The most comprehensive compilation of information on the status of
women in the world.

Latest items for CUST-PRACTICE-1

Sept. 14, 2017, 12:28 p.m.
Countries: Israel
Variables: ATDW-LAW-1, ADCM-LAW-1, CUST-PRACTICE-1, CUST-LAW-1

"Among the most contentious of Jewish rites is the one that grants men disproportionate power in divorce. Women who are not granted divorces are often forced to relinquish their child custody rights or alimony payments to convince husbands to accede"(para 11)
June 21, 2017, 11:27 a.m.
Countries: Russia
Variables: CUST-PRACTICE-1

“In terms of child support, in particular, women feel they have no choice but to negotiate with former spouses informally since they are not protected by the law. Of course, women are in a double bind because by not filing for support, women then have no recourse to the court, and the support of their children depends entirely on the goodwill of fathers—reinforcing women’s feelings of uncertainty and instability vis-à-vis men and the state. Zoya, for example, explained that she had no choice but to accept an informal arrangement for child support with her former husband. He pays what he can, when he can, and only if and when he ...more
June 21, 2017, 11:25 a.m.
Countries: Russia
Variables: CUST-PRACTICE-1

“Women carefully weigh the costs and benefits of filing for official child support. Many worry that although their husbands provide only sporadic support, like $30 at the start of the new school year for books or New Year’s gifts, they might lose even this tangible support if they turn to the courts, which they do not trust anyway. A willingness to seek official support signifies a total lack of trust in a former partner. Women choose between settling for informal, often minimal and sporadic, support from their child’s father or getting what they call ‘crumbs’ from the state. Women hope to at least leave open the possibility of a personal ...more
May 4, 2017, 5:10 p.m.
Countries: Turkmenistan
Variables: ATDW-PRACTICE-1, ADCM-PRACTICE-1, CUST-PRACTICE-1

“There were no reports of discrimination in areas such as marriage, divorce, and child custody” (22).
Feb. 27, 2017, 5:43 p.m.
Countries: Ethiopia
Variables: CUST-PRACTICE-1, CUST-LAW-3

"There was limited legal recognition of common-law marriage. A common-law husband had no obligation to provide financial assistance to his family, and consequently women and children sometimes faced abandonment" (29).
Feb. 23, 2017, 5:23 p.m.
Countries: Botswana
Variables: ATDW-PRACTICE-1, ADCM-PRACTICE-1, CUST-PRACTICE-1

“Batswana are a patriarchal society, and therefore, upon divorce, decisions about property and custody of minor children tend to be resolved in favor of the male party” (150).
Jan. 23, 2017, 4:45 p.m.
Countries: Egypt
Variables: CUST-PRACTICE-1

"On the other hand, the head of Al-Azhar University’s Fatwa Committee, Abdul Hamid al-Atrash, told Al-Monitor that he supports the idea that the law entitles any person who proves his parentage in any way to obtain an inheritance. He noted that Muhammad’s saying that 'paternity of the child goes to the [marital] bed' confirms that when a woman is married and gets pregnant from a man other than her husband, the child must be affiliated to the husband. Atrash added, 'The Quranic verses indicated the shares of inheritance that parents and kinsmen can leave to the heirs. The bad habits of society prevent women from their entitled inheritance'" (para 20-22).more
Dec. 2, 2016, 5:11 p.m.
Countries: Slovenia
Variables: ATDW-PRACTICE-1, CUST-PRACTICE-1

"In 77 per cent of cases, the care and upbringing of children was entrusted to mothers, and in 7 per cent of cases to fathers; in 14 per cent of cases, children were under joint care" (51)
Dec. 2, 2016, 5:11 p.m.
Countries: Slovenia
Variables: ADCM-PRACTICE-1, CUST-PRACTICE-1

"Children’s leisure activities are an exception, being paid for slightly more often by fathers. In most cases, child benefits, maintenance, reduced payments for nursery school and child care allowances are claimed by women; child benefits were received by almost two fifths of all households included in the study and maintenance by almost one twentieth of respondents; reduced payments for nursery fees were claimed by more than one tenth of households, and child care allowances by slightly more than one per cent of all persons with children" (16)
Sept. 13, 2016, 5:02 p.m.
Countries: India
Variables: CUST-PRACTICE-1

“‘There are cases where women don't even know that they've been divorced,’ Niaz said. ‘The children are without any support. So, it has become very convenient for Muslim men to just say talaq thrice and it is just so easy for him to get the woman out of his life’” (para 11).
Aug. 21, 2016, 3:30 p.m.
Countries: Afghanistan
Variables: CUST-PRACTICE-1

“'Here, when a woman is widowed, she has to marry her husband’s brother and I refused,' she said. It was a moment of independence, but it quickly turned tragic. Her mother-in-law, concluding that Ms. Aziza must be morally lacking when she turned down a chance to be respectable, took the child from her. While Afghan law allows a widow to have custody of her children, as a practical matter the lack of money often results in the children staying with relatives. Ms. Aziza sees her daughter now only once a year, on her birthday. 'She took my daughter by force,' said Ms. Aziza, staring into the photo as if the ...more
Aug. 6, 2016, 5:57 p.m.
Countries: Nicaragua
Variables: CUST-PRACTICE-1, CUST-LAW-1, CUST-LAW-3

"As a general rule, when married couple with children divorces and starts to live separately, children stay with one of the parents. However, both parents have to share the expenses spent on the maintenance of their children. For this purpose, parents have to agree on their participation in child care and the amount of child support each of them has to pay. When determining the amount, income of parents and number of children is taken into account" (para 4)
July 28, 2016, 7:23 p.m.
Countries: Angola
Variables: CL-PRACTICE-2, CUST-PRACTICE-1, DMW-PRACTICE-1

“There were no effective mechanisms to enforce child support laws, and women generally bore the major responsibility for raising children” (25).
May 25, 2016, 8:07 p.m.
Countries: South Korea
Variables: CUST-PRACTICE-1

"The Child Support Enforcement Act (enacted on 24 March 2014) envisions the creation of the Child Support Agency, the role of which is to provide consultation and mediation for disadvantaged single-parent families in regards to ensuring that the responsible parent pay the required child support, and a support system to offer legal assistance related to the enforcement and collection of child support. This law also introduced a temporary emergency child support system to allow minimum livelihood security for underage children" (8). "The Ministry of Gender Equality and Family has provided legal aid service for the delivery of child support since 2007 with an aim to protect the rights to care ...more
May 23, 2016, 2:45 p.m.
Countries: Ecuador
Variables: CUST-PRACTICE-1

"The Committee is deeply concerned about: d) The absence of measures within social security schemes to ensure child support payments in cases in which former spouses fail to pay" (14)
May 15, 2016, 7:55 p.m.
Countries: Montenegro
Variables: CUST-PRACTICE-1

" Family law prescribes that the court shall be competent to protect rights and interests of the child and other family members and to resolve disputes between family members (Article 14). Under the Law on Minority Rights and Freedoms the court shall, among others, ensure protection of minority rights (Article 37). " (19)
May 5, 2016, 4:51 p.m.
Countries: Nicaragua
Variables: CUST-PRACTICE-1

"Fathers who were no longer living with their children did not contribute anything towards their maintenance, whether or not the women were living with a new partner, and despite what the laws mandated. Normally the women did not claim child support either" (175). "The unlikeliness of men paying child support may become more comprehnsible once we understand that even while living in union with the children's mother, husbands do not necessarily contribute much to the household" (176). "The legal grounds which permitted the social authorities to carry out this practice, however, disappeared in 1997 with a new Labor Code, in which no mention was made of provisions to collect child ...more
March 3, 2016, 2:42 p.m.
Countries: Gabon
Variables: CUST-PRACTICE-1

"To meet the needs of poor women, family courts have been established, headed by male and female judges, to deal with their cases, with improved free filing for food allowances by women, covering more than 90 per cent of cases, so as to force fathers to care for their children in the event of separation or even when the spouses still live in the same house" (8)
Jan. 23, 2016, 2:11 p.m.
Countries: Canada
Variables: CUST-PRACTICE-1

"Aboriginal children are 10 times more likely to be in state care than non- Aboriginal children which is a higher proportion than during the time of residential schools," (25). "The experts were informed in British Colombia that Aboriginal women are at greater risk than non-Aboriginal women of having their children removed by authorities under child protection legislation because of the interpretation made by the authorities, in practice, of the definition of neglect, despite the existence of guiding principles on the interpretation of sections 2 and 3 of the British Columbia Child, Family and Community Service Act indicating that the Act must be interpreted and administered so that the safety and ...more
Jan. 19, 2016, 3:36 p.m.
Countries: Serbia
Variables: CUST-PRACTICE-1, CUST-LAW-3, GIC-LAW-1

"The Committee remains concerned, however: … (c) That the State child allowance ceases at the fourth child and that collection of child support orders from fathers is inefficient" (11-12)
Jan. 18, 2016, 5:47 p.m.
Countries: Canada
Variables: CUST-PRACTICE-1

"Federal, provincial and territorial laws set out a variety of tools to enforce support. The following pages explain how federal laws help to enforce the support that you owe. If any of these tools are being used to enforce your support order or agreement, see the Resolve Enforcement Issues section for information that may help you resolve issues. Your federal payments may be seized If the federal government owes you money, that money may be taken and used to pay your support debt. The Family Orders and Agreements Enforcement Assistance Act allows the government to take payments such as income tax refunds and employment insurance benefits for the payment of ...more
Jan. 18, 2016, 5:15 p.m.
Countries: Canada
Variables: CUST-PRACTICE-1, CUST-LAW-1

Mothers had custody 79 percent of the time, fathers had custody 7 percent of the time, and 11 percent of the time, parents shared joint custody (Chart 4) (Coder Comment - RMH)
Jan. 18, 2016, 5:10 p.m.
Countries: Cameroon
Variables: CUST-PRACTICE-1, CUST-LAW-1, CUST-LAW-3

"In practice, custody of the younger children is generally granted to the mother, and of the older children, to the father. Mothers, however, often face several types of difficulties. They are the ones who are most often called upon to leave the marital home with their children. They must leave without any of the financial compensation due to them, or child support, which husbands rarely pay immediately. Women must initiate other proceedings to recover their rights, taking on the expenses these involve. For this reason, many women become discouraged and abandon the process" (80)
Jan. 18, 2016, 5:07 p.m.
Countries: Cambodia
Variables: CUST-PRACTICE-1, CUST-LAW-3

"Mrs Sokha and her three children, were beaten regularly by her husband over ten years. When the abusive husband began an illegal relationship with another woman, they were forced out of the home without any possessions. Mrs Sokha filed for divorce, and the court awarded her custody of the children, the joint house, and $100 per month in child support. The husband did not appeal to the court, but refused to comply with the verdict. When the court police attempted to enforce it he hired a team of soldiers to fight them. The court police withdrew, and were reluctant to press the issue further - several years earlier, a group ...more
Jan. 18, 2016, 5:01 p.m.
Countries: Burkina Faso
Variables: CUST-PRACTICE-1, CUST-LAW-1

"Unmarried mothers have great difficulties attaining maintenance for their children. If an unmarried mother dares to claim a living allowance from the father, he will react by claming custody of the child, which is allowed under the patriarchal system that regards the child as the property of the father" (Para 4)
Jan. 18, 2016, 4:57 p.m.
Countries: Brunei
Variables: CUST-PRACTICE-1, CUST-LAW-3

"THE Syariah Judiciary Department yesterday gave out RM200,000 in alimony advance to 70 divorcees and children whose ex-spouses or fathers failed to provide maintenance or complied with the Syariah Court's order. The amount is part of a RM15 million allocation approved by the Cabinet in January for advance payments to women awaiting the Syariah Court's decision on the amount of alimony...Jamil Khir said deprived women must first apply for maintenance order to the Syariah Court before applying for the alimony advance. He said the alimony advance would be disburse to women who had obtained the Syariah Court's order based on their needs and the number and age of the children. ...more
Jan. 18, 2016, 4:24 p.m.
Countries: Armenia
Variables: CUST-PRACTICE-1, CUST-LAW-3

"The Family Code requires parents to provide child support, but in reality ex-husbands often do not pay it. In one case, a divorced woman succeeded in getting her ex-husband to pay child support only after a friend in the police force interceded. The state provides little, if any, support for women after divorce. In the past, the government paid a special subsidy to single mothers, but these benefits have now been subsumed under a more general family subsidy. According to an employee of the Ministry of Social Security, the average family subsidy is very low and sufficient for little more than buying bread" (41)
Jan. 18, 2016, 4:05 p.m.
Countries: Angola
Variables: CUST-PRACTICE-1, CUST-LAW-3

"The Family Code prescribes that both parents have equal responsibility to support their children, and if children remain with the mother following divorce, the father must pay for maintenance for the children. However, the Rural Development Institute found in a study on women’s land rights in Angola that, although property tends to be divided equally post-divorce without court interference, in cases where it is not or when women are abandoned by their husbands, there was little evidence that women pursued their rights to property through legal channels, including by using rights set out within the Family Code" (Para 2)
Jan. 18, 2016, 4:04 p.m.
Countries: Albania
Variables: CUST-PRACTICE-1

"Women seeking to leave violent men are rarely able to financially support or house themselves and their children. No state provision is available; in cases of divorce financial settlements – including for the children – are rarely enforced by the courts" (31)
Jan. 17, 2016, 7:50 p.m.
Countries: Kuwait
Variables: CUST-PRACTICE-1, CUST-LAW-1

"Under Article 199, a father is legally obliged to provide financial support to a mother with custody of his child until the boy concerned reaches the age of seven or the girl concerned reaches the age of nine, but there are no penalties in place in the event that he fails to do so" (Para 3)