The most comprehensive compilation of information on the status of
women in the world.

Latest items for CONST-LAW-1

April 4, 2020, 8:45 a.m.
Countries: Rwanda
Variables: CONST-LAW-1

"The Committee notes with appreciation that the principle of equality between women and men and the prohibition of discrimination on the basis of sex are enshrined in the Constitution. It also welcomes the adoption of anti-discrimination legislation in different areas" (3).
April 1, 2020, 6:28 p.m.
Countries: Pakistan
Variables: CONST-LAW-1

"The law prohibits discrimination based on sex in general, but authorities did not enforce it" (41).
Feb. 15, 2020, 9:16 p.m.
Countries: Italy
Variables: CONST-LAW-1

"In addition to Article 3 of the Italian Constitution, Art. 1 of the Code on Equal Opportunities Between Women and Men (Legislative Decree 198/2006) sets forth: “Relevant provisions envisage measures, aimed at eliminating whatsoever distinction, exclusion or limitation based on sex, which might affect or hinder the enjoyment and exercise of human rights and fundamental freedoms (...)” in all spheres of life. Thus, there is no legal discrimination with regard to civil, political, social, economic or cultural rights between women and men." (para 11).
Feb. 5, 2020, 8:01 a.m.
Countries: Congo
Variables: CONST-LAW-1

"The Constitution of 6 November 2015 recognizes the equality of men and women by incorporating a specific provision on gender parity (arts. 15 and 17)" (22). "Several laws contain provisions prohibiting discrimination against women, including sanctions against the perpetrators of such discrimination. These include Act No. 5-2011 of 25 February 2011 on the promotion and protection of indigenous peoples; It provides that “the trafficking and sexual exploitation of indigenous children and women will be punished in accordance with the provisions of articles 334 and 335 bis of the Penal Code” (art. 9) and Act No. 4 -2010 of 4 June 2010 on child protection in the Republic of the Congo....more
Jan. 30, 2020, 8:32 p.m.
Countries: Kenya
Variables: CONST-LAW-1

"Qualifications to the prohibition on discrimination on the basis of sex: The prohibition on discrimination is subject to a range of exemptions. In Kenya, laws are not discriminatory under the Constitution if they relate to the status of non-citizens, concern matters of personal law and customary law, are on the issues of adoption, burial, divorce, marriage and succession. Consequentially sections 82 (4 (b &c)) of the Constitution allow discrimination against women on matters of personal law” (5). “The Constitution of Kenya permits discrimination in matters of personal law, divorce, inheritance and adoption. Whilst the Government recognizes the impact of these constitutional provisos in sections 82(4(b & c)), these have proven...more
Jan. 30, 2020, 1:05 p.m.
Countries: Yemen
Variables: CONST-LAW-1

"Women faced deeply entrenched discrimination in both law and practice in all aspects of their lives. Mechanisms to enforce equal protection were weak, and the government could not implement them effectively" (30).
Jan. 2, 2020, 3:45 p.m.
Countries: Nigeria
Variables: CONST-LAW-1

"In 2016, Nigeria’s male-dominated senate voted against a Gender and Equal Opportunities Bill. The bill in part prohibits trafficking, sexual abuse and exploitation of women and children. The bill, which also prohibits forced marriage, set 18 as the minimum legal age for marriage... Some of the lawmakers who voted against the bill cited such grounds as their religion which permitted underaged marriage" (para 24-25).
Nov. 14, 2019, 1:30 p.m.
Countries: Poland
Variables: CONST-LAW-1

"The constitution provides for the same legal status and rights for men and women and prohibits discrimination against women, although few laws exist to implement the provision… The plenipotentiary for civil society and equal treatment has a mandate to counter discrimination and promote equal opportunity for all" (18-19).
Nov. 1, 2019, 9:48 p.m.
Countries: Tanzania
Variables: CONST-LAW-1

"Article 13 of the Tanzanian Consitution states that 'all persons are equal before the law and are entitled, without any discrimination, to protection and equality before the law'" (para 2).
Oct. 22, 2019, 1:55 p.m.
Countries: Equatorial Guinea
Variables: CONST-LAW-1

"Conditions in the country’s three prisons and 12 police station jails were harsh and life threatening due to abuse, overcrowding, disease, inadequate food, poorly trained staff, and lack of medical care… In 2016 there were approximately 475 adult male i
Aug. 9, 2019, 1 p.m.
Countries: D R Congo
Variables: CONST-LAW-1

"The constitution prohibits discrimination based on gender, but the law does not provide women the same rights as men" (page 41).
Aug. 6, 2019, 8:14 a.m.
Countries: Comoros
Variables: CONST-LAW-1

"The law provides for equality of persons without regard to gender, creed, belief, origin, race, or religion" (page 9).
July 20, 2019, 8:20 a.m.
Countries: Syria
Variables: CONST-LAW-1

"Although the constitution provides for equality between men and women and the 'right of every citizen to earn his wage according to the nature and yield of the work,' the law does not explicitly stipulate equal pay for equal work. Moreover, a number of sections of family and criminal law do not treat men and women equally" (Pg 46).
July 19, 2019, 4:56 p.m.
Countries: Niger
Variables: CONST-LAW-1

"Constitution of 25 November 2010, enshrining, inter alia, equality before the law without distinction on grounds of sex (art. 8) and further pledging to eliminate all forms of discrimination against women, girls and persons with disabilities (art. 22)" (1). "The Committee welcomes the constitutional prohibition of discrimination based on sex (art. 8), the State party’s pledge to eliminate all forms of discrimination against women (art. 22) and the guarantee that ratified international treaties take precedence over national legislation (art. 171)" (4).
July 19, 2019, 12:46 p.m.
Countries: Turkey
Variables: CONST-LAW-1

"The law does not include specific protections based on sexual orientation or gender identity. The law allows for up to three years in prison for hate speech or injurious acts related to language, race, nationality, color, gender, disability, political opinion, philosophical belief, religion, or sectarian differences. Human rights groups criticized the law’s failure to include protections based on gender identity and noted the law was sometimes used to restrict freedom of speech rather than to protect minorities. LGBTI definitions were not included in the law, but authorities reported that protections for LGBTI individuals are provided under a general “gender” concept in the constitution" (page 57).
July 19, 2019, 12:22 p.m.
Countries: Nepal
Variables: CONST-LAW-1

"The Gender Equality Act adopted in 2006--along with more than 60 other laws-- contain discriminatory provisions. For example, the law on property rights favors men in land tenancy and the division of family property. The law encourages bigamy by allowing men to remarry without divorcing if the first wife is incapacitated or infertile. The constitution, however, confers rights for women that had not previously received legal protection, including rights equal to those of their spouses in property and family affairs, and special opportunities in education, health, and social security" (Pg 28). "The constitution prohibits discrimination on the basis of religion, race, sex, caste, tribe, geographical or social origin, language, marital...more
July 18, 2019, 8:56 p.m.
Countries: Bangladesh
Variables: CONST-LAW-1

"The Constitution of Bangladesh stipulates equality before law of its citizens and bans all discriminations based on gender, caste and creed (Article 28).The article recognizes equality of all citizens before law, and as per the article 39 all citizens have the freedom of thought, conscience and speech" (9). "The Constitution of Bangladesh certainly is an elaborate document and it explicitly prohibits any discrimination based on gender (article 28). However, the next logical step - to enact legislation to concretize this solemn promise - remains far from being a reality" (13). "As elaborated above, the Constitution of Bangladesh solemnly enshrines the principles of equality between women and men as regards their...more
July 18, 2019, 3:05 p.m.
Countries: Hungary

"The law provides for the same legal status and rights for women as for men. A Eurostat study from March (based on data from 2014) showed that male executives earned 33.7 percent more than female executives in the same level of job. Women held 41 percent of senior executive positions. In higher education the ratio of women among students was 6.3 percent higher than that of men. According to The Economist, the percentage of women on boards of directors was 11 percent" (Pg 29).
July 18, 2019, 12:24 p.m.
Countries: Central African Rep

"The formal law does not discriminate against women in inheritance and property rights, but a number of discriminatory customary laws often prevailed. Women’s statutory inheritance rights often were not respected, particularly in rural areas. Women experienced economic and social discrimination. Customary law does not consider single, divorced, or widowed women, including those with children, to be heads of households. By law men and women are entitled to family subsidies from the government, but several women’s groups complained about lack of access to these payments for women" (Pg 18).
July 17, 2019, 2:14 p.m.
Countries: Cameroon

"The constitution provides for the same legal status and rights for women and men; however, in law women did not enjoy the same rights and privileges as men. Although local government officials including mayors claimed women had access to land in their constituencies, the overall sociocultural practice of denying women the right to own land, especially through inheritance, was prevalent in most regions" (Pg 27).
July 15, 2019, 3:24 p.m.
Countries: Thailand
Variables: CONST-LAW-1

"The interim constitution purported to protect 'all human dignity, rights, liberties, and equality of the people.' The 2017 constitution provides that 'men and women shall enjoy equal rights and liberties. Unjust discrimination against a person on the grounds of differences in origin, race, language, sex, age, disability, physical or health condition, personal status, economic or social standing, religious belief, education or political view, shall not be permitted' . . . The law imposes a maximum jail term of six months or a maximum fine of 20,000 baht ($612) or both, for anyone committing gender discrimination. The law mandates nondiscrimination based on gender and sexual identity in policy, rule, regulation, notification,...more
July 12, 2019, 8:51 a.m.
Countries: Cambodia
Variables: CONST-LAW-1

"The 1993 Constitution of Cambodia states that, (…) 'men and women have equal rights before the law and enjoy equal participation in political, economic, social, and cultural life; equality in marriage and the family, employment and equal pay for equal work' and 'explicitly prohibits all forms of discrimination against women' (Articles 35 and 45)" (6). "Article 31 of the Constitution recognizes CEDAW and the Convention’s definition of discrimination against women. Article 45 of the Constitution states that all forms of discrimination shall be abolished, and national laws reflect this principle. National law ensures equality between men and women and human rights" (35). "The Constitution guarantees women’s equal legal rights and...more
July 9, 2019, 4:36 p.m.
Countries: Serbia
Variables: CONST-LAW-1

"The law provides for the same legal status and rights for women as for men, but the government did not always respect these laws" (page 24).
July 9, 2019, 2:45 p.m.
Countries: Zambia
Variables: CONST-LAW-1

"The constitution and law prohibit discrimination based on race, sex, religion, political opinion, place of origin, ethnic group (tribe), gender, marital status, color, disability, language, and social status. The government did not effectively enforce the law. Violence and discrimination against women and children, discrimination based on sexual orientation or gender identity, and discrimination against persons with disabilities continued" (Pg 19).
July 9, 2019, 10:16 a.m.
Countries: Romania
Variables: CONST-LAW-1

"The Committee notes the information received on the development of a strategy for preventing and countering discrimination, the revision of the definition of multiple discrimination in the legislation of the State party and the inclusion of gender equality among the principles of the strategy for the inclusion of Romanian citizens belonging to the Roma minority, covering the period 2012-2020" (13).
July 8, 2019, 9:19 p.m.
Countries: Uganda
Variables: CONST-LAW-1

"The Constitution of the Republic of Uganda accords women 'full and equal dignity of the person with men' and prohibits 'laws, cultures, customs or traditions' that undermine their welfare, dignity, or status (Republic of Uganda 1995, Article 33)" (314).
July 8, 2019, 2:42 p.m.
Countries: Uzbekistan
Variables: CONST-LAW-1

"The law and constitution prohibit discrimination on the basis of race, gender, disability, language, and social status. Nonetheless, societal discrimination against women and persons with disabilities existed, and child abuse persisted" (Pg 28). "Legal status and rights under family, labor, property, nationality, and inheritance laws are the same for men and women. The law prohibits discrimination based on gender, and the National Women’s Committee promoted the legal rights of women. Women historically have held leadership positions across all sectors of society, although they were not as prevalent as men, and cultural and religious practices limited their effectiveness. The government provided little data that could be used to determine whether women...more
July 8, 2019, 1:19 p.m.
Countries: Uganda
Variables: CONST-LAW-1

"The law prohibits discrimination based on race, sex, religion, political opinion, national origin or citizenship, social origin, disability, age, language, and HIV/communicable disease status. The government did not enforce laws against discrimination adequately, and locally or culturally prevalent discrimination against women, children, persons with disabilities, or certain ethnic groups were problems. The law does not address discrimination based on sexual orientation or gender identity, and the penal code prohibits “unnatural offenses” that authorities often used to arrest members of the LGBTI community" (Pg 25-26).
July 8, 2019, 12:38 p.m.
Countries: Burundi
Variables: CONST-LAW-1

"The Committee appreciates that articles 13 and 22 of the Constitution of 2005 enshrine the principles of equality and non-discrimination" (4).
July 6, 2019, 1:13 p.m.
Countries: Togo
Variables: CONST-LAW-1

"The constitution and law prohibit discrimination based on race, gender, disability, language, or social status, although the government did not enforce these provisions effectively. The constitution and law do not prohibit discrimination based on sexual orientation or gender identity" (Pg 10).