The most comprehensive compilation of information on the status of
women in the world.

Latest items for ATDW-PRACTICE-2

Sept. 26, 2020, 7:38 p.m.
Countries: Qatar
Variables: ATDW-PRACTICE-2

"men have a unilateral right to divorce while women must apply to the courts for divorce on limited grounds" (para 12).
Sept. 26, 2020, 6:47 p.m.
Countries: Kuwait
Variables: ATDW-PRACTICE-1, ATDW-PRACTICE-2

"Kuwaiti personal status law, which applies to Sunni Muslims who make up the majority of Kuwaitis, discriminates against women [ . . . ] women must apply to the courts for a divorce on limited grounds, unlike men who can unilaterally divorce their wives" (para 17).
Sept. 26, 2020, 4:34 p.m.
Countries: Afghanistan
Variables: LRCM-LAW-1, LRCM-LAW-2, MURDER-PRACTICE-1, IIP-PRACTICE-1, ATDW-PRACTICE-2, ATDW-LAW-5, DSFMF-LAW-1, DV-PRACTICE-1, DV-PRACTICE-2

“N. v. Sweden (no. 23505/09) (20 July 2010): The applicant, an Afghan national having an extra-marital affair with a man in Sweden, maintained that she risked social exclusion, long imprisonment or even death if returned to Afghanistan. Her applications for asylum were unsuccessful. The Court found that the applicant’s deportation from Sweden to Afghanistan would constitute a violation of Article 3 (prohibition of inhuman or degrading treatment or punishment) of the Convention. It noted that women were at particular risk of ill-treatment in Afghanistan if perceived as not conforming to the gender roles ascribed to them by society, tradition and even the legal system. The mere fact that the applicant...more
Sept. 4, 2020, 9:43 p.m.
Countries: Lebanon
Variables: ATDW-PRACTICE-2, CUST-PRACTICE-1, IAW-PRACTICE-1

"Discrimination includes inequality in access to divorce, child custody, and inheritance and property rights" (para 17).
Aug. 12, 2020, 3:12 p.m.
Countries: Mauritania
Variables: ATDW-PRACTICE-2

"Mauritania's laws on divorce...discriminate against women" (para 24).
Aug. 8, 2020, 6:27 p.m.
Countries: Algeria
Variables: ATDW-PRACTICE-2, ATDW-LAW-5

"Algeria's Family Code allows men to have a unilateral divorce without explanation but requires women to apply to courts for a divorce on specified grounds" (para 17).
Aug. 7, 2020, 4:32 p.m.
Countries: Jordan
Variables: ATDW-PRACTICE-2

"Jordan's personal status code remains discriminatory, despite a 2010 amendment that widened women's access to divorce" (para 17).
Aug. 7, 2020, 3:49 p.m.
Countries: Morocco
Variables: ATDW-PRACTICE-2

"The Family Code discriminates against women with regard to...procedures to obtain divorce" (para 20).
Aug. 2, 2020, 6:20 p.m.
Countries: United Arab Emirates
Variables: ATDW-PRACTICE-2

"Some provisions of Federal Law No. 28 of 2005 regulating personal status matters discriminate against women…men can unilaterally divorce their wives, whereas a woman must apply for a court order to obtain a divorce" (para 17).
July 10, 2020, 6:14 p.m.
Countries: Iran
Variables: ATDW-PRACTICE-2

"But there are restrictions. Women...need the permission of a male relative to..ask for a divorce" (para 13).
May 29, 2020, 12:04 p.m.
Countries: Afghanistan
Variables: ATDW-PRACTICE-2

"If you divorce, you have gone through the trouble of leaving your spouse and getting a divorce. You are not a good woman for doing that. They have an expression here in Afghanistan: You go to your husband's house with a white dress and you leave it with a white dress, referring to the white sheet they wrap around a dead body before they bury them. It's something that is said pretty often" (para 10).
April 22, 2020, 5:16 p.m.
Countries: Lebanon
Variables: ATDW-PRACTICE-2

"Women were also systematically denied adequate spousal support during and after marriage—with religious courts often unfairly denying or reducing payments, including if a judge found a woman to be 'recalcitrant' by leaving the marital home and refusing to cohabit with her husband or filing for severance" (10). "Lebanon’s host of religiously based personal status laws and court decisions that fail to guarantee equality in marriage and divorce fall foul of these obligations by permitting discrimination against women, and violating their human rights, including to nondiscrimination, physical integrity and health" (11). "Across all confessions, Human Rights Watch found that personal status laws and religious courts give women lesser rights than men...more
April 4, 2020, 8:45 a.m.
Countries: Rwanda
Variables: ATDW-PRACTICE-2

"While Law No. 59/2008 on the prevention and punishment of gender-based violence provides for equal distribution of commonly owned property in non-formal unions, such co-ownership is difficult to prove for women in non-formal unions in the absence of property certificates" (14).
Jan. 30, 2020, 1:05 p.m.
Countries: Yemen
Variables: ATDW-PRACTICE-2

"A husband may divorce a wife without justifying the action in court. In the formal legal system, a woman must provide justification" (30).
Dec. 8, 2019, 5:21 p.m.
Countries: India
Variables: ATDW-PRACTICE-2

"India's parliament has approved a bill that makes the Muslim practice of "instant divorce" a criminal offence ... Campaigners and political parties are sharply divided over the bill. Those against it, including some Muslim women, point out that it's unusual to criminalise divorce. The Congress party and others have pointed out the practice was already outlawed by the country's top court. Others have said the state has no place in regulating the marital home. But those in favour of the bill say triple talaq is deeply discriminatory towards women" (para. 1, 16-18).
Nov. 7, 2019, 6:16 p.m.
Countries: Egypt
Variables: ATDW-PRACTICE-2

"In marriage and divorce cases, a woman’s testimony must be judged credible to be admissible. Usually the woman accomplishes credibility by conveying her testimony through an adult male relative or representative. The law assumes a man’s testimony is credible unless proven otherwise." (44).
Sept. 17, 2019, 10:05 p.m.
Countries: China
Variables: ATDW-PRACTICE-2

"Eager to preserve the stability of the family unit, the party has also done little to help women following a recent court ruling that weakened their claim to property in divorce proceedings. And with divorce numbers on the rise, millions of Chinese women have been cut out of the nation’s real-estate boom, experts say." (para 15).
July 31, 2019, 6:50 p.m.
Countries: Saudi Arabia
Variables: ATDW-PRACTICE-2

"In divorce proceedings, women must demonstrate legally specified grounds for divorce, but men can divorce without giving cause. In doing so, men must pay immediately an amount of money agreed at the time of the marriage that serves as a one-time alimony payment" (43).
July 20, 2019, 8:20 a.m.
Countries: Syria
Variables: ATDW-PRACTICE-2

"The law generally permits women to initiate divorce proceedings against their spouses" (Pg 46).
July 19, 2019, 9:48 a.m.
Countries: Indonesia
Variables: ATDW-PRACTICE-1, ATDW-PRACTICE-2, ATDW-LAW-1

"Divorce is available to both men and women. Many divorcees received no alimony, since there was no system to enforce such payments. The law requires a divorced woman to wait 40 days before remarrying; a man may remarry immediately" (Pg 28).
July 18, 2019, 10:36 p.m.
Countries: Slovakia
Variables: ATDW-PRACTICE-2

"In the context of the increasing number of divorces, single-parent households, a majority of which are headed by women, and de facto unions, the Committee notes with concern: (c) That the State party’s current law on property distribution upon divorce does not adequately address gender-based economic disparities between spouses resulting from traditional work and family life patterns. Those often lead to men having enhanced human capital and earning potential, while women may experience the opposite, so that spouses currently do not equitably share in the economic consequences of the marriage and its dissolution. Likewise, neither existing legislation nor case law addresses the distribution of future earning potential so as to...more
July 17, 2019, 3:48 p.m.
Countries: Singapore
Variables: ATDW-PRACTICE-1, ATDW-PRACTICE-2

"Muslim women are required to present some form of admissible evidence in order to be able to file for divorce, and their testimony alone is insufficient to prove grounds for divorce, while Muslim men may unilaterally repudiate a marriage without any condition or reason" (12).
July 8, 2019, 1:19 p.m.
Countries: Uganda
Variables: CWC-DATA-2, IW-PRACTICE-1, IW-LAW-1, ATDW-PRACTICE-2, CUST-LAW-1, IAW-PRACTICE-1, IAD-PRACTICE-1, DSFMF-PRACTICE-2, PW-LAW-1

"The law provides women with the same legal status and rights as men. Discrimination against women, however, was widespread, especially in rural areas. Many customary laws discriminate against women in adoption, marriage, divorce, and inheritance. Under local customary law in many areas, women may not own or inherit property or retain custody of their children. Traditional divorce law in many areas requires women to meet stricter evidentiary standards than men to prove adultery. Polygyny is legal under both customary and Islamic law. In some ethnic groups, men may “inherit” the widows of their deceased brothers" (Pg 29).
July 3, 2019, 12:27 p.m.
Countries: Tajikistan
Variables: MARR-LAW-5, ATDW-PRACTICE-1, ATDW-PRACTICE-2

"Due to family pressure, young women, especially adolescent girls, often dropped out of school to marry. The law protects women’s rights in marriage and family matters, but families often pressured female minors to marry against their will. Religious marriages were common substitutes for civil marriages, due to the high marriage registration fees associated with civil marriages and the power afforded men under religious law. In cases of religious marriages not registered with the government, husbands simply repeated a phrase in front of two witnesses to divorce their wives. Husbands also used these officially unregistered religious marriages to prevent wives from accessing family assets and other rights in the event of...more
June 28, 2019, 10:58 a.m.
Countries: Sri Lanka
Variables: ERBG-LAW-1, LO-PRACTICE-1, ATDW-PRACTICE-2, IAW-PRACTICE-1, IAD-PRACTICE-1

"The law provides for equal employment opportunity in the public sector. Women have equal rights under civil and criminal law. Adjudication of questions related to family law--including divorce, child custody, and inheritance-- varied according to the customary law of each ethnic or religious group, resulting in discrimination" (Pg 30).
June 25, 2019, 7:13 a.m.
Countries: Sierra Leone
Variables: ATDW-PRACTICE-1, ATDW-PRACTICE-2

"The law provides that either spouse has the right to acquire property and stipulates that gifts, payments, or dowries upon marriage are nonrefundable, allowing women in unhappy marriages to divorce without being forced to return dowries. Since the law defines 'property' as mutually owned land and because land outside of Freetown is generally communal or family property, however, it was difficult to prove a couple owned the land together and that a widow thus had a right to it" (Pg 20).
June 21, 2019, 12:48 p.m.
Countries: Saudi Arabia
Variables: ATDW-PRACTICE-1, ATDW-PRACTICE-2

"A husband who verbally (rather than through a court process) divorces his wife or refuses to sign final divorce papers continues to be her legal guardian" (Pg 38). "In divorce proceedings, women must demonstrate legally specified grounds for divorce, but men can divorce without giving cause. In doing so, men must pay immediately an amount of money agreed at the time of the marriage that serves as a one-time alimony payment. Men can be forced, however, to make subsequent alimony payments by court order. The government began implementing an identification system based on fingerprints that was designed to provide women more reliable access to courts. The previous system required women...more
June 20, 2019, 11:09 a.m.
Countries: Afghanistan
Variables: ATDW-PRACTICE-2

"Men are able to divorce their wives at will and without any bureaucratic process, while women may seek divorce only through the courts, based on a limited set of grounds that they must prove in court. Beyond the discriminatory nature of the law, there are also enormous difficulties for women in gaining the rights they do have under the law. The law permits women to seek divorce from their husbands when they have legal grounds for doing so. However, in practice the fact that a single specialized family court exists only in Kabul, combined with the extreme scarcity of legal representation for women on family law matters, means that this...more
June 19, 2019, 1:33 p.m.
Countries: Pakistan
Variables: ATDW-PRACTICE-2

"Divorced women often were left with no means of support, as their families ostracized them. Women are legally free to marry without family consent, but society frequently ostracized women who did so, or they risked becoming victims of honor crimes" (Pg 46-47).
June 17, 2019, 12:20 p.m.
Countries: Oman
Variables: ATDW-PRACTICE-2

"The legal provision that allows men to divorce their wives with the signature of two witnesses is not accorded to women" (Pg 15).