The most comprehensive compilation of information on the status of
women in the world.

Latest items for CONST-LAW-1

Feb. 14, 2019, 11:11 p.m.
Countries: Mauritius
Variables: CONST-LAW-1

"Men and women enjoy the same legal status and rights under the constitution and law" (para 58).
Feb. 14, 2019, 10:48 p.m.
Countries: Belarus
Variables: CONST-LAW-1

"The law prohibits discrimination based on race, gender, language, or social status. These laws do not apply specifically to employment or occupation" (47).
Feb. 12, 2019, 8:23 p.m.
Countries: Mexico
Variables: CONST-LAW-1

"At the same time, the Criminal Code of the State of Chihuahua includes the following provision: (…) Anyone who, on grounds of age, sex, civil status, pregnancy, race, ethnic origin, language, religion, ideology, sexual orientation, colour of skin, nationality, social origin or situation, work or profession, economic situation, physical characteristics, disability or state of health or any other pretext that offends human dignity and seeks to nullify or detract from individual rights and freedoms shall be punishable by six months’ to 3 years’ imprisonment or 25 to 100 days of community work and a fine of 50 to 200 days’ pay" (75-76).
Feb. 8, 2019, 4:42 p.m.
Countries: Mali
Variables: CONST-LAW-1

"The constitution and law prohibit discrimination based on race, sex, religion, political opinion, social origin, language, or color. Citizens were generally reluctant to file complaints or press charges of discrimination due to cultural factors. Absent complaints or lawsuits, the government did not aggressively pursue violations of these laws" (page 20).
Feb. 7, 2019, 3:47 p.m.
Countries: Lebanon
Variables: CONST-LAW-1

"The law provides for equality among all citizens and prohibits discrimination based on race, gender, disability, language, or social status. Although the government generally respected these provisions, they were not enforced, especially with regard to economic matters, and aspects of the law and traditional beliefs discriminated against women. The law does not protect against discrimination based on sexual orientation or gender identity" (Pg 27).
Feb. 6, 2019, 7:33 p.m.
Countries: Lesotho
Variables: IAW-LAW-1, IAD-LAW-1, CONST-LAW-1

"Except for inheritance rights, women enjoyed the same legal status and rights as men including rights concerning family, labor, property, and nationality. The law prohibits discrimination against women under formal and customary, or traditional law. Inheritance, succession, and property rights are an exception; civil law defers to customary law, which discriminates against women and girls as it pertains to inheritance. Customary law limits inheritance to male heirs only; it does not permit women or girls to inherit property. A woman married under civil law may contest inheritance rights in civil court" (Pg 18-19).
Feb. 6, 2019, 3:14 p.m.
Countries: Kyrgyzstan
Variables: CONST-LAW-1

"The constitution prohibits discrimination based on race, gender, disability, language, ethnic origin, creed, age, political or other beliefs, education, background, property, or other status. The government did not effectively enforce these prohibitions. Although women were active in government, education, civil society, the media, and small business, they encountered gender-based discrimination" (Pg 23).
Feb. 6, 2019, 2:48 p.m.
Countries: Liberia
Variables: LO-PRACTICE-1, LO-LAW-1, CONST-LAW-1

"Women and men enjoy the same legal status. By law women can inherit land and property, are entitled to receive equal pay for equal work, have the right of equal access to education, and can own and manage businesses. Women experienced discrimination, however, in such areas as employment (see section 7.d.), credit, pay, education, and housing. In rural areas traditional practice or traditional leaders often did not recognize a woman’s right to inherit land. Programs to educate traditional leaders about women’s rights made some progress, but authorities often did not enforce those rights" (Pg 17).
Feb. 4, 2019, 11:55 a.m.
Countries: Moldova
Variables: CONST-LAW-1

"The law prohibits discrimination based on race, gender, disability, ethnicity, national origin, citizenship, language, religion, belief, age, opinion, political affiliation, or social status, but the government did not always enforce these prohibitions effectively. The law prohibits discrimination on 11 characteristics, including gender, race, and disability, as well as employment discrimination on the basis of sexual orientation" (Pg 28).
Feb. 1, 2019, 4:30 p.m.
Countries: Paraguay
Variables: CONST-LAW-1

"The constitution prohibits discrimination based on race, sex, disability, language, or social status, but the government did not effectively enforce these provisions. There is no comprehensive law against discrimination, which undermined enforcement of the constitutional clause against discrimination and the protection and restitution for victims of discrimination and societal abuses. Women, LGBTI persons, indigenous persons, and persons of African descent faced discrimination" (page 20). "The labor code specifically prohibits discrimination based on race, color, sex, religion, political opinion, and social origin" (page 34).
Jan. 29, 2019, 2:53 p.m.
Countries: Kuwait
Variables: CONST-LAW-1

"The Committee reiterates its concern about the absence of a definition of direct and indirect discrimination against women, in accordance with article 1 of the Convention, in the State party’s legislation" (pg. 3). "The Committee notes with concern that sex and gender are not included among the prohibited grounds for discrimination under article 29 of the Constitution" (pg. 3).
Jan. 28, 2019, 7:32 p.m.
Countries: Honduras
Variables: CONST-LAW-1

"The Committee welcomes the fact that the principles of equality and non-discrimination are enshrined in the Constitution and that the Honduran legal order ensures the primacy of international treaties, including the Convention, in national law. Nevertheless, it is concerned that the State party’s legislation contravenes article 1 of the Convention by restricting its scope to direct discrimination. The Committee recommends that the State party adopt a comprehensive definition of discrimination against women in national legislation, in line with article 1 of the Convention, to ensure that women are protected against direct and indirect discrimination by State and non-State actors. It also recommends that the State party ensure that the prohibition...more
Jan. 25, 2019, 9:57 p.m.
Countries: Israel
Variables: CONST-LAW-1

"While noting that the Supreme Court has applied a progressive approach to the principle of equality, derived from the Basic Law: Human Dignity and Liberty, the Committee expresses its regret that the State party’s legislation still contains no comprehensive definition of discrimination against women that covers direct and indirect discrimination. It expresses its concern about the systemic discrimination experienced by national minorities, specifically women and girls belonging to the Arab and Bedouin communities" (pg. 3).
Jan. 5, 2019, 10:25 a.m.
Countries: Laos
Variables: CONST-LAW-1

"The National Assembly has adopted the Law on Preventing and Combating Violence Against Women and Children2 which is in line with the definition of non-discrimination against women prescribed in CEDAW and other international human rights instruments. Article 4 paragraph 14 of this Law defines that 'discrimination against women means any distinction, exclusion or restriction that is based on a women’s race, colour, sex, ethnicity, religion, language, education, knowledge and capacity, intelligence, socio-economic status, health status, physical appearance, disability, and other aspects that make women’s rights unrealized.' The Penal Law also defines in Article 177 that 'any person who discriminates against any woman, or who keeps separate from or prevents, or...more
Jan. 2, 2019, 2:04 p.m.
Countries: Tunisia
Variables: CONST-LAW-1

"The law and constitution explicitly prohibit discrimination based on race, gender, disability, language, or social status, and the government generally enforced these prohibitions, although discrimination against women occurred due to customary law and social norms" (page 16).
Dec. 21, 2018, 4:39 p.m.
Countries: Tunisia
Variables: CONST-LAW-1

"On June 27, parliament unanimously passed a comprehensive law addressing all forms of gender-based violence, including physical, economic, and social violence. It broadly defines violence against women as 'any restriction denying women equality in the civil, political, economic, social, or cultural domains.' The law, which enjoyed widespread support from both political parties and civil society organizations, adds or updates articles in the Penal Code to meet international best practices. The law criminalizes previously uncovered acts of incest, sexual harassment of women in public places, and gender discrimination . . . The constitution and law explicitly prohibit discrimination based on race, gender, disability, language, or social status, and the government generally...more
Dec. 6, 2018, 12:25 p.m.
Countries: Trinidad/Tobago
Variables: CONST-LAW-1

"The Committee notes that several laws, such as the Equal Opportunity Act (2000), provide for equality of women and men before the law and prohibit sex - based discrimination, but notes with concern: (a) The absence of legislation that provides for a comprehensive definition of discrimination against women, encompassing both direct and indirect discrimination in both the public and private spheres in line with article 1 of the Convention; (b) Discriminatory provisions in the Widows’ and Orphans’ Pensions Act (1934), the National Insurance Act (1971) and the Industrial Relations Act (1972) and the fact that the State party has not provided a time frame for amending or repealing those laws;...more
Nov. 30, 2018, 1:43 p.m.
Countries: Bangladesh
Variables: CONST-LAW-1

"The constitution declares all citizens equal before the law with entitlement to equal protection of the law. It also explicitly recognizes the equal rights of women to those of men 'in all spheres of the state and of public life.' Nevertheless, women do not enjoy the same legal status and rights as men in family, property, and inheritance law" (26).
Nov. 28, 2018, 12:59 p.m.
Countries: Mexico
Variables: CONST-LAW-1

"The law provides for freedom of speech and press, and the government generally respected these rights" (para. 12).
Nov. 28, 2018, 12:58 p.m.
Countries: Mexico
Variables: CONST-LAW-1

"The law provides for freedom of speech and press, and the government generally respected these rights" (para. 12).
Nov. 26, 2018, 4:14 p.m.
Countries: Turkey
Variables: CONST-LAW-1

"The law provides for punishment of up to three years in prison for “hate speech” or injurious acts related to language, race, nationality, color, gender, disability, political opinion, philosophical belief, religion, or sectarian differences. Human rights groups criticized the law for not including protections based on gender identity and noted that the law was sometimes used more to restrict freedom of speech than to protect minorities" (page 25). "The law prohibits discrimination based on race, gender, disability, language, or social status, but the government did not enforce these prohibitions effectively. Government officials used discriminatory language toward opposition groups such as protesters, women, Kurds, Alevis, LGBTI individuals, and other vulnerable populations....more
Nov. 16, 2018, 12:39 p.m.
Countries: Bhutan
Variables: CONST-LAW-1

"The constitution states that a person “shall not be subjected to arbitrary or unlawful interference with his or her privacy, family, home, or correspondence, or to unlawful attacks on the person’s honor and reputation.” The government generally respected these prohibitions" (5).
Nov. 16, 2018, 9:46 a.m.
Countries: Burma/Myanmar
Variables: CONST-LAW-1

"First and foremost, the Constitution itself establishes structural barriers to equality, and discriminates outright against women through failing to provide a CEDAW-compliant definition of discrimination and limiting job opportunities for women. It also discriminates against women indirectly by establishing the Parliamentary quotas for the military. Most of the laws that relate specifically to women are outdated, such as the Penal Code of 1861, and many laws, regulations, and policies (including customary law) are disadvantageous and discriminatory towards women. Laws passed since 2011 often did not take women’s concerns into account and some, such as the Laws on Race & Religion, are discriminatory outright. Women also do not enjoy protection from...more
Nov. 15, 2018, 12:07 p.m.
Countries: Mexico
Variables: DSFMF-PRACTICE-2, CONST-LAW-1

"However, it is concerned that the different levels of authority and competences within the State party’s federal structure result in a differentiated application of the law depending on whether or not appropriate harmonization of the relevant legislation has been conducted at the state level, such as with respect to the principle of non-discrimination and equality between men and women. The Committee notes with concern that this situation results in discriminatory provisions against women or to different definitions and sanctions related to, inter alia, rape, abortion, forced disappearances, trafficking, injuries and homicide for reasons of so-called honour, as well as on adultery across the 32 states of the State party" (3).more
Nov. 12, 2018, 8:37 p.m.
Countries: Kosovo
Variables: CONST-LAW-1

"The law specifically prohibits discrimination based on sex, gender, age, marital status, language, mental or physical disability, sexual orientation, political affiliation or conviction, ethnic origin, nationality, religion or belief, race, social origin, property, birth, or any other characteristic" (para 106). "The law provides the same legal status and rights for women as for men, including under family, labor, property, nationality, and inheritance laws" (para 120)
Nov. 3, 2018, 10:36 a.m.
Countries: Israel
Variables: CONST-LAW-1

"The law prohibits discrimination on the basis of race, sex, gender, disability, language, sexual orientation and gender identity, or social status, and the government was generally effective in enforcing these prohibitions" (para 136)
Nov. 2, 2018, 9:21 a.m.
Countries: Kazakhstan
Variables: CONST-LAW-1

"While the law prohibits discrimination based on race, gender, disability, language, or social status, the government did not effectively enforce the law. There were reports of violence against women, trafficking in persons, and discrimination against persons with disabilities and LGBTI persons" (page 27). " The constitution and law provide for equal rights and freedoms for men and women. The law prohibits discrimination based on gender" (page 29). "According to the constitution, no one shall be subject to any discrimination for reasons of origin; occupational, social, or property status; sex; race; nationality; language; religion or belief; place of residence; or any other circumstances" (page 33).
Oct. 26, 2018, 8:42 a.m.
Countries: Senegal
Variables: CONST-LAW-1

"The constitution and laws provide that men and women are equal under the law and prohibit discrimination based on race, religion, citizenship, political opinion, gender, disability, language, HIV-positive status, or social status. Discrimination was widespread, and antidiscrimination laws, in particular laws against violence against women and children, generally were not enforced" (page 13). "The law provides for the same legal status and rights for women as for men, including under family, labor, property, nationality, and inheritance laws. Nevertheless, women faced pervasive discrimination, especially in rural areas where traditional customs, including polygyny and discriminatory rules of inheritance, were strongest" (page 16).
Oct. 22, 2018, 9:31 p.m.
Countries: Iran
Variables: CONST-LAW-1

"The constitution prohibits discrimination based on race, gender, disability, language, and social status “in conformity with Islamic criteria,” but the government did not effectively enforce these prohibitions, and many discriminatory provisions are built into the law" (para 146). "The constitution provides for equal protection for women under the law and for all human, political, economic, social, and cultural rights in conformity with its interpretation of Islam" (para 154)
Oct. 19, 2018, 7:59 p.m.
Countries: Indonesia
Variables: CONST-LAW-1

"The constitution does not explicitly prohibit discrimination based on race, sex, religion, political opinion, national origin or citizenship, social origin, disability, sexual orientation and/or gender identity, language, or HIV positive status or other communicable diseases. It provides for equal rights for all citizens, both native and naturalized" (para 143)