The most comprehensive compilation of information on the status of
women in the world.

Latest items for ACR-PRACTICE-1

Aug. 24, 2017, 2:32 p.m.
Countries: Greece
Variables: ACR-PRACTICE-1

“As a longtime fertility doctor, Minas Mastrominas has helped couples in Greece give birth to thousands of bouncing babies. But recently, disturbing trends have escalated at his clinic. Couples insisting on only one child. Women tearfully renouncing plans to conceive. And a surge in single-child parents asking him to destroy all of their remaining embryos. ‘People are saying they can’t afford more than one child, or any at all,’ Dr. Mastrominas, a director at Embryogenesis, a large in vitro fertilization center, said as videos of gurgling toddlers played in the waiting room” (para 1-3). “As the [economic] crisis persisted, Anastasia Economopoulou, 42, pushed back her dream of having several children. ...more
Aug. 21, 2017, 7:22 p.m.
Countries: India
Variables: ACR-PRACTICE-1

“By far the biggest problem associated with the new [anti-surrogacy] law is its lack of enforcement provision. The government has enacted no mechanism to police the new law. In a country as large and populous as India, how can these positive elements of the legislation be implemented and monitored?” (para 14). “A related and equally problematic aspect of the surrogacy law is that there is no budget created to carry it out. The only monies provided by the government will be to conduct the meetings of the National Surrogacy Board and associated State Boards. Without funding to carry out implementation and enforce the law’s provisions, it is nothing more than ...more
Aug. 7, 2017, 3:33 p.m.
Countries: India
Variables: ACR-PRACTICE-1

"A real danger exists that women will be coerced by their families to act as a surrogate for siblings or other relatives who are infertile" (para 17). "What will become of the innumerable surrogacy factories located throughout the vast country of India? Infamous surrogate profiteer Nina Patel has long planned her under construction industrial one-stop-shopping surrogacy conveyer belt" (para 18). "What about the black market in surrogacy that operates in India? As documented on the US television show 'Vice,' a reporter went underground and was offered a live baby; one of the discarded infants created through surrogacy" (para 19).
July 31, 2017, 2:23 p.m.
Countries: Thailand
Variables: ACR-PRACTICE-1

"A Thai man who attempted to smuggle six vials of human semen to be used by surrogate mothers through a border checkpoint has been arrested. Nithinon Srithaniyanan, 25, was traveling to Laos when he was caught with a nitrogen tank containing the sperm, according to officials. He admitted doing the same thing a dozen times before - for a payment of 5,000 Thai baht (£113) on each occasion. He was trying to take the fluids to a fertility clinic when he attempted to pass through the Nong Khai checkpoint between northern Thailand and neighbouring Laos. Nithinon was fined 200,000 Thai baht for smuggling forbidden goods out of the kingdom and ...more
June 12, 2017, 11:30 a.m.
Countries: India
Variables: ACR-PRACTICE-1

"Stigma is rarely an issue for those who outsource pregnancy to poor, desperate women in India, but there is plenty levelled at surrogate mothers. Many choose to leave home during their pregnancy, as it is not seen as a respectable way to earn money, particularly if they are from rural India....In India, though, the industry – built on sex, race and class supremacy – is not only legal but estimated to be worth more than $1bn (£690m) a year. Surrogates are paid about £4,500 to rent their wombs at this particular clinic, a huge amount in a country where, in 2012, average monthly earnings stood at $215 and a fifth ...more
June 12, 2017, 11:30 a.m.
Countries: India
Variables: ACR-PRACTICE-1

"it is common practice to plant embryos in two or more surrogates and to perform abortions if more than one pregnancy takes hold. Similarly, if several embryos are implanted in one surrogate and a multiple pregnancy occurs, unwanted foetuses will often be aborted. 17. Approximately 12,000 foreigners come to India each year to hire surrogates, many of them from the UK" (p 16)
June 12, 2017, 11:30 a.m.
Countries: India
Variables: ACR-PRACTICE-1

"According to [Dr.] Amin, the surrogates she hires are middle class or upper class. ‘Recently we [hired] three Brahmin [a high caste] girls, all educated. We have about 25% of that class. About 85% [of all surrogates] are quite well off.’ I suspect this is a lie. Research by pressure group Stop Surrogacy Now shows that, aside from rare cases, it is the poorest women from the lowest castes who become surrogate mothers" (p 37)
June 12, 2017, 11:30 a.m.
Countries: India
Variables: TRAFF-PRACTICE-2, ACR-PRACTICE-1

"I have heard several stories of women being forced or coerced into surrogacy by husbands or even pimps, and ask Mehta if she is aware of this happening. ‘Without the husbands’ [of the surrogates] consent we don’t do surrogacy. We don’t give all the money before the delivery. We take from you but we hand it over to her once she hands over the child to you. We give her in instalments so she will also take care she will deliver the baby no problem.’ Mehta said they try to avoid the women forming bonds with the baby by giving them drugs to stop lactation. ‘She will not produce milk ...more
June 12, 2017, 11:30 a.m.
Countries: India
Variables: ACR-PRACTICE-1

"...while surrogates are usually from poorer backgrounds, the implanted eggs are selected from women up to the age of 25, usually highly educated and screened for any hereditary illness. All surrogates who go through these clinics are told what and when to eat and drink, and monitored to ensure they are taking their medication and maintaining their personal hygiene" (p 12-13)
June 12, 2017, 11:30 a.m.
Countries: India
Variables: ACR-PRACTICE-1

"‘caucasian [egg] donors [price from] £2,500 to £3,000, Indian donor £1,000’" (p 33)
Jan. 26, 2017, 3:03 p.m.
Countries: China
Variables: ACR-PRACTICE-1, ACR-LAW-1

"Foreign fertility services are advertising for Chinese women who want to freeze their eggs — a process that is prohibited for single women in China — to have children later" (para 4).
May 25, 2016, 8:07 p.m.
Countries: South Korea
Variables: ACR-PRACTICE-1

"Since a medical subsidy for couples with fertility difficulties was introduced in 2006 to help address the country’s low birth rate, multiple pregnancies have emerged as one of the major complications of in vitro fertilization. Guidelines for reducing the number of transferred embryos have been actively implemented since mid-2008, and the rate of multiple implantations, especially the rate of the implantation of triplets or more, which is closely related to complications, has declined as a result. The 2010 Analysis and Evaluation of the Results of National Support Programme for Infertile Couples (Ministry of Health and Welfare and Seoul National University, 2011) suggested that such improvements can be partly attributed to ...more
April 4, 2016, 7:21 a.m.
Countries: Israel
Variables: ACR-PRACTICE-1

"As detailed in Israel’s previous report, fertility treatments in Israel remain highly developed and well subsidized. Each woman is entitled to IVF treatment until she gives birth to two children from her current relationship, regardless of children from previous marriages. This applies to unmarried women, as well as to spouseless women" (126). "The accumulative number of applications for surrogate motherhood, as of December 2007, is 450, resulting with 194 children in 160 successful child births (due to 32 labors of twins and one triplet). Out of the 450 applications some were made by couples for the second time after a success or a failure to conceive on the first application. ...more
March 31, 2016, 1:33 p.m.
Countries: Iraq
Variables: ACR-PRACTICE-1, ACR-DATA-1

"Mia Bloom, a security studies professor at Massachusetts University and author of Bombshell: Women and Terrorism, said the recruitment campaign painted a 'Disney-like' picture of life in the caliphate. Some young women were offered financial incentives, such as travel expenses or compensation for bearing children"(para 18). Syria is not specifically mentoned in this statement but the article as a whole speaks about Syria and Iraq (ENB-CODER COMMENT)
March 31, 2016, 1:32 p.m.
Countries: Syria
Variables: ACR-PRACTICE-1, ACR-DATA-1

"Mia Bloom, a security studies professor at Massachusetts University and author of Bombshell: Women and Terrorism, said the recruitment campaign painted a 'Disney-like' picture of life in the caliphate. Some young women were offered financial incentives, such as travel expenses or compensation for bearing children"(para 18). Syria is not specifically mentoned in this statement but the article as a whole speaks about Syria and Iraq (ENB-CODER COMMENT)
Feb. 29, 2016, 9:23 a.m.
Countries: Ukraine
Variables: ACR-PRACTICE-1

""Artificial and commercial reproduction practices are accepted in Ukraine, and they have various treatment options. It is equally as acceptable as having a naturally conceived child, except for the expenses for the in vitro treatment. Because of this, it is not common. Because of the expense of the operations, it is not very popular, although it is cheaper in Ukraine than in some other post-Soviet countries like Belarus. Gender is not relevant in these practices. Both are socially acceptable, but not popular because of the price. The government does not see in vitro fertilization or other alternative reproduction practices as a priority, so it provides limited, insufficient funds for its ...more
Jan. 2, 2016, 10:25 a.m.
Countries: Japan
Variables: ACR-PRACTICE-1

Since India legalized commercial surrogacy in 2001, thousands of fertility clinics have mushroomed across the country, making it a $1 billion to $2.3 billion business annually. Although there are no official figures available, a 2012 U.N. report said there were around 3,000 fertility clinics in India. The clinics have attracted couples from Britain, the United States, Australia, South Africa and Japan. A surrogate pregnancy costs around $20,000 to $35,000 in India, compared to around $150,000 in the United States, where surrogacy is permitted in many but not all states(para 16-17)
Jan. 2, 2016, 10:25 a.m.
Countries: Australia, South Africa, United Kingdom, United States
Variables: ACR-PRACTICE-1

"Since India legalized commercial surrogacy in 2001, thousands of fertility clinics have mushroomed across the country, making it a $1 billion to $2.3 billion business annually. Although there are no official figures available, a 2012 U.N. report said there were around 3,000 fertility clinics in India. The clinics have attracted couples from Britain, the United States, Australia, South Africa and Japan. A surrogate pregnancy costs around $20,000 to $35,000 in India, compared to around $150,000 in the United States, where surrogacy is permitted in many but not all states"(para 16-17)
Jan. 2, 2016, 10:25 a.m.
Countries: Thailand
Variables: ACR-PRACTICE-1

"Thailand also had been a popular destination for those wanting a baby through surrogacy, but after recent scandals involving foreign clients, the country passed a law in August banning commercial surrogacy"(para 18)
Jan. 2, 2016, 10:22 a.m.
Countries: India
Variables: ACR-PRACTICE-1

"For thousands of childless couples the world over, India has been the go-to destination to fulfill their dreams of becoming parents, thanks to its well-trained doctors, well-appointed fertility clinics and vast numbers of poor women willing to serve as surrogate mothers. Not anymore. The Indian government recently banned surrogate services for foreigners and ordered fertility clinics to stop the practice of hiring Indian women to bear children for them. It's said to be intended to protect the women from exploitation, though some who have worked as surrogates say the ban actually hurts them. 'Becoming a surrogate mother is our one chance to build a house, or get a new roof. ...more
Dec. 23, 2015, 9:47 p.m.
Countries: Sweden
Variables: ACR-PRACTICE-1

"Commercial surrogacy motherhood is a trade with women bodies and reproductive organs as well as with children. The practice is incompatible with human rights. The Government has to ban commercial surrogacy and combat the growing international trade with women and children that surrogacy motherhood has become" (para 13)
Dec. 11, 2015, 9:10 p.m.
Countries: Nigeria
Variables: ACR-PRACTICE-1

"It is understandable why a desperate childless couple might do anything to have a baby, but those who exploit their unhappiness for profit are not so easy to forgive. In this deeply disturbing episode of Africa Investigates, Ghana's undercover journalist Anas Aremeyaw Anas and investigative reporter Rosemary Nwaebuni team up to identify and expose some of those behind Nigeria's heart-breaking baby trade. It is a scam that exploits couples desperate for a baby and young pregnant single mothers - often stigmatised in a country where abortion is illegal except in the most dire medical emergency. It is also a trade that international NGOs have identified as sinister and out of ...more
Oct. 19, 2015, 12:41 p.m.
Countries: India
Variables: BR-DATA-1, ACR-PRACTICE-1

"Over the last few years, infertility among couples in India has been rising gradually. According to a 2013 World Bank estimate, the drop in fertility started about a decade ago, with a steady 17 per cent decline from the year 2000. Whereas those who are well-off financially can explore expensive treatments like IVF (In Vitro Fertilization) or IUI (Intra Uterine Insemination), for poor women who are unable to conceive even after years of marriage, life becomes quite unbearable" (para 1)
Sept. 28, 2015, 2:21 p.m.
Countries: Finland
Variables: ACR-PRACTICE-1

"The Committee is also concerned about the obligation on transgender persons to prove infertility or undergo sterilization for the legal recognition of their gender under the Law on Legal Recognition of the Gender of Transsexuals of 2002" (9)
June 25, 2015, 3:49 p.m.
Countries: Lebanon
Variables: ACR-PRACTICE-1

"In vitro fertilizations are very common when there are pregnancy problems".
April 24, 2015, 9:28 p.m.
Countries: China
Variables: ACR-PRACTICE-1

"Women do sometimes use artificial or commercial reproduction methods to have a child" (para 15)
April 23, 2015, 3:30 p.m.
Countries: India
Variables: ACR-PRACTICE-1

"From the time she was 13, Phulmani (name changed) was forced to act as a surrogate mother and deliver six children by human traffickers from Jharkhand, widely considered a hotbed of modern day slavery. Phulmani, now 31, was made to breastfeed the children – all born in consecutive years in Delhi – for about six months before giving them to the agents who sold them off" (para 1-2). "She has no idea who bought her babies or what became of them" (para 6). "The CWC in Gumla came across another case of trafficking for surrogacy from Lotwadugdugi village in Palkot block. The girl was trafficked to Delhi when she was ...more
April 10, 2015, 11:31 p.m.
Countries: Poland
Variables: ACR-PRACTICE-1

"There are no laws regarding IVF. There are 50 clinics that operate in Poland that do IVF. They are operating in between the law. Poland would face EU penalties for not allowing it, so in 2012 they developed a government program that gave some money to IVF. People are having IVF and having babies, but there are no standards. No central registry, so it is hard to follow how the IVF is done. [It is] all based on how clinics say they are doing it. [There are] no mechanisms to control them. There is no monitoring. IVF is done in Poland and there is some public money going towards it, ...more
April 1, 2015, 8:38 p.m.
Countries: Japan
Variables: ACR-PRACTICE-1

"In 2008, for instance, a Japanese couple who had arranged for an Indian surrogate to carry their baby divorced before the baby was born. Though the father wanted the baby, Indian law doesn’t permit single men to adopt, so Baby Manji remained in a Jaipur hospital for two years until custody could be resolved" (para. 4)
April 1, 2015, 8:37 p.m.
Countries: Australia
Variables: ACR-PRACTICE-1

"Last October, an Australian couple abandoned one of their twin babies born to a surrogate in Delhi because they already had a child of the same sex" (para. 4)