The most comprehensive compilation of information on the status of
women in the world.

Latest items for AFE-PRACTICE-1

Dec. 8, 2019, 8:28 p.m.
Countries: China
Variables: AFE-PRACTICE-1

"It supports female college graduates in seeking employment and starting businesses, providing training in employment, guidance in starting businesses and internship opportunities, and it has implemented the Sunshine Project, improving the quality and skills of the rural female workforce and creating conditions to promote the transfer of rural female workforce to non-agricultural sectors and urban areas. There are now more than 200,000 training schools for women nationwide, providing training sessions to a total of nearly 200 million women in new agricultural technologies and new crop species. A total of 1.5 million women have obtained titles and qualifications as agricultural technicians, and 53,000 women’s professional cooperatives have been founded" (para. 13)....more
Dec. 7, 2019, 10:22 a.m.
Countries: Tanzania
Variables: AFE-PRACTICE-1

"Tanzanian schools routinely expel girls who become pregnant, who are thought to number about 8,000 a year. The practice dates back several decades but has intensified since President John Magufuli took office in 2015. Some schools have imposed compulsory pregnancy tests on girls. The president went a step further in June, announcing that students would not be allowed to return to school after giving birth" (para. 4-5).
Dec. 6, 2019, 11:35 a.m.
Countries: Lebanon

"[Latifa] was not allowed to study medicine as she had wanted, friends said" (para 26).
Oct. 22, 2019, 1:55 p.m.
Countries: Equatorial Guinea
Variables: AFE-PRACTICE-1

"The Ministry of Education required teenage girls to take a pregnancy test and that those who tested positive were not allowed to attend school. Domestic work and childbearing also limited girls’ access to secondary education, especially in rural areas" (21).
Sept. 5, 2019, 1:56 p.m.
Countries: Congo
Variables: AFE-PRACTICE-1

"UNHCR-funded primary schooling was accessible to most refugees. During the academic year, primary schools enrolled 6,291 refugee children, including 3,152 girls. Authorities severely limited access to secondary and vocational education for refugees. Most secondary education teachers at such schools were refugees who either volunteered to teach or were paid by parents of refugee children" (18).
Aug. 9, 2019, 1 p.m.
Countries: D R Congo
Variables: AFE-PRACTICE-1

"The constitution provides for tuition-free and compulsory primary education. It was not, however, compulsory or tuition free, and the government inconsistently provided it across the provinces. Public schools generally expected parents to contribute to teachers’ salaries. These expenses, combined with the potential loss of income from their children’s labor while they attended class, rendered many parents unable or unwilling to enroll their children. Primary and secondary school attendance rates for girls were lower than for boys due to financial, cultural, or security reasons, including early marriage and pregnancy for girls. Additionally, children in school were not particularly safe. Teachers subjected one in four children to corporal punishment and pressured one...more
Aug. 7, 2019, 7:48 p.m.
Countries: Burma/Myanmar

"Approximately one quarter of Burma’s residents continued to lack access to citizenship or identity documents, significantly increasing their vulnerability to traffickers in Burma and in other countries. Authorities continued to offer a citizenship verification process pursuant to a 1982 law, but participation was low among Rohingya in Rakhine State amid concerns that the authorities might require these individuals to inaccurately list themselves as 'Bengali,' a term that could potentially further limit their access to certain rights. Authorities did issue citizenship to a small number of Rohingya, but most of these were naturalized—a distinction that afforded them fewer rights than full citizens. Government policies limiting freedom of movement in some jurisdictions...more
Aug. 6, 2019, 8:14 a.m.
Countries: Comoros

"Societal discrimination against women was most apparent in rural areas, where women were mostly limited to farming and child-rearing duties, with fewer opportunities for education and wage employment" (page 9-10).
July 31, 2019, 6:50 p.m.
Countries: Saudi Arabia
Variables: AFE-PRACTICE-1

"Segregated education through university level was the norm. The only exceptions to segregation in higher education were medical schools at the undergraduate level and the King Abdullah University of Science and Technology, a graduate-level research university, where women worked jointly with men, were not required to wear an abaya, and drove cars on campus. Other universities, such as al-Faisal University in Riyadh, offered partially segregated classes with students receiving instruction from the same teacher and able to participate together in class discussion, but with the women and men physically separated by dividers" (44).
July 30, 2019, 8:55 a.m.
Countries: Ghana
Variables: AFE-PRACTICE-1

"Girls in rural and the northern regions were less likely to continue and complete their education due to the weak quality of education service delivery, inability to pay expenses related to schooling, prioritization of boys’ education over girls’, security problems related to distance between home and school, lack of dormitory facilities, and inadequate sanitation and hygiene" (p. 17).
July 25, 2019, 3:22 p.m.
Countries: Bangladesh

"However, the government continued to deny Rohingya access to formal schooling, prevent them from working legally, restrict their movement, and suspend birth registration for nearly one year, all of which increased vulnerability to trafficking" (97).
July 24, 2019, 6:29 p.m.
Countries: Chad
Variables: AFE-PRACTICE-1

"Although primary education is tuition-free, universal, and compulsory between ages six and 16, parents were required to pay for textbooks, except in some rural areas. Parents often were required to pay tuition for public secondary education. According to the most recent World Bank Development Indicators database, six girls attended primary school for every 10 boys. Most children did not attend secondary school. Human rights organizations cited the problem of the “mouhadjirin,” migrant children who attended certain Islamic schools and whose teachers forced them to beg for food and money. There was no reliable estimate of the number of mouhadjirin" (page 17).
July 23, 2019, 8:03 p.m.
Countries: Afghanistan
Variables: AFE-PRACTICE-1

"The main reasons for males dropping out of school are the need to work (44%) and the need to help at home (15%). Among females, 30% dropped out because their parents did not send them to school, while 19% dropped out because they got married" (13).
July 21, 2019, 6:15 p.m.
Countries: Yemen

"Many school-aged children cannot go to school due to the displacement or destruction of their schools. Girls face a higher-than-ever risk of being married off before turning 18, as families seek to lessen their burdens by marrying off their young girls, while boys as young as 10 years old face recruitment by both warring parties: the Houthi-Ali Abdullah Saleh alliance and the pro-Abed Rabbo Mansour Hadi militias" (para 3).
July 21, 2019, 5:11 p.m.
Countries: India
Variables: AFE-PRACTICE-1

"On September 1, 2010, the Supreme Court of India, dealing with the ‘Exploitation of Children in Orphanages, State of Tamil Nadu vs UoI and Others’ case, concerning large-scale transportation of children from one state to another, said: 'The State of Manipur and Assam are directed to ensure that no child below the age of 12 years or those at primary school level are sent outside for pursuing education to other states unt­il further orders'" (para 5). CC: This suggests that trafficking of school-age children is often under the guise of educational opportunities in other states in India. "This came after a probe into the trafficking of 76 children from Assam...more
July 21, 2019, 5:01 p.m.
Countries: Tanzania
Variables: AFE-PRACTICE-1

"Tanzanian schools routinely expel girls who become pregnant, who are thought to number about 8,000 a year. The practice dates back several decades but has intensified since President John Magufuli took office in 2015. Some schools have imposed compulsory pregnancy tests on girls" (para 4). "Judy Gitau, the regional coordinator for Equality Now Africa, an advocacy group that has been lobbying to have school expulsions lifted, said:...'Unfortunately, the taking away of $300m means all children will suffer. However, it is in the government’s hands to right the wrong, to lift the ban and to ensure the money does come in. Most of the young girls who get pregnant come from...more
July 20, 2019, 10:39 p.m.
Countries: Armenia
Variables: AFE-PRACTICE-1

"The Committee notes the abolishment of separate classes for boys and girls and the progress made in promoting girls’ enrolment at the secondary level of education, including in secondary vocational schools. It is nevertheless concerned by the seasonal absences of girls from class owing to the labour migration of their parents. The Committee notes with concern the concentration of women and girls in traditional fields of study. The Committee is concerned about the absence of data on school enrolment and dropout rates among girls from ethnic minorities, as well as the link between dropout rates and early marriage in the State party" (9). "The Committee notes with concern the discrimination...more
July 20, 2019, 8:20 a.m.
Countries: Syria
Variables: AFE-PRACTICE-1

"According to several reports, ISIS segregated classrooms (including teachers) by gender, dismissed students for dress code violations, imposed its curriculum on teachers, and closed private schools and educational centers. According to local sources, ISIS forces prevented young women in Raqqa Governorate from traveling to complete their university exams. ISIS also banned several basic education subjects, such as chemistry" (Pg 48).
July 19, 2019, 4:56 p.m.
Countries: Niger
Variables: AFE-PRACTICE-1

"It is, however, concerned about: (a) The disproportionately low school enrolment rates of girls, in particular those from rural areas (including the Diffa, Zinder, Tillabéri and Tahoua regions), nomadic populations, poor families, girls who are victims of slavery or descendants of slaves and girls with disabilities; (b) Girls’ extremely low completion and high repetition rates, in particular at the secondary level of education, owing to, inter alia, child marriage, early pregnancy, indirect school costs, the requirement to pay school fees at the secondary level, child labour and the preference for sending boys to school, resulting in a very low literacy rate (11 per cent) among women in the State party"...more
July 19, 2019, 12:46 p.m.
Countries: Turkey
Variables: AFE-PRACTICE-1

"The Education Reform Initiative, an NGO focusing on education, reported in its Education Monitoring Report for 2016-17 that the government took important positive steps to expand girls’ access to education, including by providing conditional cash transfers to incentivize poor families to continue education for their daughters" (page 51-52).
July 19, 2019, 12:22 p.m.
Countries: Nepal
Variables: AFE-PRACTICE-1

"Domestic violence against women and girls remained a serious problem. Violence against women and girls, including early and forced marriage, was believed to be one of the major factors responsible for women’s relative poor health, livelihood insecurity, and inadequate social mobilization. Additionally, the practice of early and forced marriage, which remained prevalent, limited girls’ access to education and increased their susceptibility to domestic violence and sexual abuse. The 2009 Domestic Violence (Crime and Punishment) Act allows for settling complaints of domestic violence through mediation with an emphasis on reconciliation. Authorities usually pursued prosecution under the act only when mediation failed. The Nepal Police had women’s cells staffed by female officers...more
July 19, 2019, 9:48 a.m.
Countries: Indonesia
Variables: AFE-PRACTICE-1, AFE-LAW-1

"Although the constitution guarantees free education, most schools were not free, and poverty puts education out of reach for many children. In 2015 the government introduced a nationwide compulsory 12-year school program, but the implementation was inconsistent. The Ministry of Education, representing public and private schools, and the Ministry of Religion for Islamic schools and madrasahs, introduced a new system giving students from low-income families a certain amount of money for their educational needs" (Pg 28).
July 18, 2019, 10:36 p.m.
Countries: Slovakia
Variables: AFE-PRACTICE-1

"The Committee is also deeply concerned about the segregation of Roma children in special schools and/or in special classes in mainstream schools and the segregation of children with disabilities, including girls, in special schools and/or in special classes" (7).
July 18, 2019, 3:05 p.m.
Countries: Hungary

"The law provides for the same legal status and rights for women as for men. A Eurostat study from March (based on data from 2014) showed that male executives earned 33.7 percent more than female executives in the same level of job. Women held 41 percent of senior executive positions. In higher education the ratio of women among students was 6.3 percent higher than that of men. According to The Economist, the percentage of women on boards of directors was 11 percent" (Pg 29).
July 18, 2019, 12:24 p.m.
Countries: Central African Rep
Variables: AFE-PRACTICE-1

"Education is compulsory from six to 15 years of age. Tuition is free, but students have to pay for items such as books and supplies and for transportation. Human Rights Watch documented the continued occupation of schools for military purposes, such as for barracks or bases. Further, it documented that abuses by fighters in and around schools threatened the safety of students and teachers, and impeded children’s ability to learn. In 2015, according to UNICEF, 38 percent of schools were attacked or looted during the crisis, and one-third of school-age children did not go to school. Girls did not have equal access to primary or secondary education. Few Ba’aka, the...more
July 13, 2019, 9:51 p.m.
Countries: Papua New Guinea
Variables: AFE-PRACTICE-1

"Recent reports confirmed that girls were at high risk of domestic and sexual violence, sexual harassment in schools, commercial exploitation, and HIV infection, which posed serious threats to their education" (p. 19).
July 13, 2019, 3:04 p.m.
Countries: Gabon
Variables: AFE-PRACTICE-1

"Due to high rates of early pregnancy, girls were less likely to complete school than were boys" (p. 16).
July 12, 2019, 9:16 a.m.
Countries: Somalia
Variables: AFE-PRACTICE-1

"Refusal to cooperate with Al-Shabaab typically results in severe beatings or death, as well as death threats to loved ones. Fear of Al-Shabaab has severe consequences on adolescent girls’ enrolment and retention in school. In one instance, all girls over the age of fifteen dropped out of school after Al-Shabaab kidnapped twelve girls for marriage" (9). "Somali girls who undergo FGM/C as adolescents are often forced to discontinue their education due to excessive bleeding or because they are preparing for marriage" (9).
July 12, 2019, 8:51 a.m.
Countries: Cambodia
Variables: AFE-PRACTICE-1

"The ESP 2014–2018 aims to increase the number of communes/sangkats with lower secondary schools and establish upper secondary schools in all districts/khan. From 2013–2016, the number of lower secondary and upper secondary schools increased from 1,622 to 1,684 and 433 to 463 respectively, and 50 per cent of lower secondary schools were upgraded to upper secondary schools. A total of 139 communes/sangkat (2.5 per cent of total) do not have a lower secondary school due to geographical constraints and low population numbers (Koh Kong and Ratanakiri provinces). Of these 139 communes, 39 sangkats in Phnom Penh do not need lower secondary schools and 36 communes in Ratanakiri do not require...more
July 11, 2019, 6:30 p.m.
Countries: Eritrea
Variables: AFE-PRACTICE-1

"Education through grade seven is compulsory and tuition free, although students’ families were responsible for providing uniforms, supplies, and transportation. Access to education was not universal. In rural areas parents enrolled fewer daughters than sons in school, but the percentage of girls in school continued to increase" (p. 19).