The most comprehensive compilation of information on the status of
women in the world.

Latest items for AW-LAW-1

Jan. 4, 2017, 1:13 p.m.
Countries: Georgia
Variables: AW-PRACTICE-1, AW-LAW-1

“Procedures to determine refugee status did not include provisions for standards of treatment for specific populations of asylum seekers, including those with special needs, survivors of gender-based violence and torture, the elderly, and persons with disabilities” (28, 29).
Jan. 3, 2017, 8:24 p.m.
Countries: Italy
Variables: AW-LAW-1

“The constitution provides for freedom of internal movement, foreign travel, emigration, and repatriation, and the government generally respected these rights. The government cooperated with UNHCR and other humanitarian organizations in providing protection and assistance to refugees, asylum seekers, stateless persons, and other persons of concern” (9). “The government also provided protection to individuals who may not qualify as refugees. Between January and October 20, the government provided humanitarian protection to 10,821 persons and subsidiary protection to 7,242 persons” (11).
June 10, 2016, 7:17 p.m.
Countries: Germany
Variables: AW-LAW-1

"Finally, the new directives on asylum known as the Common European Asylum System (CEAS), especially the Reception Directive and the Asylum Procedure Directive contain additional provisions considering the specific situation of vulnerable persons upon reception and during implementation of the asylum procedure. “Vulnerable persons” include pregnant women, single mothers with children under the age of 18, and those who have suffered torture, rape or other serious forms of violence, including FGM. The directives are implemented in German law by July 2015" (40).
May 23, 2016, 2:45 p.m.
Countries: Ecuador
Variables: AW-PRACTICE-1, AW-LAW-1

"The Committee is concerned about the absence of measures to preserve the procedural rights of women in the context of refugee status determination procedures, including access to individual interviews and female interviewers and interpreters. It is also concerned about the compulsory and very narrow time frame established by Executive Decree No. 1182 for applying for refugee status and its consequences for women, in particular the lack of access to basic social services and health care for those in an irregular situation and the risk of sexual exploitation and trafficking" (13)
May 15, 2016, 7:55 p.m.
Countries: Montenegro
Variables: AW-LAW-1

"The Law on Asylum (Official Gazette of the Republic of Montenegro 45/06) stipulates that asylum seeker shall be entitled to communicate with the person in official capacity and interpreter of the same sex and that asylum seeker shall in all stages of the procedure be treated in a way that acknowledges his/her sex." (17)
March 29, 2016, 11:14 p.m.
Countries: Kuwait
Variables: AW-LAW-1

"The Committee [the Committee on the Elimination of Discrimination Against Women] is also concerned at the information given that non-citizen women who are victims of forced prostitution are granted residence permits only if a sponsor is available for the victim and the victim’s innocence is proven" (8). "The Committee notes with concern the absence of an asylum law which would address the needs of refugees and asylum-seekers registered with the Office of the United Nations High Commissioner for Refugees (UNHCR) in the State party, about 50 per cent of whom are women. It also notes with concern that refugees and asylum-seekers who are unable to obtain legal residency have no ...more
Jan. 1, 2016, 12:28 a.m.
Countries: United Kingdom
Variables: AW-LAW-1

"However, the British Government had become aware that some victims of domestic violence face particular difficulties. It has therefore made special provision in the Immigration Rules to assist those victims of domestic violence who have been admitted to the United Kingdom with limited leave as spouses, unmarried partners or civil partners of a British citizen or someone who is settled in the United Kingdom. This rule allows these victims to apply for indefinite leave to remain in their own right, if they have been subject to domestic violence during the first two years of that relationship (the probationary period)...Access to initial accommodation is on the basis that an applicant is ...more
Oct. 14, 2015, 11:02 p.m.
Countries: Bosnia-Herzegovina
Variables: AW-LAW-1

"The Law on Movement and Stay of Aliens and Asylum of BiH [Bosnia and Herzegovina] (Official Gazette of BiH, 36/08) regulates the conditions of approval of temporary residence to an alien for humanitarian reasons, and it provides, inter alia, the possibility of granting temporary residence for humanitarian reasons to victims of trafficking, in order to provide protection and assistance for recovery and return to the country of habitual residence or in a country that accepts him/her. The Law on Movement and Stay of Aliens and Asylum in BiH provides for a centre for the accommodation of victims of trafficking, as an institution for the admission of aliens" (33)more
Sept. 28, 2015, 6:04 p.m.
Countries: Belgium
Variables: AW-LAW-1

"That the law of 15 December 1980 regarding the entry on the territory, the stay, the settlement and the removal of aliens (Aliens Law) fails to grant temporary residence to women who are victims of domestic violence who are undocumented or are awaiting a residence permit on the basis of family reunification. In addition, while noting the State party’s indication that deportations are unlikely in the above-mentioned cases, and that the women can apply for residence permits on humanitarian grounds, the Committee is concerned that fear of deportation prevents victims from reporting cases of domestic violence" (5)
Aug. 25, 2015, 9:45 p.m.
Countries: Netherlands
Variables: AW-LAW-1

“The grounds of persecution in Dutch asylum policy comply with EU Directive 2011/95 (Qualification Directive). Dutch policy also stipulates that an asylum application must be assessed with particular attention to ‘gender’, in the sense of the social interpretation of masculinity and femininity. In Dutch asylum practice, a woman may be regarded as a refugee if, for example, persecution as defined in the Refugee Convention occurs in her country of origin: because the woman has violated discriminatory social customs, religious rules or cultural standards for women; because the woman has violated laws that are at odds with universal human rights. A woman at risk of genital mutilation can also qualify for ...more
Aug. 3, 2015, 3:36 p.m.
Countries: France
Variables: DV-LAW-1, AW-LAW-1

"Where married life has been terminated because of spousal violence inflicted on an alien by his or her spouse of French nationality, the prefect has no power to rescind the residence authorization and may approve its renewal. A foreigner who is victim of violence suffered after arrival in France but before issuance of the first temporary residence permit receives such a permit, under article L. 313-12 of the Code on the Entry and Residence of Aliens and the Right of Asylum (CESEDA). The above Code has been amended through the Act of 9 July 2010 'on violence specifically against women, spousal violence and its incidence on the children' and the ...more
April 3, 2015, 2:18 p.m.
Countries: Kosovo
Variables: AW-LAW-1

From the table Asylum-seekers by Gender: Out of a total of 62 cases, 9 or 0.145 were filed by women, and 53 or 0.855 were filed by men (32).
Jan. 3, 2015, 10:12 a.m.
Countries: Sri Lanka
Variables: AW-LAW-1

"In general, women’s asylum claims are usually complex and often based on more than one ground under the 1951 Refugee Convention. This is same with the female asylum seekers from Sri Lanka. However the “Gender-blind” approach followed by the UK Home Office simply leads to the refusal of claims that does not fall into the 5 grounds of 1951 Refugee convention. In overall, three quarters of women are refused asylum at initial decision stage in the UK" (10). "A Home Office survey in 2001 indicated that women asylum seekers were more successful than men (13 percent and 9 percent respectively). However the obstacles women face when seeking asylum are greater ...more
Dec. 24, 2014, 2:22 p.m.
Countries: United States
Variables: AW-PRACTICE-1, AW-LAW-1

"Historically in the United States, woman abuse has not been validated in claiming refugee status. In August, American immigration advocates seized the chance to celebrate when the Board of Immigration Appeals ruled that “married women in Guatemala who are unable to leave their relationships” constitute a unique social group who may apply for asylum" (para. 22)
Dec. 24, 2014, 2:21 p.m.
Countries: Canada
Variables: AW-PRACTICE-1, AW-LAW-1

"Although gender-based violence is universally recognized, the 1951 Geneva Convention does not endorse it as grounds for asylum. However, Canada’s gender guidelines for refugee claims, released in 1993, were groundbreaking in recognizing both the persecution of women and the need to protect them" (para. 21)
Nov. 1, 2013, 5:58 p.m.
Countries: United Kingdom
Variables: AW-LAW-1

"UKBA produced a revised gender asylum instruction 'Gender issues in the asylum claim' in September 2010. A new asylum instruction 'Sexual orientation and gender identity in the asylum claim' was produced in October 2010. Both pieces of guidance highlight the British Government’s commitment to making the asylum process as gender-sensitive as possible, including for women who are lesbian, bisexual and/or transgender" (27)
May 23, 2013, 1:33 p.m.
Countries: Austria, Belgium, Croatia, Cyprus, Czech Republic, Denmark, France, Greece, Ireland, Luxembourg, Netherlands, Slovenia, Spain, United Kingdom
Variables: AW-PRACTICE-1, AW-LAW-1

"As a consequence, women at risk of FGM can receive subsidiary protection, temporary protection, or protection on humanitarian grounds in Austria, Belgium, Croatia, Czech Republic, Denmark, France, Ireland, Luxembourg, Slovenia and Spain. Cyprus, Greece, the Netherlands, and the UK refer to Article 3 of the European Convention on Human Rights in this regard, which provides that ‘no one shall be subjected to torture or to inhuman or degrading treatment or punishment’" (47)
May 23, 2013, 1:31 p.m.
Countries: Belgium, Bulgaria, Croatia, Czech Republic, Estonia, Greece, Hungary, Italy, Luxembourg, Portugal, Slovakia, Spain, Sweden
Variables: AW-PRACTICE-1, AW-LAW-1

"Belgium, Bulgaria, Estonia, Italy, Portugal, and Slovakia have included gender-based persecution in their asylum legislation. Gender- or child-specific acts of persecution are also frequently referred to as a ground for protection, namely in Belgium, Czech Republic, Estonia, Greece, Hungary, Italy, Luxembourg, Portugal, Slovakia and Sweden. Spain also added gender and sexual orientation to the types of persecution that could be considered grounds for persecution as defined by Article 1 of the Geneva Convention. Finally, some countries (Belgium, Croatia and Greece) use the term ‘vulnerable groups’ in their legislation, which may include victims or potential victims of FGM. This does not refer to the criteria qualifying for asylum, but to the ...more
May 23, 2013, 1:27 p.m.
Countries: Hungary
Variables: AW-PRACTICE-1, AW-LAW-1

"Only Hungary specifically mentions FGM in its explanation of the general asylum law provision (Article 60 (2) b) within the Act 80 of 2007 (Asylum Act). In this explanation, a list is provided of possible forms of gender-based persecution, including FGM" (46)
Feb. 26, 2013, 11:42 a.m.
Countries: Sierra Leone
Variables: AW-LAW-1

"The law provides for refugee status as defined by international convention to be granted to eligible asylum seekers. The UNHCR worked with government authorities to develop standard operating procedures for refugee status determination. According to the UNHCR, the government did not provide temporary protection to certain individuals who may not qualify as refugees under the 1951 convention and the 1967 protocol" (Section 2).
Feb. 17, 2013, 1:32 a.m.
Countries: Maldives
Variables: AW-LAW-1

" The country’s laws do not provide for the granting of asylum or refugee status, and the government has not established a system for providing protection to refugees" (Section 2).
Dec. 2, 2012, 11:14 p.m.
Countries: Spain
Variables: AW-LAW-1

"The law provides protection for up to three years for persons who do not meet the criteria for refugee status but face dangers such as torture or the death penalty if returned to their countries of origin. The law includes gender and sexual orientation as conditions for granting asylum, makes free legal assistance available to asylum seekers, provides a single process for both asylum and subsidiary protection (if asylum is denied, subsidiary protection is automatically considered), contemplates family reunification for asylum seekers, allows asylum requests to be accepted at an embassy or consulate, and provides for the resettlement of refugees in neighboring countries in some cases" (10)
Nov. 12, 2012, 12:25 p.m.
Countries: Mali
Variables: AW-LAW-1

"In a significant decision issued last week, an immigration judge reversed himself in a high-profile asylum case (Matter of A-T-), finally granting protection to a young woman who had suffered female genital mutilation (FGM) and feared further persecution if she were returned to Mali. The decision reflects a critical course-correction from earlier decisions by both the judge and the Board of Immigration Appeals (BIA) (the nation’s highest immigration court) that held asylum claims by women who have suffered FGM to a higher legal standard than claims by other asylum applicants" (Para 1-2). "Fearing forced marriage by her father, rape and beatings by her prospective husband, and violent repercussions from her ...more
Nov. 7, 2012, 9:57 p.m.
Countries: Somalia
Variables: AW-LAW-1

"The TFC states that political asylum may be granted to persons who flee their or another country because of political, religious, and cultural persecution. However, there was no official system for providing such protection. The authorities provided some protection against the expulsion or return of refugees to countries where their lives or freedom would be threatened, and in practice the authorities granted refugee status or asylum. Somaliland ended all registration of asylum seekers in 2008. According to the UNHCR, an unknown number of Ethiopians and others wanted to claim asylum in Somaliland" (Section 2).
Oct. 17, 2012, 11:38 p.m.
Countries: Philippines
Variables: AW-LAW-1

"No comprehensive legislation provides for granting refugee status or asylum. The Justice Department refugee unit determines which asylum seekers qualify as refugees. During the year the department received 21 asylum applications; at year’s end it had granted one, denied seven, and continued 13 under review" (Section 2)
Oct. 8, 2012, 9:42 a.m.
Countries: United States
Variables: AW-LAW-1

“They were two young women living alone and in fear in Albania, where they say they were ripe targets for sex traffickers notorious for kidnapping their victims and forcing them into prostitution in other countries. Both fled to the United States, and now appeals courts in Chicago and New York are confronting a vexing question about their fate: Should their claim that all young single women living alone in Albania face persecution qualify them for asylum? So far their answer is no” (para 1-3). “To win asylum in the United States, someone who has fled another country must establish a well-founded fear of persecution based on religion, race, nationality, political ...more
Sept. 17, 2012, 9:38 p.m.
Countries: Taiwan
Variables: AW-LAW-1

"Taiwan law does not provide for the granting of asylum or refugee status. The authorities have not established a system for providing protection to refugees because a bill regarding the handling of refugees is pending in the legislature. All People’s Republic of China (PRC) citizens unlawfully present are required by law to be returned to the PRC. As of September the eight PRC nationals who had sought asylum between 2008 and 2010 were still residing in the country with financial assistance and subsidies provided by the National Immigration Agency" (Section 2).
Sept. 4, 2012, 12:46 a.m.
Countries: Laos
Variables: AW-LAW-1

"The law provides for asylum and the protection of stateless persons. The government did not routinely grant refugee or asylum status, but it showed some flexibility in dealing pragmatically with individual asylum cases" (Section 2).
Aug. 28, 2012, 12:59 p.m.
Countries: Vietnam
Variables: AW-LAW-1

"The law does not provide for the granting of refugee status, and the government has not established a system for providing protection to refugees. The law does not provide for the granting of asylum" (Section 2).
Aug. 15, 2012, 6:28 p.m.
Countries: Yemen
Variables: AW-LAW-1

"There is no law addressing the granting of refugee status or asylum, and the government has not established a system for providing protection to refugees. The government has no ability to conduct refugee status determinations on its own. The government continued to grant prima facie refugee status to Somalis who arrived in the country after 1991. Of the UNHCR-estimated 211,000 refugees in October 2011, approximately 95 percent were Somalis. The UNHCR conducts individual refugee status determinations; however, the government did not consistently allow the UNHCR to perform determinations for non-Somalis whom they considered economic migrants" (Section 2).