The most comprehensive compilation of information on the status of
women in the world.

Latest items for CONST-LAW-1

June 14, 2019, 2:55 p.m.
Countries: Nigeria
Variables: CONST-LAW-1

"The constitution and law prohibit discrimination based on community, place of origin, ethnic group, sex, religion, or political opinion, but the government did not enforce the law effectively. The constitution prohibits discrimination based on the circumstances of a person’s birth" (Pg 31).
June 12, 2019, 1:03 p.m.
Countries: Niger
Variables: CONST-LAW-1

"The constitution and law prohibit discrimination based on race, gender, religion, political opinion, national origin or citizenship, social origin, disability, age, language, HIV-positive status or other communicable disease, or social status" (Pg 15). "Although the constitution provides for equal legal status and rights regardless of gender, women do not have the same rights as men under family law, which customary courts usually adjudicate. In customary law legal rights as head of household typically apply only to men. Customary law does not consider a divorced or widowed woman, even with children, to be a head of household. Traditional and religious beliefs resulted in discrimination in education, employment (see section 7.d.), owning...more
June 11, 2019, 12:13 p.m.
Countries: China
Variables: CONST-LAW-1

"The constitution states 'women enjoy equal rights with men in all spheres of life'" (56). "[In Hong Kong] Women enjoy the same legal status and rights as men" (126).
June 11, 2019, 11:54 a.m.
Countries: Namibia
Variables: CONST-LAW-1

"The constitution and law prohibit discrimination based on disability, sex, race, color, ethnic origin, religion, creed, or social or economic status" (Pg 13).
June 11, 2019, 10:04 a.m.
Countries: Bahamas
Variables: CONST-LAW-1

"The law does not prohibit discrimination based on gender" (12).
June 11, 2019, 9:13 a.m.
Countries: Montenegro
Variables: CONST-LAW-1

"The constitution and law prohibit discrimination based on race, sexual orientation, gender, disability, language, and social status" (Pg 23).
June 10, 2019, 4:14 p.m.
Countries: Mozambique
Variables: CONST-LAW-1

"The Constitution of the Republic consecrates in its article 35 the principle of universality and equality and this is reinforced by article 36, which defends the principle of gender equality. The approval of Law 10/2004 of 25 August (Family Law) establishes the equality of rights between women and men" (26).
June 7, 2019, 11:46 a.m.
Countries: Afghanistan
Variables: CONST-LAW-1

"Article 22 of the Constitution of Afghanistan states that any kind of discrimination and distinction between the citizens of Afghanistan is prohibited and that the citizens of Afghanistan – whether men or women – have equal rights and duties before the law" (Pg 15).
May 30, 2019, 1:42 p.m.
Countries: Barbados
Variables: CONST-LAW-1

"The Committee remains concerned about the absence in the State party’s legislation of a definition of discrimination against women in line with the Convention. It is further concerned about the lack of understanding by the State party of the concept of substantive equality and that there is no law on gender equality or comprehensive anti-discriminatory legislation that would incorporate the principle of equality of women and men and define and prohibit all forms of discrimination on the grounds of sex or gender, including direct and indirect discrimination in the public and private spheres, in line with article 1 of the Convention. The Committee is particularly concerned that article 23, subsection...more
May 28, 2019, 5:40 p.m.
Countries: Yemen
Variables: CONST-LAW-1

"The law provides for equal rights and equal opportunity regardless of race, gender, language, belief, or disability, in accordance with the UN Charter, the International Declaration of Human Rights, and the Charter of the Arab League, as affirmed by the 1994 constitution, but the government-in-exile could not enforce the law in country...Article 75 of the draft constitution completed in January, under the authority of the provisional government and awaiting review (see section 3), affirmed 'equal rights, freedoms, and public duties without discrimination due to sex, skin color, race, origin, religion, sect, belief, opinion, economic or social status, disability, political or geographic affiliation, occupation, birth, or any other considerations'" (34).more
May 22, 2019, 10:22 a.m.
Countries: Pakistan
Variables: CONST-LAW-1

"The furor over this year’s march illustrates a complex dynamic of misogyny that is deeply rooted in Pakistani society. At its center is an unwillingness to change toward a progressive vision of a nation that protects the constitutional rights of women — rights enshrined in the Constitution of 1973, which says 'there shall be no discrimination on the basis of sex alone'" (Para 12).
May 16, 2019, 7:41 p.m.
Countries: Iraq
Variables: CONST-LAW-1

"Although the constitution forbids discrimination based on gender, conservative societal standards impeded women’s ability to enjoy the same legal status and rights as men in all aspects of the judicial system" (42). "The constitution provides that all citizens are equal before the law without regard to gender, sect, opinion, belief, nationality, or origin" (51).
May 16, 2019, 9:32 a.m.
Countries: Kyrgyzstan
Variables: CONST-LAW-1

“Although Kyrgyz legislation provides de jure gender equality, there is a significant gap regarding de facto equality for women in practice" (para 5).
May 15, 2019, 7:58 p.m.
Countries: Cambodia
Variables: CONST-LAW-1

"The constitution provides for equal rights for women, equal pay for equal work, and equal status in marriage" (26).
May 13, 2019, 2:21 p.m.
Countries: Germany
Variables: RISW-PRACTICE-1, CONST-LAW-1

"The Committee welcomes the constitutional provisions, laws, administrative norms and policies promoting gender equality and defining sex as a prohibited ground for discrimination that have been adopted since the previous periodic review. Nevertheless, the Committee is concerned that the General Act on Equal Treatment (2006) remains limited in scope and fails to comprehensively protect women from gender-based discrimination in the domestic and private spheres" (4).
May 12, 2019, 5:42 p.m.
Countries: Ireland
Variables: CONST-LAW-1

"The law provides women the same legal status and rights as men" (12).
May 11, 2019, 5:11 p.m.
Countries: Fiji
Variables: CONST-LAW-1

"The constitution prohibits discrimination on the grounds of sexual orientation, gender, and gender identity and expression" (20).
May 9, 2019, 3:13 p.m.
Countries: Guyana
Variables: CONST-LAW-1

"The individual rights of all citizens, women, men, girls and boys with permanent or temporary residence within the jurisdiction of Guyana, are protected under the Constitution. The principle of equality and non-discrimination is enshrined in Article 149 of the revised Constitution and the articles guarantee the fundamental rights and freedoms of people living in the state. Specifically, Article 149E assures women’s equal rights and status with men in political, economic, cultural and social life; their equal access with men to academic, vocational and professional training and equal opportunities in employment, remuneration and promotion. This Article unequivocally states that ‘all forms of discrimination against women on the basis of gender and...more
May 7, 2019, 11:16 p.m.
Countries: Palestine
Variables: CONST-LAW-1

"While PA law provides for equality of the sexes, it discriminates against women" (105). "PA laws and regulations do not prohibit discrimination regarding race, language, sexual orientation and/or gender identity, HIV-positive status or other communicable diseases, or social status. While PA laws prohibit discrimination based on gender and disabilities, the PA did not effectively enforce those laws and regulations in the West Bank, nor did Hamas in Gaza" (117).
April 29, 2019, 10:15 a.m.
Countries: Venezuela
Variables: CONST-LAW-1

"The law provides for gender equality, but women continued to face societal discrimination" (31).
April 27, 2019, 9:12 p.m.
Countries: Switzerland
Variables: CONST-LAW-1

"The Committee notes as positive the decision taken by the Federal Court to analyse in detail the State party’s obligations arising from article 2 (a) of the Convention and from the Committee’s previous concluding observations. Nevertheless, the Committee regrets that the scope of the definitions of discrimination against women and equality of women and men, as applied by the Court, remains unchanged and that the 'Constitution does not confer any right to establish equality ‘in fact’ (de facto)'. It is further concerned that, although article 8 of the new Constitution provides for a broad definition of the principle of equality, it is inadequately applied" (4).
April 25, 2019, 8:30 a.m.
Countries: Zimbabwe
Variables: CONST-LAW-1

"The constitution provides for the same legal status and rights for women as for men. The constitution’s bill of rights, in the section on the rights of women, states that all 'laws, customs, traditions, and practices that infringe the rights of women conferred by this constitution are void to the extent of the infringement'" (35).
April 24, 2019, 8:54 a.m.
Countries: Serbia
Variables: CONST-LAW-1

"The constitution prohibits discrimination based on race, sex, religion, political opinion, national origin or citizenship, social origin, disability, sexual orientation, gender identity, age, language, or for being HIV positive or having other communicable diseases. The government did not enforce these prohibitions effectively" (page 21).
April 18, 2019, 5:29 p.m.
Countries: Suriname
Variables: CONST-LAW-1

"The constitution prohibits discrimination based on birth, sex, race, language, religious origin, education, political beliefs, economic position or any other status" (19).
April 12, 2019, 7:56 p.m.
Countries: China
Variables: CONST-LAW-1

[Hong Kong] "The law provides that all permanent residents are equal. The SAR’s antidiscrimination law further prohibits discrimination on the basis of race, family status, sex, or disability" (page 112). "[Hong Kong] Women enjoy the same legal status and rights as men" (page 114). "[Macau] The law stipulates that residents shall be free from discrimination based on race, gender, disability, language, social status, or communicable disease status, and many laws carry specific prohibitions against discrimination. The government effectively enforced the law" (page 133-134).
April 11, 2019, 11:47 p.m.
Countries: Cote D'Ivoire
Variables: CONST-LAW-1

"Act No. 2016-886 of 8 November 2016 establishes the Constitution of the Republic of Côte d’Ivoire, which recognizes the rights, freedoms and duties of every Ivorian woman and man, and clearly and expressly mentions the fight against gender-based discrimination in its articles 4 and 37" (4). "The new 2016 Constitution takes into consideration the need to eliminate all forms of discrimination against women. Article 4 enshrines the principle of the equality of all citizens and includes a list of grounds on which discrimination is prohibited" (7).
April 10, 2019, 8:03 p.m.
Countries: Israel
Variables: CONST-LAW-1

"Although it has no constitution, the parliament, the unicameral 120-member Knesset, has enacted a series of 'Basic Laws' that enumerate fundamental rights. Certain fundamental laws, orders, and regulations legally depend on the existence of a 'state of emergency,' which has been in effect since 1948" (1). "The law prohibits hate speech and content liable to incite to violence or discrimination on grounds of race, origin, religion, nationality, and gender" (19). "The law provides for the same legal status and rights for women as for men. In the criminal and civil courts, women and men enjoyed the same rights, but in some matters religious courts--responsible for adjudication of family law, including...more
April 9, 2019, 12:57 p.m.
Countries: Iran
Variables: CONST-LAW-1

"The constitution provides for equal protection for women under the law in conformity with its interpretation of Islam" (34). "The constitution bars discrimination based on race, gender, disability, language, and social status 'in conformity with Islamic criteria,' but the government did not effectively enforce these prohibitions. According to the constitution, 'everyone has the right to choose any occupation he wishes, if it is not contrary to Islam and the public interests, and does not infringe on the rights of others'" (46).
March 31, 2019, 3:59 p.m.
Countries: Russia
Variables: CONST-LAW-1

"The constitution and law provide that men and women enjoy the same legal status and rights, but women often encountered significant restrictions" (48).
March 29, 2019, 5:33 p.m.
Countries: Malawi
Variables: CONST-LAW-1

"The constitution and law prohibit arbitrary arrest and detention; however, the government did not always observe these prohibitions. The law provides for the right of any person to challenge the lawfulness of his/her arrest or detention in court but does not provide for compensation if found to have been unlawfully detained" (para 21). "The Gender Equality Act of 2013 prohibits certain harmful traditional practices, including 'widow cleansing' and 'widow inheritance'" (para 86). "By law women have the same legal status and rights as men and may not be discriminated against based on gender or marital status, including in the workplace" (para 92).