The most comprehensive compilation of information on the status of
women in the world.

Latest items for CL-PRACTICE-1

May 4, 2018, 10:03 a.m.
Countries: Australia
Variables: CL-PRACTICE-1

"Australia is committed to breaking gender stereotyping at all levels, including in the media and through achieving better work-life balance for parents, however Australian women still do significantly more unpaid work than men" (Pg 19).
March 7, 2018, 7:28 p.m.
Countries: Italy
Variables: CL-PRACTICE-1

"Enrica Maria Martino, who conducted a study for the social security institute, cited 'the rigidity of working hours, the scarcity of part-time opportunities and the inadequacy of child care provisions, together with a strong role division between men and women that still attributes women all family responsibilities' as obstacles to keeping mothers in the work force" (para 15). "Not many men take advantage of them, statistics show" (para 25).
Feb. 28, 2018, 5:36 p.m.
Countries: Kenya
Variables: CL-PRACTICE-1, CL-PRACTICE-2

"Women constitute majority of the labour force in family and commercial farms in Kenya. For example, women continue to mitigate and respond to disease challenges at the community level by providing community and home-based care. However these contributions have continued to go unrecognized due to the manner in which GDP is calculated" (30).
Feb. 26, 2018, 11:33 a.m.
Countries: Australia
Variables: CL-PRACTICE-1

"Women have always had a key role in farming but their contribution is hard to quantify because unpaid work is often not recognised. This lack of clarity is why women in agriculture are often called the 'invisible farmers' or the 'silent partners'. Indeed a national three-year project titled The Invisible Farmer was launched this year by Museums Victoria and ABC Rural to draw attention to the contribution of Australian female farmers. Liza Dale-Hallett, the project’s lead curator says 'We know that around 49% of real farm income in Australia is contributed by women. This figure includes a whole range of activities such as on-farm work, off-farm waged work and household,...more
Feb. 23, 2018, 8:47 p.m.
Countries: Moldova
Variables: CL-PRACTICE-1, CL-PRACTICE-2

"The social assistance system, both in its classical form, and in its current structure is based on a patriarchal society model, where women are paid neither for taking care of old persons, children and ill persons, nor for involvement in civic and community activities. This model, based on the idea that family income consists of both paid work and unpaid care, clearly limits the social, economic and political participation of women, who are mainly providers of unpaid care" (Pg 38-39).
Feb. 16, 2018, 9:12 a.m.
Countries: Oman
Variables: CL-PRACTICE-1

"The Committee is concerned, however, about: The insufficient measures to promote the concept of shared family responsibilities and to combat the difficulties that women face in combining work and family responsibilities" (12).
Feb. 14, 2018, 11:45 a.m.
Countries: Palestine
Variables: CL-PRACTICE-1

"[women] stay inside longer and shoulder the responsibility for caring for children and the elderly, in addition to performing household tasks and some minor income-earning activities at home" (61).
Feb. 7, 2018, 10:37 a.m.
Countries: Sweden
Variables: MULV-PRACTICE-1, CL-PRACTICE-1

"In 2008 the Government commissioned Statistics Sweden (SCB) to carry out a time use study. The study makes it possible to describe similarities and differences between the living conditions of women and men concerning the activities and organisation of everyday life. On the basis of the aim that women and men should share unpaid work equally, the statistics indicate that women and men in Sweden are more gender equal today than in the past. Women are reducing their housework while men are devoting at least as much time to housework as in the past. This reduction of housework has, in turn, provided the opportunity for more paid work" (page 23).more
Jan. 12, 2018, 7:30 a.m.
Countries: Guatemala
Variables: CL-PRACTICE-1, SEGI-PRACTICE-1

"To enable greater empowerment among women, WFP staff concluded that the programme needed two new elements. First, a human rights perspective should be incorporated into education strategies - educating women about their rights at the same time as building their understanding of good nutrition practices. Second, there is a need for sensitisation strategies directed at men, including young men, adults, leaders and community authorities. This will help create the conditions for women's rights to be recognised. As part of this, men should be involved in training on good feeding and childcare practices, to tackle the perception that this is solely the responsibility of women" (para 6).
Dec. 7, 2017, 7:40 p.m.
Countries: Ethiopia, Philippines
Variables: CL-PRACTICE-1

"There may not be a way right now to prevent future attacks [in Nigeria], but as researchers have found in consultations with women in in the Philippines and Ethiopia, state actors could help make communities more resilient in the face of new attacks and subsequent environmental disasters by developing a public support system that, among other things, places greater value on unpaid care work"(para 11)
Dec. 7, 2017, 7:40 p.m.
Countries: Nigeria
Variables: CL-PRACTICE-1

"The hit [from an oil spill caused by militant groups] to the country’s economy is significant, as more than than two-thirds of state budget comes from crude exports. But what do these numbers not show? How this disaster has shrunk the time that many women had to do paid work by increasing their unpaid work load. The labor that keeps the women in the Niger Delta busy tends to be care work—looking after children, the elderly, the ill—as well as cooking and cleaning. This is work that technically has a market value, but is done for free inside the home, and therefore traditional productivity measures like GDP don’t capture it....more
Dec. 5, 2017, 1:09 p.m.
Countries: India
Variables: ERBG-PRACTICE-1, ERBG-PRACTICE-2, ERBG-DATA-2, ERBG-DATA-3, CL-PRACTICE-1, GIC-LAW-3

"Of the MGNREGA [National Rural Employment Guarantee Act], it has been reported that despite incorporation of a provision which 'in the event that there are at least five children under the age of 6 at the worksite, one of the female workers should be deputed to look after them and she should be paid the same wage as other NREGA workers,' most women joining the program are discouraged from bringing children to work. A social audit on the implementation of the MGNREGA revealed that 70% of the women interviewed had no access to child-care services at the worksite, and 65% of them were unaware of this guaranteed right (Nayaranan 2008,...more
Dec. 5, 2017, 12:57 p.m.
Countries: Russia
Variables: CL-PRACTICE-1, DLB-DATA-1, DMW-PRACTICE-1, ATC-DATA-1

"Under the same provision of the CEDAW Convention, the CEDAW Committee expressed its concern about the 'emphasis on the role of women as mothers and caregivers' in the Russian Federation, noting that 'a shift from a focus on women primarily as wives and mothers to individuals and actors equal to men in society is required for the full implementation of the Convention and the achievement of equality of women and men'"(79)
Dec. 5, 2017, 10:38 a.m.
Countries: South Africa
Variables: CL-PRACTICE-1, DLB-DATA-1

"Women commonly face difficulties in reconciling responsibilities in the care economy—particularly the minding and educating of children of pre-school age—and employment on farms. In addition to modes of remuneration, the unavailability of public child-care services combined with poor transportation services may lead women to bring children with them to work on plantations. This has been documented in the horticultural sector in Punjab (Gill 2001), and in informal settlements established near plantations during the working season in South Africa (Barrientos, Dolan, and Tallontire 2003)"(47)
Dec. 5, 2017, 10:31 a.m.
Countries: Brazil
Variables: CL-PRACTICE-1, NGOFW-DATA-1, NGOFW-DATA-3

"From the gender perspective, the impacts of CCT [cash transfer] programs are ambiguous. The conditionalities may significantly improve the educational attainments of girls. Since the benefits are generally provided to women as care givers (following the examples of Mexico and Brazil), this strengthens their role within the family. In Brazil, 94% of the recipients of the Bolsa Familia transfers are women (Holmes and Jones 2010, p. 15)"(53)
Dec. 5, 2017, 9:57 a.m.
Countries: Mexico
Variables: CL-PRACTICE-1, DLB-DATA-1, ATFPA-PRACTICE-2, AFE-PRACTICE-1, AFE-DATA-1, NGOFW-DATA-3

"From the gender perspective, the impacts of CCT [cash transfer] programs are ambiguous. The conditionalities may significantly improve the educational attainments of girls. Since the benefits are generally provided to women as care givers (following the examples of Mexico and Brazil), this strengthens their role within the family"(53)
Nov. 30, 2017, 12:32 p.m.
Countries: Philippines
Variables: CL-PRACTICE-1

"A 2010 survey by the World Bank and IFPRI and by an earlier study of 304 rural households in the Philippines found that women generally join women self-help groups or women’s groups, whereas men tend to socialize in cooperatives or other producers’ organizations. Godquin and Quisumbing summarized their main conclusions Males are more likely to be members of production groups, while females are more likely to participate in civic groups. This may indicate a division of labour within the household or separate spheres of decision making. Men, who are more heavily involved in agricultural production, are indeed more involved in groups related to income generation whereas women, who tend to...more
Nov. 29, 2017, 4:11 p.m.
Countries: Sri Lanka
Variables: CL-PRACTICE-1, CWC-DATA-2, NGOFW-DATA-2, NGOFW-DATA-3

"In the Rural Works component of the Sri Lanka Poverty Alleviation Programme financed in 1991–1998 by the World Bank, it appeared that twice as many women as men participated in unpaid labor (World Bank 1998, p. 89)"(57)
Nov. 29, 2017, 1:38 p.m.
Countries: India
Variables: CL-PRACTICE-1

"Women may typically acquire assets through the market, but low earnings and little collateral most commonly limit this opportunity. Women are not remunerated for the work they do in their traditional roles, and their earnings are typically low when they do have some source of income. They also typically have less knowledge about land markets and legal registration requirements. The combination of these factors may explain why in the Indian state of Karnataka, for instance, only 16% of women land owners acquired land through purchase (Swaminathan, Suchitra, and Lahoti 2011, p. 39)"(27)."Women commonly face difficulties in reconciling responsibilities in the care economy—particularly the minding and educating of children of pre-school...more
Nov. 29, 2017, 10:09 a.m.
Countries: Bangladesh
Variables: CL-PRACTICE-1

"The constraints of female-headed households, for example, are a key consideration. The availability of labor is often limited in such households because of the care responsibilities of women, and because of the households’ often low ratio of income earners to dependents"(59)
Nov. 28, 2017, 9:39 p.m.
Countries: Mauritius
Variables: CL-PRACTICE-1, DLB-DATA-1

"Similarly, while welcoming the adoption in Mauritius of the 2008 National Gender Policy Framework, the Committee recorded its concern about:…the persistence of discriminatory cultural norms and practices as well as patriarchal attitudes and deep-rooted stereotypes concerning the roles and responsibilities of women and men in family and society whereby men are largely still considered the main breadwinners and women are considered as having the primary responsibility for child-rearing and domestic tasks"(79)
Nov. 28, 2017, 9:32 p.m.
Countries: Iran, Thailand
Variables: CL-PRACTICE-1

"Studies in Thailand and Iran found that children whose mothers worked in the formal sector (Thailand) or spend more than 3 hours per day outside the home (Iran) could experience worsened nutritional or health outcomes because of the reduced time allocated to care by the mother. These studies conclude that 'reduced maternal care effects' predominate over 'income effects' when the mother takes up employment outside the home (Chutikul 1986; Rabiee and Giessler 1992)"(69)
Nov. 28, 2017, 9:32 p.m.
Countries: Cambodia, Nepal
Variables: CL-PRACTICE-1

"An oft-cited example is the work by the international NGO Helen Keller International, launched initially in Bangladesh in the 1980s, and expanded later to Cambodia, Nepal, and the Philippines (Ianotti, Cunningham, and Ruel 2009; Meinzen-Dick et al. 2011b). Working together with local partners, Helen Keller International supports women’s production of nutritious food on family plots, with significant reductions in micronutrient deficiencies (vitamin A, iron, and zinc) in the households concerned. In addition to increasing dietary diversity, such strategies may allow women to build economic assets (with the raising of poultry, for example), and improve their role in decision making within the family while fulfilling their domestic and child-care responsibilities. Women’s...more
Nov. 28, 2017, 9:32 p.m.
Countries: Philippines
Variables: CL-PRACTICE-1

"Most studies, however, including a major study using household-level data in the Philippines in 1985 and in 2003–2004, conclude instead that income effects predominate. Although time dedicated to care may in some cases decline, the welfare of children generally is increased when mothers augment their income with employment outside the home (Salazar and Quisumbing 2009)"(69)."An oft-cited example is the work by the international NGO Helen Keller International, launched initially in Bangladesh in the 1980s, and expanded later to Cambodia, Nepal, and the Philippines (Ianotti, Cunningham, and Ruel 2009; Meinzen-Dick et al. 2011b). Working together with local partners, Helen Keller International supports women’s production of nutritious food on family plots, with...more
Nov. 28, 2017, 9:32 p.m.
Countries: Bangladesh
Variables: CL-PRACTICE-1

"An oft-cited example is the work by the international NGO Helen Keller International, launched initially in Bangladesh in the 1980s, and expanded later to Cambodia, Nepal, and the Philippines (Ianotti, Cunningham, and Ruel 2009; Meinzen-Dick et al. 2011b). Working together with local partners, Helen Keller International supports women’s production of nutritious food on family plots, with significant reductions in micronutrient deficiencies (vitamin A, iron, and zinc) in the households concerned. In addition to increasing dietary diversity, such strategies may allow women to build economic assets (with the raising of poultry, for example), and improve their role in decision making within the family while fulfilling their domestic and child-care responsibilities.Women’s constraints...more
Nov. 10, 2017, 4:49 p.m.
Countries: South Korea
Variables: CL-PRACTICE-1

"It has been estimated that in middle-income countries such as the Republic of Korea and South Africa, unpaid care work represents the equivalent of 15% of gross domestic product (GDP) if it were valued in monetary terms (as when such services are subject to market transactions"(3)."If this unpaid care work were to be financed by the public purse, it would represent 94% of the total tax revenue of the Republic of Korea"(3)
Nov. 10, 2017, 4:49 p.m.
Countries: Tanzania
Variables: CL-PRACTICE-1

"It has been estimated that in middle-income countries such as the Republic of Korea and South Africa, unpaid care work represents the equivalent of 15% of gross domestic product (GDP) if it were valued in monetary terms (as when such services are subject to market transactions). The comparable figure is 63% for low-income countries such as India and Tanzania (Budlender 2010). If this unpaid care work were to be financed by the public purse, it would represent 94% of the total tax revenue of the Republic of Korea, and 182% of the total tax revenue of India"(3-4)
Nov. 10, 2017, 4:49 p.m.
Countries: India
Variables: CL-PRACTICE-1

"A study on the Indian state of Gujarat estimated that reducing to 1 hour a day the time spent fetching water by women would allow the women to increase their incomes by $100 yearly using the time saved (United Nations Development Programme [UNDP] 2006)"(3)."It has been estimated that in middle-income countries such as the Republic of Korea and South Africa, unpaid care work represents the equivalent of 15% of gross domestic product (GDP) if it were valued in monetary terms (as when such services are subject to market transactions). The comparable figure is 63% for low-income countries such as India and Tanzania (Budlender 2010). If this unpaid care work were...more
Nov. 10, 2017, 4:49 p.m.
Countries: South Africa
Variables: CL-PRACTICE-1

"It has been estimated that in middle-income countries such as the Republic of Korea and South Africa, unpaid care work represents the equivalent of 15% of gross domestic product (GDP) if it were valued in monetary terms (as when such services are subject to market transactions"(3)
Aug. 28, 2017, 4:45 p.m.
Countries: Solomon Islands
Variables: CL-PRACTICE-1, DLB-DATA-1, AFE-PRACTICE-1

"The ratio of men and women in the labor force in the Solomon Islands has remained relatively stagnant over the past decade, largely a product of gender inequalities in education, training, household responsibilities, and cultural attitudes about the role of women"(para 3)."One factor that could significantly impact GDP is the restructuring of the division of labor in the country’s unpaid care economy. According to the Asian Development Bank, 'women spend twice as much time on household work and four times more on childcare' – neither of which is accounted for in the calculation of GDP. Likewise, women’s overrepresentation in subsistence work inhibits their ability to contribute significantly to GDP"(para 5)more