercial surrogacy is likely illegal in Australia (ENB- Coder Comment)
Jan. 2, 2016, 10:23 a.m.
Countries: United Kingdom
Variables: ACR-LAW-1

"Since India legalized commercial surrogacy in 2001, thousands of fertility clinics have mushroomed across the country, making it a $1 billion to $2.3 billion business annually. Although there are no official figures available, a 2012 U.N. report said there were around 3,000 fertility clinics in India. The clinics have attracted couples from Britain, the United States, Australia, South Africa and Japan"(para 16-17). It can be inferred from this statement that commercial surrogacy is likely illegal in Australia(ENB- Coder Comment)
Jan. 2, 2016, 10:23 a.m.
Countries: Japan
Variables: ACR-LAW-1

"Since India legalized commercial surrogacy in 2001, thousands of fertility clinics have mushroomed across the country, making it a $1 billion to $2.3 billion business annually. Although there are no official figures available, a 2012 U.N. report said there were around 3,000 fertility clinics in India. The clinics have attracted couples from Britain, the United States, Australia, South Africa and Japan"(para 16-17). It can be inferred from this statement that commercial surrogacy is likely illegal in Japan (ENB- Coder Comment)
Jan. 2, 2016, 10:23 a.m.
Countries: Georgia, Russia, Ukraine
Variables: ACR-LAW-1

"Since India legalized commercial surrogacy in 2001, thousands of fertility clinics have mushroomed across the country, making it a $1 billion to $2.3 billion business annually. Although there are no official figures available, a 2012 U.N. report said there were around 3,000 fertility clinics in India. The clinics have attracted couples from Britain, the United States, Australia, South Africa and Japan. A surrogate pregnancy costs around $20,000 to $35,000 in India, compared to around $150,000 in the United States, where surrogacy is permitted in many but not all states. Other countries that allow surrogacy include Russia, Georgia and Ukraine"(para 16-17)
Jan. 2, 2016, 10:22 a.m.
Countries: India
Variables: ACR-LAW-1

"For thousands of childless couples the world over, India has been the go-to destination to fulfill their dreams of becoming parents, thanks to its well-trained doctors, well-appointed fertility clinics and vast numbers of poor women willing to serve as surrogate mothers. Not anymore. The Indian government recently banned surrogate services for foreigners and ordered fertility clinics to stop the practice of hiring Indian women to bear children for them. It's said to be intended to protect the women from exploitation, though some who have worked as surrogates say the ban actually hurts them"(para 1-3)."India was among the few countries in the world that allowed surrogacy — where a woman could ...more
Sept. 28, 2015, 2:21 p.m.
Countries: Finland
Variables: ACR-LAW-1

"The Committee is also concerned about the obligation on transgender persons to prove infertility or undergo sterilization for the legal recognition of their gender under the Law on Legal Recognition of the Gender of Transsexuals of 2002" (9). "The Committee recommends that the State party:...Expeditiously amend the Law on Legal Recognition of the Gender of Transsexuals to ensure that gender recognition is carried out without requiring transgender persons to conform to stereotypical ideas of masculine or feminine appearance or behaviour and that it does not require individuals to consent to sterilization..." (9)
July 1, 2015, 5:13 p.m.
Countries: Poland
Variables: ACR-LAW-1

"The Committee reiterates its concern about the high prevalence of abortions, most of which are illegal as a result of the strict legal requirements contained in the 1993 Act on family planning, human foetus protection and preconditions for the admissibility of abortion. ... The Committee notes the efforts to improve the Act on Patient Rights, including a new time limit for acting on complaints, but considers that this will not solve the obstacles that women face when confronted with an unwanted pregnancy" (page 10).
April 10, 2015, 11:31 p.m.
Countries: Poland
Variables: ACR-LAW-1

"There are no laws regarding IVF. There are 50 clinics that operate in Poland that do IVF. They are operating in between the law. Poland would face EU penalties for not allowing it, so in 2012 they developed a government program that gave some money to IVF. People are having IVF and having babies, but there are no standards. No central registry, so it is hard to follow how the IVF is done. [It is] all based on how clinics say they are doing it. [There are] no mechanisms to control them. There is no monitoring. IVF is done in Poland and there is some public money going towards it, ...more
April 1, 2015, 8:36 p.m.
Countries: Australia
Variables: ACR-LAW-1

"Many countries, such as England and Australia, have banned commercial surrogacy for ethical, religious and medical reasons, as have some states in the United States" (para. 14)
April 1, 2015, 8:26 p.m.
Countries: India
Variables: ACR-LAW-1

"Because surrogacy is legal but not regulated, surrogates like Divya are subject to exploitation by middlemen, clinics and would-be parents, say women's health advocates. Last month, India lost another opportunity to regulate its multimillion-dollar surrogacy industry, as the country’s Parliament failed to pass the Assisted Reproductive Technique bill, or ART, during its winter session, citing a lack of time. Critics of the bill say it doesn’t do enough to protect surrogates, but most agree that it would be better than nothing" (para. 2). "The easy availability of surrogates, the clean medical facilities, the presence of a large English-speaking population and government emphasis on medical tourism have drawn thousands of foreign ...more
Dec. 22, 2014, 12:40 p.m.
Countries: China
Variables: ACR-LAW-1

"As in most countries, surrogacy is illegal in China" (para 3)
Dec. 11, 2014, 2:34 p.m.
Countries: Thailand
Variables: ACR-LAW-1

"Thailand’s military rulers authorities have approved a draft law making paid surrogacy a criminal offence amid an international outcry over the case of Gammy, a boy born with Down’s syndrome who was abandoned by his Australian parents" (para. 9). "Thai police have confirmed that any foreign couples leaving the country with babies born via surrogates will need approval from the family court – a legal process that experts say can take months and will not necessarily succeed" (para. 11)
Dec. 11, 2014, 2:33 p.m.
Countries: Thailand
Variables: ACR-LAW-1

"Thailand’s military rulers authorities have approved a draft law making paid surrogacy a criminal offence amid an international outcry over the case of Gammy, a boy born with Down’s syndrome who was abandoned by his Australian parents" (para. 9). "Thai police have confirmed that any foreign couples leaving the country with babies born via surrogates will need approval from the family court – a legal process that experts say can take months and will not necessarily succeed" (para. 11)
Oct. 16, 2014, 4:31 p.m.
Countries: Serbia
Variables: ACR-LAW-1

"...since same-sex relationships between women are not recognized as families according to Serbian law, lesbian couples are not included in matters relating to family planning, including medically assisted artificial insemination. Under current laws lesbian women (in a relationship or not) are not allowed to adopt children or to undergo medically assisted artificial insemination...This is not only a discriminatory situation towards lesbian women, but to all women who are not married, making it discrimination based on a personal characteristic (marital status)" (53)