The most comprehensive compilation of information on the status of
women in the world.

Latest items for CONST-LAW-1

Jan. 8, 2021, 4:43 p.m.
Countries: Nigeria
Variables: CONST-LAW-1

“’The said discriminatory customary law [disinheritance to daughters] is void as it conflicts with Section 42(1) and (2) of the Constitution. In the light of all that I have been saying, the appeal is dismissed. In the spirit of reconciliation, parties to bear their own costs,” Justice Rhodes-Vivour said” (para. 9). =
Jan. 7, 2021, 9:23 p.m.
Countries: Nigeria
Variables: CONST-LAW-1

“‘Discrimination of women is a violation of the rights of a girl child as guaranteed in chapter four of the 1999 constitution, as amended. In Nigeria, when such discrimination against women happen, NGO’s, or the child or government can take up the case in a family court in the states where family court is established, like in Lagos, Cross river state. The family court helps protect the rights of a child and girl child but unfortunately the family court is not established in all states of the federation’, he said” (para. 38). “Explaining about the limitation of these laws, Ibor, noted that; “The non-adaptation of these laws by all states...more
Dec. 24, 2020, 9:57 a.m.
Countries: Syria
Variables: CONST-LAW-1

"The Islamic State group has "'imposed incredibly restrictive rules on the civilian population which have served to make women and girls particularly vulnerable and to quite clearly discriminate against them,' she said, adding that the reports of the stoning were the first the group had received out of Syria. 'This is just a more sort of extreme manifestation of those restrictive rules which are all in violation of international' human rights law, she said" (para 19-20).
Dec. 21, 2020, 8:20 p.m.
Countries: Uganda
Variables: DTCP-LAW-1, CONST-LAW-1

The article 33 (6) of the Constitution “prohibits laws, customs or traditions which are against the dignity, welfare or interest of women”
Dec. 21, 2020, 11:43 a.m.
Countries: United Arab Emirates
Variables: CONST-LAW-1

"The Constitution of the UAE ensured women rights and enshrined the principle of equality between men and women in line with their respective natures, upholding their access to education, jobs, social and health benefits, and holding government offices" (para 1)
Dec. 3, 2020, 3:47 p.m.
Countries: Vanuatu
Variables: CONST-LAW-1

“[T]he State party has taken no steps to amend its Constitution with a view to incorporating the principle of equality of women and men and defining and prohibiting all forms of sex- and gender-based discrimination, including direct and indirect discrimination by private or public actors” (2) According to the text, as of 2016 the Vanuatu constitution does not expressly outlaw discrimination on the basis of sex (MLB-CODER COMMENT).
Nov. 20, 2020, 9:36 p.m.
Countries: Philippines
Variables: CONST-LAW-1

"The State shall ensure that the fundamental human rights and freedoms as enshrined in the Constitution and relevant international instruments are guaranteed also to indigenous women. Towards this end, no provision in this Act shall be interpreted so as to result in the diminution of rights and privileges already recognized and accorded to women under existing laws of general application" (Section 21).
Nov. 18, 2020, 2:32 p.m.
Countries: Nigeria
Variables: DTCP-LAW-1, CONST-LAW-1

"The 1999 Constitution of Nigeria prohibits discrimination on the grounds of Sex, but customary and religious laws continue to restrict women’s rights. As Nigeria is a federal republic, each State has the authority to draft its own legislation. However, any law that is contradictory to Federal Law or the Constitution can be challenged in a Federal Court. The combination of federation and a tripartite system of civil, customary and religious law makes it very difficult to harmonise legislation and remove discriminatory measures. Moreover, certain States in the north follow Islamic (Sharia) law, although not exclusively and only in instances where Muslims make use of Islamic courts" (8).more
Oct. 22, 2020, 2:22 p.m.
Countries: Armenia
Variables: CONST-LAW-1

"After 2015 amendment, the Constitution Article 30 states ‘Women and men shall have equal rights.’ while Article 29 prohibits discrimination on sex and other social characteristics inter alia other grounds2. Prohibition of discrimination in one or two provisions of similar substance occurs integrally in nearly 29 legal acts while to determine discriminatory treatment in the courts, the alleged victim of discrimination should justify that: a) He/she had been subjected to marginalization, compared to the others (interference); b) that such a marginalization was based upon one of the prohibited grounds, third; c) he/she had been under relevantly similar circumstances (comparator), d) that the mentioned distinctive approach had no objective basis (reasonable...more
Oct. 6, 2020, 5:42 p.m.
Countries: Swaziland
Variables: CONST-LAW-1

"In a move significant for women's rights, the Eswatini High Court ruled on August 30 that the common law doctrine of marital power (giving a husband the ultimate decision-making power over his wife and the matrimonial property) is unconstitutional as it discriminates against women and denies their constitutional right to equality" (para 2). "The Eswatini High Court ruling in August 2019 that the common-law doctrine of marital power is unconstitutional added to existing reforms to end discrimination against women and uphold their constitutional rights to equality" (para 8). "Article 20 of the Eswatini Constitution provides for equality before the law and non-discrimination, but does not prevent discrimination on the grounds...more
Oct. 6, 2020, 4:41 p.m.
Countries: Kazakhstan
Variables: CONST-LAW-1

"In March, the UN Committee on Economic, Social and Cultural Rights expressed concern that Kazakhstan's constitution and laws do not explicitly prohibit discrimination on the basis of gender identity or sexual orientation, and called on Kazakhstan to adopt anti-discrimination legislation" (para 21).
Sept. 28, 2020, 3:33 p.m.
Countries: Zimbabwe
Variables: CONST-LAW-1

"During 2019, Zimbabwe's Parliament debated a marriage bill, first introduced in January 2017, which is seen as a long-awaited chance for parliament to reconcile the country's marriage laws with its constitution. The proposed marriage law, which parliament has yet to finalize at time of writing, seeks to outlaw child marriage" (para 9). "Current laws on marriage and divorce do not conform to the country's constitution, which provides that spouses have equal rights and responsibilities" (para 10). "Three years after Zimbabwe's Constitutional Court declared child marriage unconstitutional and set 18 as the minimum marriage age, the government has not put structures in place to implement the court's decision and ensure that...more
Sept. 27, 2020, 5:14 p.m.
Countries: Armenia
Variables: CONST-LAW-1

"The government-proposed bill on equality, intended as comprehensive anti-discrimination legislation, does not include sexual orientation and gender identity as grounds for protection from discrimination. In a September report, the Organization for Security and Co-operation recommended the government include sexual orientation and gender identity as additional protected categories. It also recommended that the government ensure that groups that have legitimate interests could bring cases on behalf of an alleged discrimination victim" (para 18).
Sept. 2, 2020, 10:50 a.m.
Countries: Thailand
Variables: CONST-LAW-1

"Section 27 of the Constitution of the Kingdom of Thailand: All persons are equal before the law, and shall have rights and liberties and be protected equally under the law. Men and women shall enjoy equal rights" (para 7).
Aug. 30, 2020, 9:08 p.m.
Countries: Armenia
Variables: CONST-LAW-1

"Armenian Constitution enshrines the right to gender equality, and outlaws all forms of discrimination on the basis of gender" (para 3).
Aug. 13, 2020, 6:16 p.m.
Countries: Japan
Variables: CONST-LAW-1

"Japan has no law prohibiting racial, ethnic, or religious discrimination, or discrimination based on sexual orientation or gender identity" (para. 3).
Aug. 10, 2020, 4:03 p.m.
Countries: Venezuela
Variables: CONST-LAW-1

"'There was a major advance with the constitution, with getting all these new rights and state obligations,' said Rachel Elfenbein, the author of an upcoming book on social programs created under Chavez for women. 'But when it came to implementation, if and where it happened, it was patchy'" (para 14).
Aug. 9, 2020, 8:25 p.m.
Countries: Iceland
Variables: CONST-LAW-1

"The Act on Equal Status and Equal Rights of Women and Men is the reason gender equality is a hallmark of Icelandic culture. The law, established in 2000, was revamped in 2008 with the overarching goal of reaching equal rights throughout all paradigms of society. This law includes information on gender equality for government and businesses to follow. Within the law there are nine defined areas of gender discrimination. It identifies differences between indirect and direct gender discrimination, acknowledges gaps in wages, and recognizes that gender-based violence is detrimental to society. The law draws out a roadmap to achieving gender equality, even including language on changing negative gender stereotypes. Withini...more
Aug. 2, 2020, 6:20 p.m.
Countries: United Arab Emirates
Variables: CONST-LAW-1

"Discrimination on the basis of sex and gender is not included in the definition of discrimination in the UAE's 2015 anti-discrimination law" (para 16).
July 14, 2020, 4:36 p.m.
Countries: China
Variables: CONST-LAW-1

"The early communists enshrined 'the equality of women and men' in the Constitution of the People’s Republic and the new government introduced ambitious initiatives to put women to work in building the new communist nation" (para 10).
July 12, 2020, 1:11 p.m.
Countries: Bosnia-Herzegovina
Variables: CONST-LAW-1

"Theoretically, there are gender equality mechanisms in place to address these issues. According to the Constitution of Bosnia and Herzegovina, Article 2 prohibits discrimination on any grounds, including gender" (para. 15).
June 23, 2020, 6 p.m.
Countries: Tajikistan
Variables: CONST-LAW-1

"Tajikistan’s legislation completely prohibits all forms of discrimination, including discrimination against women. Article 17 of the Constitution stipulates that the State guarantees the rights and freedoms of every person, regardless of ethnicity, race, gender, language, faith, political beliefs, education, or social or property status. An act on State guarantees of equal rights for men and women and equal opportunities in the exercise of such rights is in effect in Tajikistan. This act regulates action to uphold the constitutional guarantees of equal rights of men and women in the social, political, cultural and any other sphere, and aims to prevent discrimination on grounds of gender and establish State guarantees of equal...more
May 31, 2020, 4:27 p.m.
Countries: North Korea
Variables: CONST-LAW-1

"Since the promulgation on July 30, 1946, the following year after its liberation from the Japanese colonial rule in August 1945, of the Decree on Gender Equality, equality of women with men has been guaranteed both by law and in practice. The Socialist Constitution provides that citizens shall enjoy equal rights in all spheres of State and public activities (art. 65), all citizens who have reached the age of 17 shall have the right to vote and to be elected irrespective of sex, race, occupation, length of residence, property status, education, party affiliation, political views and religion (art. 66) and women shall be accorded equal social status and rights with...more
May 21, 2020, 8:43 p.m.
Countries: Guatemala
Variables: CONST-LAW-1

"Under the Constitution of Guatemala, all human beings are equal in dignity and rights; men and women, regardless of their civil status, have equal opportunities and responsibilities, and no one may be subjected to servitude or any condition that undermines his or her dignity. The international legal framework ratified by Guatemala as well its domestic law recognize women’s human rights" (40)
April 30, 2020, 12:47 p.m.
Countries: Tunisia
Variables: CONST-LAW-1

"As a result of these fears women activists have been closely monitoring the drafting of the new Tunisian constitution which is due to be finalised within the next couple of months. Last August they fiercely opposed one draft which suggested that women were ‘complementary’ to men; the wording was later changed to ‘equal’" (para 7).
April 4, 2020, 8:45 a.m.
Countries: Rwanda
Variables: CONST-LAW-1

"The Committee notes with appreciation that the principle of equality between women and men and the prohibition of discrimination on the basis of sex are enshrined in the Constitution. It also welcomes the adoption of anti-discrimination legislation in different areas" (3).
April 1, 2020, 6:28 p.m.
Countries: Pakistan
Variables: CONST-LAW-1

"The law prohibits discrimination based on sex in general, but authorities did not enforce it" (41).
Feb. 15, 2020, 9:16 p.m.
Countries: Italy
Variables: CONST-LAW-1

"In addition to Article 3 of the Italian Constitution, Art. 1 of the Code on Equal Opportunities Between Women and Men (Legislative Decree 198/2006) sets forth: “Relevant provisions envisage measures, aimed at eliminating whatsoever distinction, exclusion or limitation based on sex, which might affect or hinder the enjoyment and exercise of human rights and fundamental freedoms (...)” in all spheres of life. Thus, there is no legal discrimination with regard to civil, political, social, economic or cultural rights between women and men." (para 11).
Feb. 5, 2020, 8:01 a.m.
Countries: Congo
Variables: CONST-LAW-1

"The Constitution of 6 November 2015 recognizes the equality of men and women by incorporating a specific provision on gender parity (arts. 15 and 17)" (22). "Several laws contain provisions prohibiting discrimination against women, including sanctions against the perpetrators of such discrimination. These include Act No. 5-2011 of 25 February 2011 on the promotion and protection of indigenous peoples; It provides that “the trafficking and sexual exploitation of indigenous children and women will be punished in accordance with the provisions of articles 334 and 335 bis of the Penal Code” (art. 9) and Act No. 4 -2010 of 4 June 2010 on child protection in the Republic of the Congo....more
Jan. 30, 2020, 8:32 p.m.
Countries: Kenya
Variables: CONST-LAW-1

"Qualifications to the prohibition on discrimination on the basis of sex: The prohibition on discrimination is subject to a range of exemptions. In Kenya, laws are not discriminatory under the Constitution if they relate to the status of non-citizens, concern matters of personal law and customary law, are on the issues of adoption, burial, divorce, marriage and succession. Consequentially sections 82 (4 (b &c)) of the Constitution allow discrimination against women on matters of personal law” (5). “The Constitution of Kenya permits discrimination in matters of personal law, divorce, inheritance and adoption. Whilst the Government recognizes the impact of these constitutional provisos in sections 82(4(b & c)), these have proven...more