The most comprehensive compilation of information on the status of
women in the world.

Latest items for CONST-LAW-1

Sept. 28, 2020, 3:33 p.m.
Countries: Zimbabwe
Variables: CONST-LAW-1

"During 2019, Zimbabwe's Parliament debated a marriage bill, first introduced in January 2017, which is seen as a long-awaited chance for parliament to reconcile the country's marriage laws with its constitution. The proposed marriage law, which parliament has yet to finalize at time of writing, seeks to outlaw child marriage" (para 9). "Current laws on marriage and divorce do not conform to the country's constitution, which provides that spouses have equal rights and responsibilities" (para 10). "Three years after Zimbabwe's Constitutional Court declared child marriage unconstitutional and set 18 as the minimum marriage age, the government has not put structures in place to implement the court's decision and ensure that...more
Sept. 27, 2020, 5:14 p.m.
Countries: Armenia
Variables: CONST-LAW-1

"The government-proposed bill on equality, intended as comprehensive anti-discrimination legislation, does not include sexual orientation and gender identity as grounds for protection from discrimination. In a September report, the Organization for Security and Co-operation recommended the government include sexual orientation and gender identity as additional protected categories. It also recommended that the government ensure that groups that have legitimate interests could bring cases on behalf of an alleged discrimination victim" (para 18).
Sept. 2, 2020, 10:50 a.m.
Countries: Thailand
Variables: CONST-LAW-1

"Section 27 of the Constitution of the Kingdom of Thailand: All persons are equal before the law, and shall have rights and liberties and be protected equally under the law. Men and women shall enjoy equal rights" (para 7).
Aug. 30, 2020, 9:08 p.m.
Countries: Armenia
Variables: CONST-LAW-1

"Armenian Constitution enshrines the right to gender equality, and outlaws all forms of discrimination on the basis of gender" (para 3).
Aug. 13, 2020, 6:16 p.m.
Countries: Japan
Variables: CONST-LAW-1

"Japan has no law prohibiting racial, ethnic, or religious discrimination, or discrimination based on sexual orientation or gender identity" (para. 3).
Aug. 10, 2020, 4:03 p.m.
Countries: Venezuela
Variables: CONST-LAW-1

"'There was a major advance with the constitution, with getting all these new rights and state obligations,' said Rachel Elfenbein, the author of an upcoming book on social programs created under Chavez for women. 'But when it came to implementation, if and where it happened, it was patchy'" (para 14).
Aug. 9, 2020, 8:25 p.m.
Countries: Iceland
Variables: CONST-LAW-1

"The Act on Equal Status and Equal Rights of Women and Men is the reason gender equality is a hallmark of Icelandic culture. The law, established in 2000, was revamped in 2008 with the overarching goal of reaching equal rights throughout all paradigms of society. This law includes information on gender equality for government and businesses to follow. Within the law there are nine defined areas of gender discrimination. It identifies differences between indirect and direct gender discrimination, acknowledges gaps in wages, and recognizes that gender-based violence is detrimental to society. The law draws out a roadmap to achieving gender equality, even including language on changing negative gender stereotypes. Withini...more
Aug. 2, 2020, 6:20 p.m.
Countries: United Arab Emirates
Variables: CONST-LAW-1

"Discrimination on the basis of sex and gender is not included in the definition of discrimination in the UAE's 2015 anti-discrimination law" (para 16).
July 14, 2020, 4:36 p.m.
Countries: China
Variables: CONST-LAW-1

"The early communists enshrined 'the equality of women and men' in the Constitution of the People’s Republic and the new government introduced ambitious initiatives to put women to work in building the new communist nation" (para 10).
July 12, 2020, 1:11 p.m.
Countries: Bosnia-Herzegovina
Variables: CONST-LAW-1

"Theoretically, there are gender equality mechanisms in place to address these issues. According to the Constitution of Bosnia and Herzegovina, Article 2 prohibits discrimination on any grounds, including gender" (para. 15).
June 23, 2020, 6 p.m.
Countries: Tajikistan
Variables: CONST-LAW-1

"Tajikistan’s legislation completely prohibits all forms of discrimination, including discrimination against women. Article 17 of the Constitution stipulates that the State guarantees the rights and freedoms of every person, regardless of ethnicity, race, gender, language, faith, political beliefs, education, or social or property status. An act on State guarantees of equal rights for men and women and equal opportunities in the exercise of such rights is in effect in Tajikistan. This act regulates action to uphold the constitutional guarantees of equal rights of men and women in the social, political, cultural and any other sphere, and aims to prevent discrimination on grounds of gender and establish State guarantees of equal...more
May 31, 2020, 4:27 p.m.
Countries: North Korea
Variables: CONST-LAW-1

"Since the promulgation on July 30, 1946, the following year after its liberation from the Japanese colonial rule in August 1945, of the Decree on Gender Equality, equality of women with men has been guaranteed both by law and in practice. The Socialist Constitution provides that citizens shall enjoy equal rights in all spheres of State and public activities (art. 65), all citizens who have reached the age of 17 shall have the right to vote and to be elected irrespective of sex, race, occupation, length of residence, property status, education, party affiliation, political views and religion (art. 66) and women shall be accorded equal social status and rights with...more
May 21, 2020, 8:43 p.m.
Countries: Guatemala
Variables: CONST-LAW-1

"Under the Constitution of Guatemala, all human beings are equal in dignity and rights; men and women, regardless of their civil status, have equal opportunities and responsibilities, and no one may be subjected to servitude or any condition that undermines his or her dignity. The international legal framework ratified by Guatemala as well its domestic law recognize women’s human rights" (40)
April 30, 2020, 12:47 p.m.
Countries: Tunisia
Variables: CONST-LAW-1

"As a result of these fears women activists have been closely monitoring the drafting of the new Tunisian constitution which is due to be finalised within the next couple of months. Last August they fiercely opposed one draft which suggested that women were ‘complementary’ to men; the wording was later changed to ‘equal’" (para 7).
April 4, 2020, 8:45 a.m.
Countries: Rwanda
Variables: CONST-LAW-1

"The Committee notes with appreciation that the principle of equality between women and men and the prohibition of discrimination on the basis of sex are enshrined in the Constitution. It also welcomes the adoption of anti-discrimination legislation in different areas" (3).
April 1, 2020, 6:28 p.m.
Countries: Pakistan
Variables: CONST-LAW-1

"The law prohibits discrimination based on sex in general, but authorities did not enforce it" (41).
Feb. 15, 2020, 9:16 p.m.
Countries: Italy
Variables: CONST-LAW-1

"In addition to Article 3 of the Italian Constitution, Art. 1 of the Code on Equal Opportunities Between Women and Men (Legislative Decree 198/2006) sets forth: “Relevant provisions envisage measures, aimed at eliminating whatsoever distinction, exclusion or limitation based on sex, which might affect or hinder the enjoyment and exercise of human rights and fundamental freedoms (...)” in all spheres of life. Thus, there is no legal discrimination with regard to civil, political, social, economic or cultural rights between women and men." (para 11).
Feb. 5, 2020, 8:01 a.m.
Countries: Congo
Variables: CONST-LAW-1

"The Constitution of 6 November 2015 recognizes the equality of men and women by incorporating a specific provision on gender parity (arts. 15 and 17)" (22). "Several laws contain provisions prohibiting discrimination against women, including sanctions against the perpetrators of such discrimination. These include Act No. 5-2011 of 25 February 2011 on the promotion and protection of indigenous peoples; It provides that “the trafficking and sexual exploitation of indigenous children and women will be punished in accordance with the provisions of articles 334 and 335 bis of the Penal Code” (art. 9) and Act No. 4 -2010 of 4 June 2010 on child protection in the Republic of the Congo....more
Jan. 30, 2020, 8:32 p.m.
Countries: Kenya
Variables: CONST-LAW-1

"Qualifications to the prohibition on discrimination on the basis of sex: The prohibition on discrimination is subject to a range of exemptions. In Kenya, laws are not discriminatory under the Constitution if they relate to the status of non-citizens, concern matters of personal law and customary law, are on the issues of adoption, burial, divorce, marriage and succession. Consequentially sections 82 (4 (b &c)) of the Constitution allow discrimination against women on matters of personal law” (5). “The Constitution of Kenya permits discrimination in matters of personal law, divorce, inheritance and adoption. Whilst the Government recognizes the impact of these constitutional provisos in sections 82(4(b & c)), these have proven...more
Jan. 30, 2020, 1:05 p.m.
Countries: Yemen
Variables: CONST-LAW-1

"Women faced deeply entrenched discrimination in both law and practice in all aspects of their lives. Mechanisms to enforce equal protection were weak, and the government could not implement them effectively" (30).
Jan. 2, 2020, 3:45 p.m.
Countries: Nigeria
Variables: CONST-LAW-1

"In 2016, Nigeria’s male-dominated senate voted against a Gender and Equal Opportunities Bill. The bill in part prohibits trafficking, sexual abuse and exploitation of women and children. The bill, which also prohibits forced marriage, set 18 as the minimum legal age for marriage... Some of the lawmakers who voted against the bill cited such grounds as their religion which permitted underaged marriage" (para 24-25).
Nov. 14, 2019, 1:30 p.m.
Countries: Poland
Variables: CONST-LAW-1

"The constitution provides for the same legal status and rights for men and women and prohibits discrimination against women, although few laws exist to implement the provision… The plenipotentiary for civil society and equal treatment has a mandate to counter discrimination and promote equal opportunity for all" (18-19).
Nov. 1, 2019, 9:48 p.m.
Countries: Tanzania
Variables: CONST-LAW-1

"Article 13 of the Tanzanian Consitution states that 'all persons are equal before the law and are entitled, without any discrimination, to protection and equality before the law'" (para 2).
Oct. 22, 2019, 1:55 p.m.
Countries: Equatorial Guinea
Variables: CONST-LAW-1

"Conditions in the country’s three prisons and 12 police station jails were harsh and life threatening due to abuse, overcrowding, disease, inadequate food, poorly trained staff, and lack of medical care… In 2016 there were approximately 475 adult male i
Aug. 9, 2019, 1 p.m.
Countries: D R Congo
Variables: CONST-LAW-1

"The constitution prohibits discrimination based on gender, but the law does not provide women the same rights as men" (page 41).
Aug. 6, 2019, 8:14 a.m.
Countries: Comoros
Variables: CONST-LAW-1

"The law provides for equality of persons without regard to gender, creed, belief, origin, race, or religion" (page 9).
July 20, 2019, 8:20 a.m.
Countries: Syria
Variables: CONST-LAW-1

"Although the constitution provides for equality between men and women and the 'right of every citizen to earn his wage according to the nature and yield of the work,' the law does not explicitly stipulate equal pay for equal work. Moreover, a number of sections of family and criminal law do not treat men and women equally" (Pg 46).
July 19, 2019, 4:56 p.m.
Countries: Niger
Variables: CONST-LAW-1

"Constitution of 25 November 2010, enshrining, inter alia, equality before the law without distinction on grounds of sex (art. 8) and further pledging to eliminate all forms of discrimination against women, girls and persons with disabilities (art. 22)" (1). "The Committee welcomes the constitutional prohibition of discrimination based on sex (art. 8), the State party’s pledge to eliminate all forms of discrimination against women (art. 22) and the guarantee that ratified international treaties take precedence over national legislation (art. 171)" (4).
July 19, 2019, 12:46 p.m.
Countries: Turkey
Variables: CONST-LAW-1

"The law does not include specific protections based on sexual orientation or gender identity. The law allows for up to three years in prison for hate speech or injurious acts related to language, race, nationality, color, gender, disability, political opinion, philosophical belief, religion, or sectarian differences. Human rights groups criticized the law’s failure to include protections based on gender identity and noted the law was sometimes used to restrict freedom of speech rather than to protect minorities. LGBTI definitions were not included in the law, but authorities reported that protections for LGBTI individuals are provided under a general “gender” concept in the constitution" (page 57).
July 19, 2019, 12:22 p.m.
Countries: Nepal
Variables: CONST-LAW-1

"The Gender Equality Act adopted in 2006--along with more than 60 other laws-- contain discriminatory provisions. For example, the law on property rights favors men in land tenancy and the division of family property. The law encourages bigamy by allowing men to remarry without divorcing if the first wife is incapacitated or infertile. The constitution, however, confers rights for women that had not previously received legal protection, including rights equal to those of their spouses in property and family affairs, and special opportunities in education, health, and social security" (Pg 28). "The constitution prohibits discrimination on the basis of religion, race, sex, caste, tribe, geographical or social origin, language, marital...more