The most comprehensive compilation of information on the status of
women in the world.

Latest items for CWC-DATA-2

Oct. 22, 2019, 1:55 p.m.
Countries: Equatorial Guinea
Variables: CWC-DATA-2

"Custom confined women in rural areas largely to traditional roles. Women in urban areas experienced less overt discrimination but did not enjoy pay or access to employment and credit on an equal basis with men" (21).
Oct. 1, 2019, 2:44 p.m.
Countries: Philippines
Variables: CWC-DATA-2

"Unscrupulous employers subjected women from rural communities and impoverished urban centers to domestic servitude, forced begging, and forced labor in small factories" (36).
Aug. 21, 2019, 10:15 p.m.
Countries: Zimbabwe
Variables: CWC-DATA-2

"The GPI (gender parity index) for the GAR shows that the fewer girls than boys attend secondary school in urban areas (GPI=0.84), while more girls than boys attend secondary school (GPI=1.08) in rural areas" (17). "Internet usage is more common in urban areas than rural areas. In urban areas, 48 percent and 71 percent women and men, respectively, have used the internet in the past 12 months compared to 9 percent and 19 percent women and men respectively in the rural areas" (38). "Teenagers in rural areas are almost three times as likely their urban peers to begin childbearing: 27 percent of rural teenagers have begun childbearing, compared with 10...more
Aug. 8, 2019, 6:37 a.m.
Countries: Burundi
Variables: CWC-DATA-2

"Traffickers fraudulently recruit children from rural areas for domestic work or an education and later exploit them in forced labor and child sex trafficking via prostitution" (131).
Aug. 6, 2019, 8:14 a.m.
Countries: Comoros

"Societal discrimination against women was most apparent in rural areas, where women were mostly limited to farming and child-rearing duties, with fewer opportunities for education and wage employment" (page 9-10).
July 30, 2019, 8:55 a.m.
Countries: Ghana
Variables: CWC-DATA-2

"According to UNHCR, as of June 30, there were 22 incidents of sexual or gender-based violence reported from refugee camps, including three sexual assaults of children"(p. 10).
July 24, 2019, 6:29 p.m.
Countries: Chad
Variables: CWC-DATA-2

"The law prohibits FGM/C for girls and women, but the practice remained widespread, particularly in rural areas" (page 16). "Although primary education is tuition-free, universal, and compulsory between ages six and 16, parents were required to pay for textbooks, except in some rural areas" (page 17). "Children and adults in rural areas were involved in forced agricultural labor and, in urban areas, forced domestic servitude" (page 21).
July 23, 2019, 8:03 p.m.
Countries: Afghanistan
Variables: CWC-DATA-2

"Women in urban areas are more than three times as likely to be literate as those in rural areas (32% versus 10%). Similarly, urban men are more likely to be literate than rural men (65% versus 45%) (Table 3.3.1 and Table 3.3.2)" (32). "Women in urban areas are more likely to receive ANC than women in rural areas (72% versus 55%). Also, urban women are more likely than rural women to receive ANC from a doctor (46% versus 26%)" (136). "Urban deliveries are more likely to be assisted by a skilled provider. Seventy-nine percent of urban and 42% of rural deliveries are assisted by skilled providers" (139). "Women in rural...more
July 23, 2019, 2:36 p.m.
Countries: Afghanistan
Variables: CWC-DATA-2

"The absence of a strong judiciary disproportionately affected female trafficking victims’ access to justice; in rural areas outside of the formal legal system, male community leaders often settled both criminal and civil disputes, which often penalized female sex trafficking victims for 'moral crimes.' In urban areas, if judges or prosecutors assessed that no clearly defined legal statute applied or they were unaware of the statutory law, then they enforced customary law, which often resulted in outcomes that discriminated against women. While the EVAW law expressly prohibited the use of mediation and other Afghan laws neither permit nor prescribe mediation in criminal cases, police and judges often referred trafficking victims to...more
July 23, 2019, 2:22 p.m.
Countries: Ethiopia
Variables: CWC-DATA-2

"In Ethiopia, traffickers often deceive parents of children living in rural areas into sending their children to major cities to work as domestic workers. The traffickers promise families that the children will go to school and receive wages for their work, thereby enabling them to send money home" (11-12).
July 23, 2019, 2:20 p.m.
Countries: Cambodia
Variables: CWC-DATA-2

"In Cambodia, a lack of jobs leads some women and girls to leave their homes in rural areas to try to find work in tourist destination cities. In many cases, traffickers exploit them in sex trafficking, including in massage parlors, karaoke bars, and beer gardens" (11).
July 20, 2019, 10:39 p.m.
Countries: Armenia
Variables: CWC-DATA-2

"The Committee notes that the State party has taken economic empowerment measures for rural women, supporting cooperatives and making credit and grant programmes available in rural environments. The Committee is concerned, however, by the lack of social, health and economic infrastructure in rural environments, as well as by the concentration of rural women in the informal sector. The Committee is moreover concerned that rural women are particularly affected by labour migration of partners, which exposes them to higher risks of economic distress and high HIV-infection rates" (11-12). "The Committee is concerned by the situation of women in areas affected by earthquakes and their limited access to services, and is especially...more
July 20, 2019, 8:20 a.m.
Countries: Syria

"Women participated in public life and in most professions, including the armed forces, although violence in many regions reduced women’s access to the public sphere. Women and men have equal legal rights in owning or managing land or other property, although cultural and religious norms impeded women’s rights, especially in rural areas. Various sources observed that women constituted a minority of lawyers, university professors, and other professions" (Pg 46).
July 19, 2019, 4:56 p.m.
Countries: Niger
Variables: CWC-DATA-2

"The inadequate funding of the health-care sector, resulting in limited access to basic health-care services, in particular among poor, rural and nomadic women" (11). "The Committee welcomes the ‘Nigeriens feeding Nigeriens’ initiative, which supports rural women. Nevertheless, it notes with concern the extremely high rates of poverty (82 per cent) and food insecurity affecting women in rural areas of the State party, which are linked to the lower socioeconomic status of women and the disproportionate impact of climate change, desertification and extractive industries (uranium) on women. It notes that the precarious situation of rural women is exacerbated by customary law provisions on community management, which exclude women from the traditional...more
July 19, 2019, 12:46 p.m.
Countries: Turkey
Variables: CWC-DATA-2

"NGOs reported children as young as 12 were at times married in unofficial religious ceremonies, particularly in poor and rural regions and among the Syrian population living in the country" (page 52).
July 19, 2019, 12:22 p.m.
Countries: Nepal
Variables: CWC-DATA-2

"Traditional beliefs about witchcraft negatively affected rural women, especially widows, the elderly, persons of low economic status, or members of the Dalit caste. Shamans or family members publicly beat and otherwise physically abused alleged witches as part of exorcism ceremonies. Media and NGOs reported numerous cases of such violence, and civil society organizations raised public awareness of the problem. Women, and in some instances men, accused of witchcraft were severely traumatized and suffered physical and mental abuse. In recent years those accused of witchcraft have faced various punishments, including being fed human excreta, being hit with hot spoons in different parts of the body, being forced to touch hot irons...more
July 19, 2019, 9:48 a.m.
Countries: Indonesia
Variables: CWC-DATA-2

"The government ran integrated service centers for women and children (P2TPA) in all 34 provinces and approximately 242 districts, which provided counseling and support services to victims of violence. The larger provincial service centers provided more comprehensive psychosocial services, while the quality of support at the district-level centers varied. Women living in rural areas or districts where no such center was established had difficulty receiving support services and some centers were only open for six hours a day and not the required 24 hours. Nationwide, police operated 'special crisis rooms' or 'women’s desks' where female officers received reports from female and child victims of sexual assault and trafficking and where...more
July 18, 2019, 10:36 p.m.
Countries: Slovakia
Variables: CWC-DATA-2

"The persisting segregation of Roma in separate settlements, including by constructing walls and other physical separations, the limited access of Roma women to land tenure, the reports of frequent violent raids by the police on Roma settlements, resulting in casualties and the displacement of residents, including women and children, and the lack of investigation into the excessive use of force and misconduct by the police" (11).
July 18, 2019, 8:56 p.m.
Countries: Bangladesh
Variables: CWC-DATA-2

"There are serious loopholes in some policies too; the Agriculture Policy recognizes only the post-harvest role of the women which effectively means that women are not recognized as farmers and the door for them to access government agriculture support services and credit facilities remain shut" (12). "Both the National Rural Development Policy and the National Agriculture Extension Policy, respectively adopted in 2001 and 2012, talk conspicuously about issues of the women and the need for specific intervention to improve their conditions and rights as part of overall social and economic progress of the country. The recently adopted 7th Five-Year Plan, possibly the most important document for the socio-economic development of...more
July 18, 2019, 12:24 p.m.
Countries: Central African Rep

"Discrimination against women in employment and occupation occurred in all sectors of the economy and in rural areas, where traditional practices that favor men remained widespread" (Pg 26).
July 12, 2019, 8:51 a.m.
Countries: Cambodia
Variables: CWC-DATA-2

"The Ministry of Rural Development (MRD) established the National Action Plan and Provincial Action Plan for the Rural Development Sector (2014–2018), which incorporates key elements in the MRD GMAP 2012–2016. The plan aims to eliminate gender inequality, reduce poverty and improve the living conditions and livelihoods of women in rural areas. The Ministry of Agriculture, Forestry and Fishery (MAFF) developed the Gender Mainstreaming Policy and Strategic Framework in Agriculture 2016–2020, which strengthens gender mainstreaming of the Cambodian Agriculture Sector Strategic Development Plan 2014–2018. It includes three main strategies to promote women’s economic empowerment through women’s access to goods, mainstreaming gender into the agriculture sector, and increasing the equal participation of...more
July 11, 2019, 5:35 p.m.
Countries: Bangladesh
Variables: CWC-DATA-2

"High rates of poverty and malnutrition among women and girls, especially those who belong to disadvantaged and marginalized communities, who reportedly have limited access to social security benefits and programmes. The Committee is also concerned about the limited access by rural women to financial credit and loans from public banks... rural women have limited access to education, health, social services, land ownership and/or inheritance and... they are not part of decision-making processes in the State party... the contamination of underground water with arsenic, which limits the access of women and girls in rural areas to safe drinking water... the impact of climate change on women and girls in parts of...more
July 9, 2019, 2:45 p.m.
Countries: Zambia
Variables: CWC-DATA-2

"The Anti-Gender-based Violence Act of 2010 criminalizes spousal rape, and the penal code criminalizes domestic violence between spouses and among family members living in one home. The law provides for prosecution of most GBV crimes, and penalties for conviction of assault range from a fine to 25 years in prison, depending on the severity of injury and whether a weapon was used during the assault. The law requires medical reports prepared by certified practitioners for the prosecution of cases of violence against women (and also against men), but there were few certified practitioners in rural areas. The law provides for protection orders for victims of domestic and gender violence, and...more
July 9, 2019, 10:16 a.m.
Countries: Romania
Variables: CWC-DATA-2

"The Committee remains concerned at: (a) The significant disparities between urban and rural women in terms of access to safe drinking water, sanitation and basic services, such as education, employment, health care and transportation; (b) The persistence of patriarchal attitudes and discriminatory stereotypes regarding the roles and responsibilities of women and men in the family and in society in rural areas, resulting in higher levels of gender-based violence against rural women and their lower participation in decision-making processes on rural development; (c) The lack of specific measures to address the challenges faced by rural women in the State party in the national programme for local development" (13). "The Committee notes...more
July 8, 2019, 9:19 p.m.
Countries: Uganda
Variables: CWC-DATA-2

"Urban women (5.6 years) and men (6.1 years) spend longer in school than rural women (2.9 years) and men (3.5 years)" (16). "Urban women are more educated than their rural counterparts. Five percent of urban women have no education, as compared with 11% of rural women. Seventeen percent of urban women have more than a secondary education, compared with 5% of rural women" (46). "Respondents living in urban areas are more likely to be literate than those living in rural areas, and the gap in literacy rates between women and men is higher in rural than in urban areas. Eighty-four percent of urban women and 86% of urban men are...more
July 8, 2019, 2:42 p.m.
Countries: Uzbekistan
Variables: CWC-DATA-2

"Contraception generally was available to men and women. In most districts maternity clinics were available and staffed by fully trained doctors, who gave a wide range of prenatal and postpartum care. There were reports that more women in rural areas than in urban areas gave birth at home without the presence of skilled medical attendants" (Pg 29). "The minimum legal age for marriage is 17 for women and 18 for men, although a district may lower the age by one year in exceptional cases. The Women’s Committee and mahalla representatives conducted systematic campaigns to raise awareness of the dangers of child marriage and early births. The committee also held regular...more
July 8, 2019, 1:19 p.m.
Countries: Uganda

"The law provides women with the same legal status and rights as men. Discrimination against women, however, was widespread, especially in rural areas. Many customary laws discriminate against women in adoption, marriage, divorce, and inheritance. Under local customary law in many areas, women may not own or inherit property or retain custody of their children. Traditional divorce law in many areas requires women to meet stricter evidentiary standards than men to prove adultery. Polygyny is legal under both customary and Islamic law. In some ethnic groups, men may “inherit” the widows of their deceased brothers" (Pg 29).
July 8, 2019, 12:38 p.m.
Countries: Burundi
Variables: CWC-DATA-2

"The limited access to basic health-care services for women, in particular rural women, women with disabilities and refugee and internally displaced women" (11)."The Committee welcomes the fact that gender equality is a first priority of the strategic framework on combating poverty and that the strategic framework has established a fund to finance agricultural activities by rural women" (12). "The Committee notes the establishment of community mechanisms to promote the participation of rural women in development programmes through a minimum quota of 30 per cent, but remains concerned that in practice they are not included in decision-making. In addition, it is concerned about the precarious situation of and high poverty rates...more
July 8, 2019, 9:30 a.m.
Countries: Senegal
Variables: CWC-DATA-2

"The law provides for the same legal status and rights for women as for men. Nevertheless, women faced pervasive discrimination, especially in rural areas where traditional customs and discriminatory rules of inheritance, were strongest" (page 15-16). "While women legally have equal access to land, traditional practices made it difficult for women to purchase property in rural areas. Many women had access to land only through their husbands, and the security of their rights depended on maintaining the relationship with their husbands. In addition rural councils--where women often were underrepresented--allocated most land" (page 16). "According to women’s rights groups and officials from the Ministry of Women, Family, and Childhood, child marriage...more
July 6, 2019, 1:13 p.m.
Countries: Togo
Variables: CWC-DATA-2

"The law prohibits FGM/C for girls and women. It is usually perpetrated a few months after birth. According to 2015 data from the UN Children’s Fund (UNICEF), FGM/C had been performed on 3 percent of girls and women between ages 15 and 49 and on 1 percent of girls and young women ages15 to 19. The most common form of FGM/C was excision. Penalties for those convicted of FGM/C range from two months to five years in prison as well as substantial fines. The law was rarely enforced because most cases occurred in rural areas where awareness of the law was limited or traditional customs often took precedence over the...more