The most comprehensive compilation of information on the status of
women in the world.

Latest items for AOM-PRACTICE-1

Dec. 8, 2019, 8:25 p.m.
Countries: Iran
Variables: AOM-PRACTICE-1

"Nevertheless, according to article 1041 of the country's Civil Law, there is no minimum age for marriage in Iran. The so-called 'Shari'a courts' can permit girls aged under fifteen to marry, provided the marriage is registered. However, in many cases, parents do not wait for a court ruling to give away their daughters, postponing the registration to years later" (para. 3-4). "Figures from Iran suggest child-marriage is rampant in the country, with girls younger than 14 forced to take husbands. The practice is most prevalent in rural areas" (para. 6). "Saeed Golestani, the area's crime-prevention deputy said the coercion of girls to marry early was encouraged to anchor boys to...more
Dec. 6, 2019, 2:51 p.m.
Countries: Afghanistan
Variables: AOM-PRACTICE-1

"But the Afghan Civil Code is not the only source of law regarding child marriage in Afghanistan. Islamic law and customary rules or local tribal traditions also govern child marriage and sometimes contradict the national laws . . . According to Islamic law, a marriage is not valid if the individuals are either unwilling or too young to understand the implications that marriage entails. But Islamic law is vague about a specific age that is considered old enough for 'understanding,' leaving the question up to different interpretations by local religious leaders. Hussaini says pronouncements by various local mullahs across Afghanistan, particularly in rural areas with high illiteracy rates, have been...more
Nov. 1, 2019, 9:48 p.m.
Countries: Tanzania
Variables: AOM-PRACTICE-1

"Over 30% of girls in Tanzania are married before their 18th birthday. According to UNICEF, Tanzania has the 11th highest absolute number of child brides in the world – 779,000" (para 2).
Sept. 5, 2019, 1:56 p.m.
Countries: Congo
Variables: AOM-PRACTICE-1

"Underage marriage is possible with a judge’s permission and with the permission of both sets of parents; the law does not specify a minimum age in such a case" (24).
July 31, 2019, 6:50 p.m.
Countries: Saudi Arabia
Variables: AOM-PRACTICE-1

"According to some senior religious leaders, girls as young as 10 may marry" (44).
July 21, 2019, 6:15 p.m.
Countries: Yemen
Variables: AOM-PRACTICE-1, AFE-PRACTICE-1, AFE-DATA-1

"Many school-aged children cannot go to school due to the displacement or destruction of their schools. Girls face a higher-than-ever risk of being married off before turning 18, as families seek to lessen their burdens by marrying off their young girls, while boys as young as 10 years old face recruitment by both warring parties: the Houthi-Ali Abdullah Saleh alliance and the pro-Abed Rabbo Mansour Hadi militias" (para 3).
July 20, 2019, 8:20 a.m.
Countries: Syria
Variables: AOM-PRACTICE-1, AOM-LAW-1

"The legal age for marriage is 18 for men and 17 for women. A boy as young as 15 or a girl as young as 13 may marry if a judge deems both parties willing and 'physically mature,' and if the fathers or grandfathers of both parties consent" (Pg 48).
July 19, 2019, 4:56 p.m.
Countries: Niger
Variables: AOM-PRACTICE-1

"The extremely high rates of child marriage and/or forced marriage in the State party, affecting a quarter of married women and girls, which is compounded by the absence of any legal framework or strategic action to prohibit these harmful practices. The Committee notes the link between the high child marriage, fertility and maternal mortality rates and the disproportionately high illiteracy and poverty rates among women in the State party. It notes that most child marriages are conducted under customary law, which does not require the consent of the future spouses for marriage or a minimum age of marriage" (14).
July 19, 2019, 12:46 p.m.
Countries: Turkey
Variables: AOM-PRACTICE-1

"NGOs reported children as young as 12 were at times married in unofficial religious ceremonies, particularly in poor and rural regions and among the Syrian population living in the country. Early and forced marriage was particularly prevalent in the southeast, and women’s rights activists reported the problem remained serious. Media noted that official marriages only captured a fraction of underage marriages, since many such marriages were concluded as religious marriages only" (page 52).
July 19, 2019, 12:22 p.m.
Countries: Nepal
Variables: MARR-PRACTICE-1, MARR-LAW-1, AOM-PRACTICE-1

"Domestic violence against women and girls remained a serious problem. Violence against women and girls, including early and forced marriage, was believed to be one of the major factors responsible for women’s relative poor health, livelihood insecurity, and inadequate social mobilization. Additionally, the practice of early and forced marriage, which remained prevalent, limited girls’ access to education and increased their susceptibility to domestic violence and sexual abuse. The 2009 Domestic Violence (Crime and Punishment) Act allows for settling complaints of domestic violence through mediation with an emphasis on reconciliation. Authorities usually pursued prosecution under the act only when mediation failed. The Nepal Police had women’s cells staffed by female officers...more
July 19, 2019, 9:48 a.m.
Countries: Indonesia
Variables: MARR-PRACTICE-1, MARR-LAW-1, AOM-PRACTICE-1

"The legal distinction between a woman and a girl was not clear. The marriage law sets the minimum marriageable age at 16 for women (19 for men), but the child protection law states that persons under age 18 are not adults. A girl who marries has adult legal status. Girls frequently married before reaching the age of 16, particularly in rural and impoverished areas. See also the Department of State’s Trafficking in Persons Report at www.state.gov/j/tip/rls/tiprpt/" (Pg 29).
July 18, 2019, 12:24 p.m.
Countries: Central African Rep
Variables: MARR-PRACTICE-1, MARR-LAW-1, AOM-PRACTICE-1, AOM-LAW-1

"The law establishes 18 as the minimum age for civil marriage. The practice of early marriage was more common in the Muslim community. There were reports during the year of forced marriages of young girls to ex-Seleka and anti-Balaka members. The government did not take steps to address forced marriage. (For more data, see UNICEF website.)" (Pg 19).
July 13, 2019, 9:51 p.m.
Countries: Papua New Guinea
Variables: MARR-PRACTICE-1, AOM-PRACTICE-1

"Customary and traditional practices allow marriage of children as young as age 12, and early marriage was common in many traditional, isolated rural communities" (p. 19).
July 9, 2019, 2:45 p.m.
Countries: Zambia
Variables: AOM-PRACTICE-1, AOM-LAW-1

"The legal age of marriage is 16 for boys and girls with parental consent and 21 without consent. There is no minimum age under customary law. According to the ZDHS, 45 percent of married women ages 25-49 were married by age 18. Prevalence was highest in rural areas. The government, parliamentarians, civil society organizations, and donors worked together to fight early and forced marriages. The Ministries of Chiefs and Traditional Affairs and Gender and Child Development, in collaboration with traditional leaders, NGOs, diplomatic missions, and other stakeholders, increasingly spoke out against early and forced marriages. Some leaders nullified forced and early marriages and placed the girls removed in school. In...more
July 9, 2019, 10:16 a.m.
Countries: Romania
Variables: AOM-PRACTICE-1

"The lack of measures taken to prevent harmful practices in relation to child marriages concluded illegally and under the legal exceptions to the age of 18 years and address the impact on the school attendance of Roma girls" (5).
July 8, 2019, 2:42 p.m.
Countries: Uzbekistan
Variables: SEGI-PRACTICE-1, MARR-PRACTICE-1, MARR-LAW-1, AOM-PRACTICE-1, AOM-LAW-1

"The minimum legal age for marriage is 17 for women and 18 for men, although a district may lower the age by one year in exceptional cases. The Women’s Committee and mahalla representatives conducted systematic campaigns to raise awareness of the dangers of child marriage and early births. The committee also held regular public meetings with community representatives and girls in schools to emphasize the importance of education, selfreliance, financial independence, and the right to free choice. In some rural areas, girls as young as 15 occasionally were married in religious ceremonies not officially recognized by the state" (Pg 30).
July 8, 2019, 1:19 p.m.
Countries: Uganda
Variables: AOM-PRACTICE-1

"The legal minimum age for marriage is 18, but authorities did not enforce the law. Marriage of underage girls by parental arrangement was common, particularly in rural areas. Local NGOs and the police Family and Children Unit reported some parents arranged such marriages or sexual arrangements for girls as young as 12 due to poverty. According to the UNFPA, the prevalence rate of early and forced marriage was approximately 46 percent for girls 15 and older. UNICEF’s 2015 State of the Children report estimated 10 percent of girls were married before age 15...In March 2014 police in Butaleja District, Eastern Region, arrested nine persons for attempting to marry a 12-year-old...more
July 8, 2019, 9:30 a.m.
Countries: Senegal
Variables: AOM-PRACTICE-1

"Many parents opted to keep their middle- and high-school-aged daughters home to work or to marry rather than sending them to school, where predatory teachers could ruin their reputations and future marriage prospect" (page 16-17). "By law women have the right to choose when and whom they marry, but traditional practices restricted a woman’s choice. The law prohibits the marriage of girls younger than 16, but this law generally was not enforced in most communities where marriages were arranged. Under certain conditions a judge may grant a special dispensation to a man to marry a girl below the age of consent. According to women’s rights groups and officials from the...more
July 6, 2019, 1:13 p.m.
Countries: Togo
Variables: AOM-PRACTICE-1

"The legal age for marriage is 18 for girls and 20 for boys, although both may marry under these ages with parental consent. According to a 2015 UNICEF report, 25 percent of women ages 20-24 were married or in a union before age 18, and 6 percent were married or in union before age 15. The practice significantly declined in recent years. Rates were highest in the Savannah Region at 61 percent, followed by the Plateau Region at 37 percent, Kara Region at 36 percent, Central Region at 31 percent, and the Maritime Region at 29 percent. The government and NGOs engaged in a range of actions to prevent early...more
July 3, 2019, 1:59 p.m.
Countries: East Timor
Variables: MARR-PRACTICE-1, MARR-PRACTICE-5, MARR-LAW-1, AOM-PRACTICE-1, AOM-LAW-1, AOM-DATA-2

"Although a marriage may not be registered until the youngest spouse is at least age 16, cultural, religious and civil marriages were recognized in the civil code. Cultural pressure to marry, especially if a girl or woman becomes pregnant, is strong. Underage couples may not officially marry, but are often married de facto once they have children together. Forced marriage rarely occurred, although reports indicated that social pressure sometimes encouraged victims of rape to marry their attacker or persons to enter into an arranged marriage where a bride price is paid According to the most recent information from UNICEF (2010), an estimated 19 percent of girls married prior to the...more
July 3, 2019, 12:27 p.m.
Countries: Tajikistan
Variables: MARR-PRACTICE-1, MARR-LAW-1, AOM-PRACTICE-1

"Many of these polygynous marriages involved underage brides. Unofficial second and third marriages were increasingly common, with neither the wives nor their children having legal standing or rights" (Pg 22). "The legal minimum age for marriage of men and women is 18 years. Under exceptional circumstances, which a judge must determine, such as in the case of pregnancy, a couple may also apply to a court to lower the marriageable age to 17. Underage religious marriage was more widespread in rural areas. Many parents told their daughters to quit school after ninth grade, at which point parents considered their daughters to have obtained sufficient professional skills, such as sewing or...more
July 2, 2019, 2:25 p.m.
Countries: Swaziland
Variables: MARR-PRACTICE-1, MARR-LAW-1, AOM-PRACTICE-1, AOM-LAW-1

"The legal age of marriage is 18 years for both boys and girls, but with parental consent and approval from the minister of justice, girls may marry at 16. The government recognizes two types of marriage, civil marriage and marriage under traditional law and custom. Under traditional law marriages are permitted for girls as young as 13. Although the deputy prime minister spoke out against this practice, civil law was generally not enforced to prevent it. According to the Children’s Protection and Welfare Act, however, 'A child has the right to refuse to be compelled to undergo or uphold any custom or practices that are likely to negatively affect the...more
July 2, 2019, 12:52 p.m.
Countries: Sudan
Variables: MARR-PRACTICE-1, MARR-LAW-1, AOM-PRACTICE-1, AOM-DATA-2

"There were no reliable statistics on the extent of child marriage, but child advocates reported it remained a problem, especially in rural areas. According to UNICEF estimates, 12 percent of women ages 20 to 24 were first married or in a union before they were 15, and 34 percent were married before reaching 18. In October the first lady issued a statement during International Day of the Girl expressing concern about early and forced marriages and announcing a government initiative that would be launched to tackle the issue" (Pg 68).
July 2, 2019, 7:58 a.m.
Countries: Bosnia-Herzegovina
Variables: AOM-PRACTICE-1

"In certain Romani communities, girls married between the ages of 12 and 142 (p. 22).
June 28, 2019, 10:58 a.m.
Countries: Sri Lanka, Sri Lanka
Variables: MARR-PRACTICE-1, MARR-LAW-1, AOM-PRACTICE-1, AOM-LAW-1, AOM-DATA-2

"The minimum legal age for marriage is 18 for both men and women, although girls may marry at age 16 with parental consent. According to the 2006-07 Demographic Health Survey, 11 percent of women between the ages 20 and 24 reported being married or in a union before age 18. The Ministry of Women and Children’s Affairs conducted programs in many districts to educate the public at the village level on the complications that may result from early marriage. In a 2013 study, Emerging Concerns and Case Studies on Child Marriage in Sri Lanka, the UN Children’s Fund documented a growing list of human rights concerns, especially for young girls,...more
June 28, 2019, 8:55 a.m.
Countries: South Sudan
Variables: LRW-LAW-4, MARR-LAW-1, AOM-PRACTICE-1, AOM-LAW-1, AOM-DATA-2

"The law provides that every child has the right to protection from early marriage but does not explicitly prohibit marriage before age 18. Child marriage was common. According to the Ministry of Gender, nearly half of all girls and young women between the ages of 15 and 19 were married, and some brides were as young as 12 years old. Early marriage sometimes reflected efforts by men to avoid rape charges, which a married woman cannot bring against her husband. In other cases families of rape victims encouraged marriage to the rapist to avoid public shaming. Many abducted girls, often repeatedly subjected to rape (see section 1.g.), were forced into...more
June 26, 2019, 11:12 a.m.
Countries: Somalia
Variables: CWC-DATA-2, MARR-PRACTICE-1, MARR-LAW-1, AOM-PRACTICE-1, AOM-LAW-1, AOM-DATA-2

"The provisional federal constitution does not specify a minimum legal age for marriage. It notes marriage requires the free consent of both the man and woman to be legal. Early marriages frequently occurred; 45 percent of women between the ages of 20 and 24 were married by age 18, and 8 percent were married by age 15. In rural areas parents often compelled daughters as young as 12 to marry. In areas under its control, al-Shabaab arranged compulsory marriages between its soldiers and young girls and used the lure of marriage as a recruitment tool. There were no known efforts by the government or regional authorities to prevent early and...more
June 25, 2019, 7:34 a.m.
Countries: Slovenia
Variables: MARR-PRACTICE-1, AOM-PRACTICE-1, AOM-LAW-1

"The minimum age for marriage is 18. Centers for social service can approve marriage of a person under the age of 18, together with the approval of parents or legal guardians. Child marriage occurred within the Romani community, but it was not a widespread problem" (Pg 13).
June 25, 2019, 7:13 a.m.
Countries: Sierra Leone
Variables: MARR-PRACTICE-1, AOM-PRACTICE-1, AOM-LAW-1

"Although the law prohibits marriage of boys and girls under the age of 18, including forced marriage, early and forced child marriage continued to be problems" (Pg 23).
June 24, 2019, 4:35 p.m.
Countries: Mali
Variables: AOM-PRACTICE-1

"According to local human rights organizations, judicial officials frequently accepted false birth certificates or other documents claiming girls below age 15 were old enough to marry" (p. 23).