The most comprehensive compilation of information on the status of
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Latest items for AFE-PRACTICE-1

April 4, 2020, 8:45 a.m.
Countries: Rwanda
Variables: AFE-PRACTICE-1

"The Committee notes with appreciation that the number of girls enrolled in primary and secondary schools has increased in the State party. It also welcomes the campaigns for raising the awareness of boys about menstruation. It notes with concern, however, that: (a) Girls’ rate of transition to the next level of education remains lower than that of boys, which may be attributed to the high number of early pregnancies, insufficient sanitation facilities for girls and discriminatory stereotyped attitudes on the education of women and girls; (b) Notwithstanding the introduction of lower pass marks for girls, boys continue to perform better at school, partly because of girls’ unequal burden of household...more
April 1, 2020, 6:28 p.m.
Countries: Pakistan
Variables: AFE-PRACTICE-1

"The TTP particularly targeted girls’ schools to demonstrate its opposition to girls’ education but also destroyed boys’ schools" (21). "For older students, particularly girls in refugee villages, access to education remained difficult" (32). "The constitution mandates compulsory education, provided free of charge by the government, to all children between the ages of five and 16. Despite this provision, government schools often charged parents for books, uniforms, and other materials" (42).
March 29, 2020, 6:41 p.m.
Countries: Maldives
Variables: AFE-PRACTICE-1

"Childbearing during adolescence is known to have adverse social consequences, particularly regarding educational attainment, as women who become mothers in their teens are more likely to drop out of school" (71).
March 24, 2020, 4:04 p.m.
Countries: Gambia
Variables: AFE-PRACTICE-1

"Early marriage deprives girls of education and opportunities and increases the risk of death or serious childbirth injuries if they have babies before their bodies are ready" (para 9).
March 24, 2020, 3:35 p.m.
Countries: Central African Rep
Variables: AFE-PRACTICE-1

"The girl who said she was raped in the fields at 13 said she had to drop out of school to take care of her child. She wants the soldier to go to prison and to provide money for the baby’s care. But she said she was not sure she would ever get justice" (para 31).
March 16, 2020, 4:12 p.m.
Countries: Afghanistan
Variables: AFE-PRACTICE-1

"High illiteracy rates among women and low enrolment at the secondary level coupled with high dropout rates continue to be prevalent. The fear of crimes, lack of security, lack of female teachers in the villages and rural areas are major contributing factors. Most of the primary, secondary/high schools for girls are located far from the villages. The fear of girls being in an accident or victimized in a sexual assault has caused families to deter girls from going to school when they reach the age of 12 or 13. " (12).
March 7, 2020, 6:39 a.m.
Countries: Niger

"Early marriages result in early pregancies, which compromises the girls’ future as many do not go to school once they are of marriageable age. Medical sources indicate that 40 percent of young brides fall pregnant a few months after marriage" (para 9).
March 4, 2020, 8:43 p.m.
Countries: Afghanistan
Variables: AFE-PRACTICE-1

"...a lack of trained female teachers and a lack of all-girls schools (which are important since some families refuse to allow girls to attend schools where boys are also present). In addition, there is a concern that, with growing insecurity and Taliban control, girls may lose the educational gains attained during the past decade." (8). "In a country where a third of girls marry before age 18, child marriage forces many girls out of education. Under Afghan law, the minimum age of marriage for girls is 16, or 15 with the permission of the girl’s father or a judge. In practice, the law is rarely enforced, so even earlier marriages...more
Feb. 15, 2020, 9:16 p.m.
Countries: Italy
Variables: AFE-PRACTICE-1

"Over the years, the Italian Government has taken considerable measures, to ensure effective equal opportunities in access to education and training for women and girls, such as: refreshing the school personnel on the issues of gender and equal opportunities, which has for several years been part of the National Plan of training courses for teachers; promoting the specific role that teachers play with regard to gender and equal opportunities; supporting innovative strategies in secondary and high schools to orientate a greater number of female students towards business, as well as scientific and technological subjects; providing lifelong learning for adult women, etc.. Italy has also promoted a project on a Code...more
Feb. 14, 2020, 12:34 p.m.
Countries: Lebanon
Variables: AFE-PRACTICE-1

"Children of Palestinian refugees faced discrimination in birth registration, and many had to leave school at an early age to earn an income" (22) Include both male and female children (AMG-CODER COMMENT).
Feb. 8, 2020, 7:27 p.m.
Countries: South Africa
Variables: AFE-PRACTICE-1

"The net attendance ratio declines sharply from 88% in primary school to 77% in secondary school. Girls and boys are about equally likely to attend primary and secondary school" (11). "The gender parity index (GPI) for the GAR at the primary school level is 0.95, indicating that in primary school there are slightly more male students than female students. However, at the secondary school level, the GPI for the GAR is 1.01, indicating that there is little disparity in secondary school attendance between boys and girls" (17).
Feb. 5, 2020, 8:01 a.m.
Countries: Congo
Variables: AFE-PRACTICE-1

"The law guarantees pregnant girls the ability to continue their studies and resume them after childbirth" (17). "In principle, there is no law in the Congo that discriminates against children with disabilities in education. Several of them have been educated in mainstream schools and others in special schools for the blind and deaf. In general, the national education system has not yet developed specialized structures for all types of disabilities" (17). "To accelerate changes in attitudes at all levels of society, the Ministry of Basic and Secondary Education and Literacy (MEPSA), through the National Institute for Educational Research and Action (INRAP), is continuing the work begun in 2008 with UNFPA...more
Jan. 30, 2020, 1:05 p.m.
Countries: Yemen
Variables: AFE-PRACTICE-1

"The law provides for universal, compulsory, and tuition-free education from ages six to 15. Public schooling was free to children through the secondary school level, but many children, especially girls, did not have easy access" (31),
Jan. 13, 2020, 8:20 p.m.
Countries: Somalia
Variables: AFE-PRACTICE-1

"Women did not have the same rights as men and experienced systematic subordination to men, despite provisions in the federal constitution prohibiting such discrimination. Women experienced discrimination in credit, education, politics, and housing." (33). "Girls faced additional challenges of early marriage and low prioritization of girls’ education, leading to even lower attendance. There was an insufficient supply of qualified teachers, particularly female teachers." (34).
Dec. 21, 2019, 7:52 p.m.
Countries: Canada
Variables: AFE-PRACTICE-1

"The violence against Indigenous girls and women, experts say, is deeply rooted in Canada’s history. From the 1870s until 1996, Canada forced thousands of Indigenous children to go to residential schools in an effort to suppress their language and culture. Many faced physical, sexual and mental abuse... Cindy Blackstock, a professor of social work at McGill University, who is director of the First Nations Child and Family Caring Society of Canada, said other problems were chronically underfunded social services for vulnerable girls and women and a lack of educational opportunities" (para 14-15, 17).
Dec. 8, 2019, 8:28 p.m.
Countries: China
Variables: AFE-PRACTICE-1

"It supports female college graduates in seeking employment and starting businesses, providing training in employment, guidance in starting businesses and internship opportunities, and it has implemented the Sunshine Project, improving the quality and skills of the rural female workforce and creating conditions to promote the transfer of rural female workforce to non-agricultural sectors and urban areas. There are now more than 200,000 training schools for women nationwide, providing training sessions to a total of nearly 200 million women in new agricultural technologies and new crop species. A total of 1.5 million women have obtained titles and qualifications as agricultural technicians, and 53,000 women’s professional cooperatives have been founded" (para. 13)....more
Dec. 7, 2019, 10:22 a.m.
Countries: Tanzania
Variables: AFE-PRACTICE-1

"Tanzanian schools routinely expel girls who become pregnant, who are thought to number about 8,000 a year. The practice dates back several decades but has intensified since President John Magufuli took office in 2015. Some schools have imposed compulsory pregnancy tests on girls. The president went a step further in June, announcing that students would not be allowed to return to school after giving birth" (para. 4-5).
Dec. 6, 2019, 11:35 a.m.
Countries: Lebanon

"[Latifa] was not allowed to study medicine as she had wanted, friends said" (para 26).
Oct. 22, 2019, 1:55 p.m.
Countries: Equatorial Guinea
Variables: AFE-PRACTICE-1

"The Ministry of Education required teenage girls to take a pregnancy test and that those who tested positive were not allowed to attend school. Domestic work and childbearing also limited girls’ access to secondary education, especially in rural areas" (21).
Sept. 5, 2019, 1:56 p.m.
Countries: Congo
Variables: AFE-PRACTICE-1

"UNHCR-funded primary schooling was accessible to most refugees. During the academic year, primary schools enrolled 6,291 refugee children, including 3,152 girls. Authorities severely limited access to secondary and vocational education for refugees. Most secondary education teachers at such schools were refugees who either volunteered to teach or were paid by parents of refugee children" (18).
Aug. 9, 2019, 1 p.m.
Countries: D R Congo
Variables: AFE-PRACTICE-1

"The constitution provides for tuition-free and compulsory primary education. It was not, however, compulsory or tuition free, and the government inconsistently provided it across the provinces. Public schools generally expected parents to contribute to teachers’ salaries. These expenses, combined with the potential loss of income from their children’s labor while they attended class, rendered many parents unable or unwilling to enroll their children. Primary and secondary school attendance rates for girls were lower than for boys due to financial, cultural, or security reasons, including early marriage and pregnancy for girls. Additionally, children in school were not particularly safe. Teachers subjected one in four children to corporal punishment and pressured one...more
Aug. 7, 2019, 7:48 p.m.
Countries: Burma/Myanmar

"Approximately one quarter of Burma’s residents continued to lack access to citizenship or identity documents, significantly increasing their vulnerability to traffickers in Burma and in other countries. Authorities continued to offer a citizenship verification process pursuant to a 1982 law, but participation was low among Rohingya in Rakhine State amid concerns that the authorities might require these individuals to inaccurately list themselves as 'Bengali,' a term that could potentially further limit their access to certain rights. Authorities did issue citizenship to a small number of Rohingya, but most of these were naturalized—a distinction that afforded them fewer rights than full citizens. Government policies limiting freedom of movement in some jurisdictions...more
Aug. 6, 2019, 8:14 a.m.
Countries: Comoros

"Societal discrimination against women was most apparent in rural areas, where women were mostly limited to farming and child-rearing duties, with fewer opportunities for education and wage employment" (page 9-10).
July 31, 2019, 6:50 p.m.
Countries: Saudi Arabia
Variables: AFE-PRACTICE-1

"Segregated education through university level was the norm. The only exceptions to segregation in higher education were medical schools at the undergraduate level and the King Abdullah University of Science and Technology, a graduate-level research university, where women worked jointly with men, were not required to wear an abaya, and drove cars on campus. Other universities, such as al-Faisal University in Riyadh, offered partially segregated classes with students receiving instruction from the same teacher and able to participate together in class discussion, but with the women and men physically separated by dividers" (44).
July 30, 2019, 8:55 a.m.
Countries: Ghana
Variables: AFE-PRACTICE-1

"Girls in rural and the northern regions were less likely to continue and complete their education due to the weak quality of education service delivery, inability to pay expenses related to schooling, prioritization of boys’ education over girls’, security problems related to distance between home and school, lack of dormitory facilities, and inadequate sanitation and hygiene" (p. 17).
July 25, 2019, 3:22 p.m.
Countries: Bangladesh

"However, the government continued to deny Rohingya access to formal schooling, prevent them from working legally, restrict their movement, and suspend birth registration for nearly one year, all of which increased vulnerability to trafficking" (97).
July 24, 2019, 6:29 p.m.
Countries: Chad
Variables: AFE-PRACTICE-1

"Although primary education is tuition-free, universal, and compulsory between ages six and 16, parents were required to pay for textbooks, except in some rural areas. Parents often were required to pay tuition for public secondary education. According to the most recent World Bank Development Indicators database, six girls attended primary school for every 10 boys. Most children did not attend secondary school. Human rights organizations cited the problem of the “mouhadjirin,” migrant children who attended certain Islamic schools and whose teachers forced them to beg for food and money. There was no reliable estimate of the number of mouhadjirin" (page 17).
July 23, 2019, 8:03 p.m.
Countries: Afghanistan
Variables: AFE-PRACTICE-1

"The main reasons for males dropping out of school are the need to work (44%) and the need to help at home (15%). Among females, 30% dropped out because their parents did not send them to school, while 19% dropped out because they got married" (13).
July 21, 2019, 6:15 p.m.
Countries: Yemen

"Many school-aged children cannot go to school due to the displacement or destruction of their schools. Girls face a higher-than-ever risk of being married off before turning 18, as families seek to lessen their burdens by marrying off their young girls, while boys as young as 10 years old face recruitment by both warring parties: the Houthi-Ali Abdullah Saleh alliance and the pro-Abed Rabbo Mansour Hadi militias" (para 3).
July 21, 2019, 5:11 p.m.
Countries: India
Variables: AFE-PRACTICE-1

"On September 1, 2010, the Supreme Court of India, dealing with the ‘Exploitation of Children in Orphanages, State of Tamil Nadu vs UoI and Others’ case, concerning large-scale transportation of children from one state to another, said: 'The State of Manipur and Assam are directed to ensure that no child below the age of 12 years or those at primary school level are sent outside for pursuing education to other states unt­il further orders'" (para 5). CC: This suggests that trafficking of school-age children is often under the guise of educational opportunities in other states in India. "This came after a probe into the trafficking of 76 children from Assam...more