The most comprehensive compilation of information on the status of
women in the world.

Latest items for CLCC-LAW-2

March 15, 2019, 11:35 a.m.
Countries: Vanuatu
Variables: CLCC-LAW-2

"A citizen single mother may not transmit citizenship to her child, but the child may apply for citizenship at age 18 years" (10).
March 15, 2019, 9:33 a.m.
Countries: Morocco
Variables: CWC-DATA-2, CLCC-LAW-2

"The law permits both parents to pass nationality to their children. There were, nonetheless, cases in which authorities denied identification papers to children because they were born to unmarried parents, particularly in rural areas or in the cases of poorly educated mothers unaware of their legal rights" (page 29).
March 5, 2019, 2:35 p.m.
Countries: Malaysia
Variables: CLCC-LAW-2

"Authorities require citizens to provide their marriage certificate and both parents’ government identity cards" (24).
Feb. 8, 2019, 3:28 p.m.
Countries: Bahrain, Iraq, Jordan, Morocco, Nepal
Variables: CLCC-LAW-2

"Unmarried parents must overcome significant hurdles where the system does not recognize children born outside marriage—as is the case in Bahrain and Nepal—or requires additional procedures for registering their birth, as in Iraq, Jordan and Morocco, where an unmarried parent must obtain a court order to register their child" (p. 29).
Feb. 8, 2019, 3:28 p.m.
Countries: Gambia
Variables: CLCC-LAW-2

"And in Gambia, the father is legally required to register children born within a marriage, and the mother has this legal responsibility for children born outside marriage" (p. 29).
Feb. 8, 2019, 3:28 p.m.
Countries: Fiji, Namibia
Variables: CLCC-LAW-2

"In Barbados, Fiji and Namibia, a mother can legally register the newborn only when the father is dead, absent or incapable" (p. 29).
Feb. 8, 2019, 3:28 p.m.
Countries: Barbados
Variables: CLCC-LAW-2

"In Barbados...a mother can legally register the newborn only when the father is dead, absent or incapable" (p. 29).
Feb. 8, 2019, 3:28 p.m.
Countries: Greece
Variables: CLCC-LAW-2

"In Greece, the father is legally obligated to register the child; the mother needs a special mandate by a notary attorney to do so" (p. 29).
Jan. 14, 2019, 5:54 p.m.
Countries: Algeria
Variables: CLCC-LAW-2

"It is almost certain, however, that this figure is lower than the real number, as many children were never declared by their parents or identified by the state. Some of these children lost one or both of their parents, while others never got a chance to know them. Yet others followed their parents as they accepted the government’s demobilization policy and were integrated into society. The children have no legal existence as they do not appear in Algerian civil registries. For them to gain civil recognition, their parents’ marriage must be legalized, since in many cases the authorities consider them null and void. This process is necessary for recognition of...more
Nov. 16, 2018, 12:39 p.m.
Countries: Bhutan
Variables: CLCC-LAW-2

"NGOs reported... children of single mothers who could not establish citizenship through a Bhutanese father" (8). "NGOs and media sources highlighted the existence of stateless children born to unwed mothers who were unable to prove the identity of the father of the child... According to 2014 NGO reports, more than 700 children born in the country were not recognized as Bhutanese citizens because their fathers’ nationality was undocumented" (10).
Nov. 16, 2018, 9:30 a.m.
Countries: Belgium
Variables: CLCC-LAW-2

"The government registered all live births immediately. Citizenship is conferred on a child through a parent’s (or the parents’) Belgian citizenship" (10).
Nov. 1, 2018, 8:43 a.m.
Countries: Sudan
Variables: CLCC-LAW-2

"The Supreme Court of Sudan reaffirmed the right of Sudanese women to confer nationality on their children in a July 6 decision. This important advancement for gender equal nationality rights underscores the need for Sudan's Nationality Act to be aligned with the country’s Interim Constitution and international law" (para. 1). "Though the Interim Constitution (2005) enshrines the equal right of men and women to pass nationality to their children, the Sudanese Nationality Act (amended 2011) retains several provisions that discriminate against women. While Sudanese men automatically confer citizenship on their children, the children of Sudanese women and foreign fathers are required to submit an application in order to acquire citizenship....more
Oct. 26, 2018, 8:42 a.m.
Countries: Senegal
Variables: CLCC-LAW-2

"Illegitimate children usually acquire the citizenship of the mother" (page 17).
Oct. 19, 2018, 7:59 p.m.
Countries: Indonesia
Variables: CLCC-LAW-2

"A 2012 ruling by the Constitutional Court overturned a 1974 law that stipulated children born outside of registered marriages shared civil ties only with their mother. The ruling provides for the inclusion of DNA evidence in determining paternity and confers inheritance rights to the father’s property for children born outside of registered marriages" (para 159)
Oct. 17, 2018, 1:08 p.m.
Countries: Palestine
Variables: CLCC-LAW-2

"Palestinian authorities require a marriage certificate to register births. In the West Bank, mothers can obtain birth certificates for their children born out of wedlock, but these children cannot take a family name, exposing them to stigma. Even if they are given up for care, their foster families cannot officially adopt them or give them their family name. The Women’s Centre for Legal Aid and Counselling (WCLAC) said they knew of 27 such children in the Social Development Ministry’s care" (para 22).
Oct. 12, 2018, 2:17 p.m.
Countries: Palestine
Variables: CLCC-LAW-2

"The new amendments allow Palestinian women to pass on their citizenship to their children" (para 6).
Sept. 12, 2018, 9:50 p.m.
Countries: Eritrea
Variables: CLCC-LAW-2

"After three months parents must present themselves to judicial authorities with their child and three witnesses" (para 111)
Sept. 4, 2018, 11:28 a.m.
Countries: Zimbabwe
Variables: CLCC-LAW-2

"Women have the right to register their children’s births, although either the father or a male relative must be present" (35).
July 6, 2018, 6:49 p.m.
Countries: Uruguay
Variables: CLCC-LAW-2, CUST-LAW-1

"Direct discrimination against women was found to exist in the different ages for the valid recognition, without judicial approval, of one’s own children (12 and 16 years for females and males respectively). Also, with regard to the impossibility for unmarried adolescents to exercise parental authority up to 18 years of age, direct discrimination on grounds of birth was found to exist (whether the child may be subject to the parental authority of the minor parent depends on whether the parents are married to each other), which amounts to indirect discrimination on the basis of gender" (page 37-38).
May 9, 2018, 4:01 p.m.
Countries: Haiti
Variables: CLCC-LAW-2

"The Committee welcomes the progress achieved since the consideration in 2009 of the State party's combined initial to seventh periodic reports...in undertaking legislative reforms, in particular the adoption of...The Paternity, Maternity and Filiation Act, in 2014, guaranteeing equal treatment to children born out of wedlock" (1-2). "The Committee is deeply concerned that...the Civil Code prohibits registrars from recording declarations of birth of a child resulting from incest" (7).
March 21, 2018, 5:20 p.m.
Countries: Namibia
Variables: CLCC-LAW-2

"The Committee commends the State party for its efforts in ensuring the registration of children upon birth since the launch of a pilot project on birth registration in 2009. The Committee notes that birth registration by mothers in their maiden names when the father of the child is absent is a culturally sensitive matter in the State party, but is concerned that the requirement that both parents be present during birth registration is an obstacle to the timely registration of children in cases in which one of the parents, usually the male parent, is absent. The Committee recommends that the State party: (a) Intensify its efforts and provide mechanisms to...more
March 20, 2018, 1:29 p.m.
Countries: Gambia
Variables: CLCW-PRACTICE-1, CLCC-LAW-2, MARR-PRACTICE-3, CBMC-PRACTICE-1

"The Committee is concerned about reports that a high number of children are not immediately registered at birth and that cumbersome procedures are in place for the registration of children above 5 years of age. It notes with concern reports of obstacles to the registration of the birth of children born out of wedlock, often resulting from the stigmatization faced by single mothers. The Committee recommends that the State party ensure that all children born in the State party, including those born out of wedlock or in rural areas, are immediately registered at birth to enable them to gain access to citizenship, education and health, and that it take steps...more
Feb. 16, 2018, 9:12 a.m.
Countries: Oman
Variables: CLCC-LAW-2

"The Committee notes the new Nationality Law (2014), which confers Omani nationality on children born out of wedlock to unidentified parents" (10).
Dec. 20, 2017, 1:15 p.m.
Countries: Afghanistan
Variables: CLCC-LAW-2, MARR-PRACTICE-3, CUST-LAW-2

"When she [a divorced Afghani woman] needed government identifications for her children, the clerk never asked about her relationship to them but kept inquiring, 'where is their father?'" (para 5).
Oct. 30, 2017, 3:24 p.m.
Countries: Egypt
Variables: CLCC-LAW-2

"'Customary marriage allows for childbirth [children are registered in the personal status registers as legitimate children] and courts have recently started recognizing it. There is not a single law prohibiting it'" (para 10). "The Administrative Court of the State Council ruled April 23 that a woman could register her child in the civil status registry based on a customary marriage. It said that such a marriage certificate alone was sufficient as a basis for issuing a birth certificate to a child born within such a marriage, in which the child should be registered under the name of the husband" (para 12).
Jan. 4, 2017, 2:59 p.m.
Countries: Jordan
Variables: CLCC-LAW-2

“Citizenship is derived only through the father. Women do not have the legal right to transmit citizenship to their children. Children of female citizens married to noncitizen husbands receive the nationality of the father and lose the right to attend public school or seek other government services if they do not hold legal residency, which must be applied for every year and is not assured” (22). “Syrian refugees were sometimes unable to obtain birth certificates for children born in the country if they could not present an official marriage certificate or other nationality documents, which were sometimes lost or destroyed when they fled or were confiscated by the government when...more
Dec. 6, 2016, 10:52 a.m.
Countries: Bhutan
Variables: CLCC-LAW-2

"The law establishes different categories of citizenship under which foreign travel is restricted. NGOs reported these restrictions primarily affected ethnic Nepalis, although children of single mothers who could not establish citizenship through a Bhutanese father were also affected" (7). "NGOs and media sources also highlighted the existence of children rendered stateless when they were born to unwed mothers who were unable to prove the identity of the father of the child. According to 2014 NGO reports, more than 700 children born in the country were not recognized as Bhutanese citizens because the nationality of their fathers was undocumented" (9).
Nov. 7, 2016, 1:31 p.m.
Countries: Bahrain
Variables: CLCC-LAW-2

"Human rights organizations reported that if a child’s father was unknown, is stateless, or unable to present his documents from the country of his citizenship, the child is stateless, even if born in Bahrain to a Bahraini mother" (23). "The wife of imprisoned Wifaq secretary general Sheikh Ali Salman was unable to get a birth certificate and other civil documents for their young child while her husband was in prison. She reported that various authorities told her Salman would have to come into each of their offices in person to sign the applications" (31).
Sept. 12, 2016, 8:57 a.m.
Countries: Jordan
Variables: CLCW-LAW-1, CLCC-LAW-2

"In Jordan, because married mothers are unable to convey citizenship to their children or spouses, children with Jordanian mothers and foreign fathers cannot obtain free public health care or education" (10).
Sept. 11, 2016, 7:53 p.m.
Countries: Bahamas, Bahrain, Barbados, Brunei, Guinea, Iran, Iraq, Jordan, Kuwait, Lebanon, Madagascar, Malaysia, Mauritania, Nepal, Oman, Qatar, Saudi Arabia, Sudan, Swaziland, Syria, United Arab Emirates
Variables: CLCC-LAW-2

According to Table 1.2, married women cannot confer citizenship to their children in the same way as married men (9).