The most comprehensive compilation of information on the status of
women in the world.

Latest items for CONST-LAW-1

April 18, 2019, 5:29 p.m.
Countries: Suriname
Variables: CONST-LAW-1

"The constitution prohibits discrimination based on birth, sex, race, language, religious origin, education, political beliefs, economic position or any other status" (19).
April 12, 2019, 7:56 p.m.
Countries: China
Variables: CONST-LAW-1

[Hong Kong] "The law provides that all permanent residents are equal. The SAR’s antidiscrimination law further prohibits discrimination on the basis of race, family status, sex, or disability" (page 112). "[Hong Kong] Women enjoy the same legal status and rights as men" (page 114). "[Macau] The law stipulates that residents shall be free from discrimination based on race, gender, disability, language, social status, or communicable disease status, and many laws carry specific prohibitions against discrimination. The government effectively enforced the law" (page 133-134).
April 11, 2019, 11:47 p.m.
Countries: Cote D'Ivoire
Variables: CONST-LAW-1

"Act No. 2016-886 of 8 November 2016 establishes the Constitution of the Republic of Côte d’Ivoire, which recognizes the rights, freedoms and duties of every Ivorian woman and man, and clearly and expressly mentions the fight against gender-based discrimination in its articles 4 and 37" (4). "The new 2016 Constitution takes into consideration the need to eliminate all forms of discrimination against women. Article 4 enshrines the principle of the equality of all citizens and includes a list of grounds on which discrimination is prohibited" (7).
April 10, 2019, 8:03 p.m.
Countries: Israel
Variables: CONST-LAW-1

"Although it has no constitution, the parliament, the unicameral 120-member Knesset, has enacted a series of 'Basic Laws' that enumerate fundamental rights. Certain fundamental laws, orders, and regulations legally depend on the existence of a 'state of emergency,' which has been in effect since 1948" (1). "The law prohibits hate speech and content liable to incite to violence or discrimination on grounds of race, origin, religion, nationality, and gender" (19). "The law provides for the same legal status and rights for women as for men. In the criminal and civil courts, women and men enjoyed the same rights, but in some matters religious courts--responsible for adjudication of family law, including...more
April 9, 2019, 12:57 p.m.
Countries: Iran
Variables: CONST-LAW-1

"The constitution provides for equal protection for women under the law in conformity with its interpretation of Islam" (34). "The constitution bars discrimination based on race, gender, disability, language, and social status 'in conformity with Islamic criteria,' but the government did not effectively enforce these prohibitions. According to the constitution, 'everyone has the right to choose any occupation he wishes, if it is not contrary to Islam and the public interests, and does not infringe on the rights of others'" (46).
March 31, 2019, 3:59 p.m.
Countries: Russia
Variables: CONST-LAW-1

"The constitution and law provide that men and women enjoy the same legal status and rights, but women often encountered significant restrictions" (48).
March 29, 2019, 5:33 p.m.
Countries: Malawi
Variables: CONST-LAW-1

"The constitution and law prohibit arbitrary arrest and detention; however, the government did not always observe these prohibitions. The law provides for the right of any person to challenge the lawfulness of his/her arrest or detention in court but does not provide for compensation if found to have been unlawfully detained" (para 21). "The Gender Equality Act of 2013 prohibits certain harmful traditional practices, including 'widow cleansing' and 'widow inheritance'" (para 86). "By law women have the same legal status and rights as men and may not be discriminated against based on gender or marital status, including in the workplace" (para 92).
March 29, 2019, 4:03 p.m.
Countries: China
Variables: CONST-LAW-1

"The constitution states that 'women enjoy equal rights with men in all spheres of life.' . . . Authorities often did not enforce laws protecting the rights of women. According to legal experts, it was difficult to litigate sex-discrimination suits because of vague legal definitions" (page 57).
March 21, 2019, 11:12 p.m.
Countries: Syria
Variables: CONST-LAW-1

"The constitution provides for equal rights and equal opportunity for all citizens and prohibits discrimination based on race, gender, disability, language, or social status" (para 184). "Although the constitution provides for equality between men and women and the 'right of every citizen to earn his wage according to the nature and yield of the work'" (para 195). "The constitution prohibits discrimination against persons on the basis of race, color, gender, marital status, belief, political opinion, trade union membership, nationality, descent, clothing or dress style, or disability" (para 250).
March 21, 2019, 3:11 p.m.
Countries: Hungary
Variables: CONST-LAW-1

"The constitution and law prohibit discrimination based on race, sex, religion, political opinion, national origin or citizenship, social origin, disability, sexual orientation and gender identity, age, language, and health condition; however, the government failed to fully enforce these rights." (34).
March 18, 2019, 2:22 p.m.
Countries: South Korea
Variables: CONST-LAW-1

"The constitution and laws prohibit discrimination in employment based on race, gender, disability, sexual orientation, and social status" (26).
March 15, 2019, 11:35 a.m.
Countries: Vanuatu
Variables: CONST-LAW-1

"The constitution provides women the same personal and religious rights as men" (9).
March 15, 2019, 9:33 a.m.
Countries: Morocco
Variables: CONST-LAW-1

"The constitution provides women equal rights with men in civil, political, economic, cultural, and environmental affairs; however, laws favor men in property and inheritance. Numerous problems related to discrimination against women remained, both with inadequate enforcement of equal rights provided for by the laws and constitution and in the reduced rights provided to women in inheritance" (page 28).
March 14, 2019, 3:31 p.m.
Countries: Norway
Variables: CONST-LAW-1

"The Committee welcomes the progress achieved since the consideration in 2012 of the State party’s eighth periodic report (CEDAW/C/NOR/8) in undertaking legislative reforms, including at the constitutional level, in particular the adoption of the following: (a) Incorporation of the principles of equality and non-discrimination into article 98 of the Constitution, in 2014" (2).
March 13, 2019, 7:37 p.m.
Countries: Colombia
Variables: CONST-LAW-1

"The Colombian constitutional and policy framework is in compliance with the definition of discrimination against women contained in article 1 of the Convention and is bolstered by important developments in jurisprudence and gender-responsive judicial decisions1 that identify and appreciate women’s role as a social function; when that function suffers harm, there is a need, in making full reparation, to recognize the intangible damages dimension, with the goal of hastening and promoting women’s equality and the protection of their dignity" (3).
March 12, 2019, 12:43 p.m.
Countries: North Korea
Variables: CONST-LAW-1

"The constitution states, 'women hold equal social status and rights with men'" (19).
March 11, 2019, 11:13 a.m.
Countries: Kazakhstan
Variables: CONST-LAW-1

"Under the Constitution, Kazakhstan is a democratic, secular, and social State, based on the rule of law, whose supreme values are the individual person and that person’s life, rights and freedoms. No one may be subjected to discrimination of any kind on grounds of origin, social status, official position, material circumstances, gender, race, ethnic background, language, attitude to religion, beliefs, place of residence or any other circumstances. The Act on State guarantees of equal rights and equal opportunities for men and women (hereinafter — the Equality Act), of 8 December 2009, has been in force since 2009. In it, the term “gender discrimination” is defined as any limitation or violation...more
March 7, 2019, 11:23 a.m.
Countries: Mauritania
Variables: CONST-LAW-1

"The constitution and law provide for equality for all citizens regardless of race, national origin, sex, or social status, but the government often favored individuals based on racial and tribal affiliation and social status" (page 16). "The law prohibits discrimination on the basis of race, disability, religion, political opinion, national origin, citizenship, social origin, sexual orientation and/or gender identity, age, or language, but the government often did not enforce the law" (page 30).
March 6, 2019, 7:48 p.m.
Countries: Afghanistan
Variables: CONST-LAW-1

"The constitution prohibits discrimination and notes that citizens, both 'man and woman,' have equal rights and duties before the law. It expressly prohibits discrimination based on language. The constitution contains no specific provisions addressing discrimination based on race, religion, national origin, color, sex, ethnicity, disability, or age" (35).
March 5, 2019, 2:35 p.m.
Countries: Malaysia
Variables: CONST-LAW-1

"The constitution provides for equal protection under the law and prohibits discrimination against citizens based on race, gender, religion, descent, or place of birth" (22).
March 1, 2019, 11:52 p.m.
Countries: Qatar
Variables: CONST-LAW-1

"article 34 of the Constitution of Qatar, which guarantees equality of all citizens in rights and obligations" (1). "Article 34 of the Permanent Constitution of the State provides that 'citizens shall be equal in terms of public rights and duties. Article 35 provides that 'all persons are equal before the law and there shall be no discrimination whatsoever on grounds of gender, race, language or religion'" (17). "The State’s legal framework, meaning the Constitution and national laws, is in line with the definition of discrimination against women provided in article 1, paragraph 1, of the Convention. Legislation sets forth provisions relating to gender equality as provided in the Constitution in...more
March 1, 2019, 11:10 a.m.
Countries: Sudan
Variables: CONST-LAW-1

"Sudanese Islamist groups have waved aside the equating of men and women and called for keeping the legal procedures for marriage that are based on the Shari’a, rejecting all draft amendments to the Sudanese Constitution" (para 6). This indicates that women and men are not equal in the constitution (CEM - CODER COMMENT).
Feb. 23, 2019, 11:34 a.m.
Countries: D R Congo
Variables: CONST-LAW-1

"Since the submission by the Democratic Republic of the Congo of its combined sixth and seventh periodic report in 2013, Congolese legislation concerning equality between men and women in the exercise and enjoyment of their rights has developed significantly, in line with the Committee’s recommendation in paragraph 14 of its concluding observations of 2013 (CEDAW/C/COD/CO/6-7) concerning the finalization of the Family Code and the law on gender equality. The following laws have been adopted: Act No. 15/013 of 1 August 2015, on means of giving effect to women’s rights and gender parity, was adopted to implement article 14 of the Constitution. It strengthens the country’s commitment to building a fairer...more
Feb. 14, 2019, 11:11 p.m.
Countries: Mauritius
Variables: CONST-LAW-1

"Men and women enjoy the same legal status and rights under the constitution and law" (para 58).
Feb. 14, 2019, 10:48 p.m.
Countries: Belarus
Variables: CONST-LAW-1

"The law prohibits discrimination based on race, gender, language, or social status. These laws do not apply specifically to employment or occupation" (47).
Feb. 12, 2019, 8:23 p.m.
Countries: Mexico
Variables: CONST-LAW-1

"At the same time, the Criminal Code of the State of Chihuahua includes the following provision: (…) Anyone who, on grounds of age, sex, civil status, pregnancy, race, ethnic origin, language, religion, ideology, sexual orientation, colour of skin, nationality, social origin or situation, work or profession, economic situation, physical characteristics, disability or state of health or any other pretext that offends human dignity and seeks to nullify or detract from individual rights and freedoms shall be punishable by six months’ to 3 years’ imprisonment or 25 to 100 days of community work and a fine of 50 to 200 days’ pay" (75-76).
Feb. 8, 2019, 4:42 p.m.
Countries: Mali
Variables: CONST-LAW-1

"The constitution and law prohibit discrimination based on race, sex, religion, political opinion, social origin, language, or color. Citizens were generally reluctant to file complaints or press charges of discrimination due to cultural factors. Absent complaints or lawsuits, the government did not aggressively pursue violations of these laws" (page 20).
Feb. 7, 2019, 3:47 p.m.
Countries: Lebanon
Variables: CONST-LAW-1

"The law provides for equality among all citizens and prohibits discrimination based on race, gender, disability, language, or social status. Although the government generally respected these provisions, they were not enforced, especially with regard to economic matters, and aspects of the law and traditional beliefs discriminated against women. The law does not protect against discrimination based on sexual orientation or gender identity" (Pg 27).
Feb. 6, 2019, 7:33 p.m.
Countries: Lesotho
Variables: IAW-LAW-1, IAD-LAW-1, CONST-LAW-1

"Except for inheritance rights, women enjoyed the same legal status and rights as men including rights concerning family, labor, property, and nationality. The law prohibits discrimination against women under formal and customary, or traditional law. Inheritance, succession, and property rights are an exception; civil law defers to customary law, which discriminates against women and girls as it pertains to inheritance. Customary law limits inheritance to male heirs only; it does not permit women or girls to inherit property. A woman married under civil law may contest inheritance rights in civil court" (Pg 18-19).
Feb. 6, 2019, 3:14 p.m.
Countries: Kyrgyzstan
Variables: CONST-LAW-1

"The constitution prohibits discrimination based on race, gender, disability, language, ethnic origin, creed, age, political or other beliefs, education, background, property, or other status. The government did not effectively enforce these prohibitions. Although women were active in government, education, civil society, the media, and small business, they encountered gender-based discrimination" (Pg 23).