The most comprehensive compilation of information on the status of
women in the world.

Latest items for CWC-DATA-2

Sept. 14, 2018, 9:01 a.m.
Countries: Romania
Variables: CWC-DATA-2

"NGO observers noted that Romani women faced both gender and ethnic discrimination and often lacked the training, marketable skills, or work experience needed to participate in the formal economy" (32).
Sept. 5, 2018, 10:38 a.m.
Countries: Nicaragua
Variables: CWC-DATA-2

"Indigenous women faced multiple levels of discrimination based on their ethnicity, gender, and lower economic status" (25).
Sept. 5, 2018, 10:25 a.m.
Countries: Australia
Variables: CWC-DATA-2

"Indigenous persons in isolated communities had more difficulty accessing such services than the population in general. Cultural factors and language barriers also inhibited use of sexual health and family planning services by indigenous persons, and rates of sexually transmitted diseases and teenage pregnancy among the indigenous population were higher than among the general population" (15).
Sept. 5, 2018, 10:07 a.m.
Countries: Japan
Variables: CWC-DATA-2

"Although not subjected to governmental discrimination, Buraku (the descendants of feudal-era outcasts) were frequently victims of entrenched societal discrimination. Buraku advocacy groups continued to report that despite socioeconomic improvements achieved by many Buraku, widespread discrimination persisted in employment, marriage, housing, and property assessment. While the Buraku label was no longer officially used to identify individuals, the family registry system could be used to identify them and facilitate discriminatory practices" (19). The Buraku are associated with lower socio-economic status and while this statement does not indicate they are concentrated in rural areas, that is the natural assumption. More research should be done particularly into the status of Buraku women (AA-CODER COMMENT).more
Sept. 5, 2018, 10:06 a.m.
Countries: Japan
Variables: CWC-DATA-2

"Although not subjected to governmental discrimination, Buraku (the descendants of feudal-era outcasts) were frequently victims of entrenched societal discrimination. Buraku advocacy groups continued to report that despite socioeconomic improvements achieved by many Buraku, widespread discrimination persisted in employment, marriage, housing, and property assessment. While the Buraku label was no longer officially used to identify individuals, the family registry system could be used to identify them and facilitate discriminatory practices" (19). The Buraku are associated with lower socio-economic status and while this statement does not indicate they are concentrated in rural areas, that is the natural assumption. More research should be done particularly into the status of Buraku women (AA-CODER COMMENT).more
Sept. 5, 2018, 10 a.m.
Countries: Philippines
Variables: LDS-PRACTICE-1, CWC-DATA-2

"Unscrupulous employers subjected women from rural communities and impoverished urban centers to domestic servitude, forced begging, and forced labor in small factories" (37-38).
Sept. 5, 2018, 9:58 a.m.
Countries: Thailand
Variables: CWC-DATA-2

"Two groups--former Chinese civil war belligerents and their descendants living in the country since the end of the civil war and children of Vietnamese immigrants residing in 13 northeastern provinces--lived under laws and regulations restrictive of their movement, residence, education, and access to employment...Noncitizen members of hill tribes faced restrictions on their movement, could not own land, had difficulty accessing bank credit, and faced discrimination in employment" (43). These minority groups include women, who most likely are facing additional discrimination due to their gender and ethnicity (AA-CODER COMMENT).
Sept. 5, 2018, 9:58 a.m.
Countries: Thailand
Variables: CWC-DATA-2

"The Committee remains concerned that rural women, including indigenous women and women from ethnic and religious minority groups, continue to be disproportionately affected by poverty and limited economic opportunities, which increase their vulnerability to trafficking and exploitation. It also expresses concern that rural women: (a) Continue to lack access to basic social services, such as education and health care, including sexual and reproductive health care, as well as access to justice; (b) Are not represented in decision-making bodies and structures at the national and local levels and are excluded from policymaking processes on issues that affect them; (c) Face restrictions to their right to land and natural resources, owing to...more
Sept. 5, 2018, 9:45 a.m.
Countries: Ukraine
Variables: CWC-DATA-2

"Roma continued to face governmental and societal discrimination, although authorities had become more responsive to Romani community concerns...Roma experienced significant barriers accessing education, health care, social services, and employment due in part to discriminatory attitudes against them" (47). Roma women may be subject to additional discrimination by virture of their ethnicity and gender (AA-CODER COMMENT).
Sept. 5, 2018, 9:42 a.m.
Countries: Vietnam
Variables: CWC-DATA-2

"The Committee is also concerned at the recent increase in expropriation and relocation programmes in the context of development projects, disaster risk reduction and responses to climate change, which have negatively affected the livelihood of rural women" (11).
Sept. 4, 2018, 10:27 a.m.
Countries: Peru
Variables: CWC-DATA-2

"Indigenous communities continued to be politically, economically, and socially marginalized...Indigenous women, especially from poor and rural areas, were particularly marginalized" (22).
Sept. 4, 2018, 10:25 a.m.
Countries: Mozambique
Variables: CWC-DATA-2

"Women and girls from rural areas, as well as migrant workers from bordering countries, were lured to cities with promises of employment or education and continued to be exploited in domestic servitude and sex trafficking" (23). "NGOs reported some girls from rural areas migrated to urban centers to work as domestic help for extended family or acquaintances to settle debts where they were vulnerable to commercial sexual exploitation" (24).
Sept. 4, 2018, 10:21 a.m.
Countries: Malawi
Variables: CWC-DATA-2

"A prominent disability advocacy group noted that unlawful discrimination against women and children with disabilities was more prevalent in rural areas and that it received several reports of children with disabilities dropping out of school because of inadequate accommodations" (21).
Sept. 4, 2018, 10:21 a.m.
Countries: Madagascar
Variables: CWC-DATA-2

"There was little societal discrimination against women in urban areas, where many women owned or managed businesses and held management positions in private businesses or state-owned companies. In rural areas, however, where most of the population engaged in subsistence farming, traditional social structures tended to favor entrenched gender roles" (28).
Sept. 4, 2018, 10:19 a.m.
Countries: Lithuania
Variables: CWC-DATA-2

"The small Romani community (approximately 3,000 persons) continued to experience discrimination in access to education, housing, health care, employment, and relations with police, although there were no official charges of police abuse. Extreme poverty, illiteracy, and perceived high criminality helped form the negative attitudes of mainstream society that resulted in the social exclusion of Roma. In addition, 40 percent of Roma did not know the Lithuanian language. Most adult Roma have obtained identification papers, but a few, although born in the country, were effectively stateless" (18). Romani women are especially vulnerable under these circumstances (AA-CODER COMMENT).
Sept. 4, 2018, 10:19 a.m.
Countries: Laos
Variables: CWC-DATA-2

"Poverty continued to affect women disproportionately, especially in rural and ethnic minority communities. While rural women were responsible for more than half of total agricultural production, the additional burdens of housework and child rearing also fell primarily on women" (20-21). "Of the 49 official ethnic groups in the country, the Hmong are one of the largest and most prominent...Some Hmong believed their ethnic group could not coexist with ethnic Lao, a belief that fanned their separatist or irredentist political beliefs. Moreover, government leadership remained suspicious of the political objectives of some Hmong. The government continued to focus limited assistance projects in Hmong areas to address regional and ethnic disparities in...more
Aug. 31, 2018, 11:40 p.m.
Countries: Ireland
Variables: CWC-DATA-2, LO-PRACTICE-1

“the Committee is concerned at the lack of information on specific measures being taken to address the barriers that rural women face in agriculture and land ownership” (14)
Aug. 31, 2018, 11:40 p.m.
Countries: Ireland
Variables: CWC-DATA-2

“rural women face difficulties in accessing social services including access to public transport, childcare, health-care services, employment, education and training” (14)
Aug. 28, 2018, 10:03 a.m.
Countries: Mali
Variables: CWC-DATA-2

"The Committee remains concerned (see CEDAW/C/MLI/CO/5, para. 29) that women, specifically in rural areas, are concentrated in the informal sector in non skilled and low-paid jobs and excluded from social protection . . . The Committee reiterates its concern (see CEDAW/C/MLI/CO/5, para. 33) about the inadequate funding of the health-care sector and the limited access to basic health-care services, including sexual and reproductive health care, in particular among rural women, women with disabilities and women living in conflict-affected areas" (page 10). "The Committee takes note of the extremely high rates of poverty (75.9 per cent) and food insecurity in rural areas in the State party and reiterates its previous concern...more
Aug. 25, 2018, 2:06 p.m.
Countries: Iceland
Variables: CWC-DATA-2

"That rural women have limited access to social and protection services and shelter, including those relating to domestic violence, owing to the poor road infrastructure, which is compounded by weather-related problems in the winter" (11).
Aug. 24, 2018, 12:29 p.m.
Countries: Burma/Myanmar
Variables: CWC-DATA-2

"The Committee . . . is further concerned that women, in particular rural women and those belonging to ethnic minority groups, face additional obstacles in gaining access to justice relating to language, geography and fear of reprisal" (page 5). "The Committee expresses particular concern at: (a) Continuing sexual violence perpetrated by the military and armed groups against rural women and ethnic minority women, in particular in Kachin, Kayah, Kayin Mon and Rakhine States; widespread impunity enjoyed by perpetrators of such violence as well as threats and revictimization of women who attempt to report such cases; the low rate of prosecution of perpetrators of gender-based violence against women, in particular when...more
Aug. 20, 2018, 11:08 a.m.
Countries: Philippines
Variables: CWC-DATA-2

"The Committee welcomes the initiatives taken by the State party to develop a social protection floor, but is concerned that women living in poverty in rural and urban areas, in particular those working in the informal sector, lack access to social security. With reference to its general recommendations No. 16 (1991) on unpaid women workers in rural and urban family enterprises and No. 34 (2016) on the rights of rural women, the Committee recommends that the State party: (a) Ensure that women engaged in unpaid work or in the informal sector, both in rural and urban areas, have access to non-contributory social protection and that those employed in the formal...more
Aug. 15, 2018, 9:40 a.m.
Countries: Montenegro
Variables: CWC-DATA-2

"The Programme for improving employability of women in rural areas of Montenegro (2013-2016) has been brought as a result of two years’ project 'Strengthening economic and social rights of women in Montenegro', which was implemented by the Department for Gender Equality, with the support of UN Women. The development of the Programme was preceded by the research from 2011, conducted in 13 municipalities and 1020 households, which dealt with the position and the needs of women from rural areas. The Programme defines priority goals, measures and activities that will lead towards greater and more quality economic participation of rural women. The Ministry of Agriculture and rural development has been continuously,...more
Aug. 6, 2018, 2:45 p.m.
Countries: Montenegro
Variables: LRW-PRACTICE-1, CWC-DATA-2

“rural women are particularly exposed to gender-based violence and have only limited access to justice, victim assistance and protection, health care, social security and other basic services” (12)
July 11, 2018, 8 p.m.
Countries: Uruguay
Variables: CWC-DATA-2

"The Committee notes that the State party has established specialized family courts with competence to hear cases of domestic violence, in addition to multidisciplinary advisory teams and ombudspersons’ offices, which provide advice and recommendations on issues relating to domestic violence. The Committee remains concerned, however, about the persistence of structural barriers in the justice system that prevent women from gaining access to justice and obtaining redress, namely: . . . (b) The limited availability and accessibility of specialized family courts in rural and border areas" (page 4). "The high rate at which girls are dropping out from formal education, mainly owing to early pregnancy, especially in rural areas and deprived...more
July 6, 2018, 6:49 p.m.
Countries: Uruguay
Variables: CWC-DATA-2

"As regards rural women, Uruguay has made progress but also faces challenges: In the area of inclusion policies and infrastructural aspects, the progress in rural electrification should be noted, as 98.7 per cent of the national territory is now electrified; that has allowed an improved quality of life in rural areas. In terms of access to potable water in towns with a population of less than 5,000 and in rural areas without clean water, the problem areas dropped from 25 per cent in 2006 to 13.8 per cent in 2011; at the same time, water supply systems were installed or refitted at 172 schools and small surrounding towns (Figure 8...more
June 28, 2018, 4:51 p.m.
Countries: Tanzania
Variables: CWC-DATA-2

"The Committee is, however, concerned about: (a) The continued prevalence of female genital mutilation in some regions, especially in rural and traditional communities" (page 6). "The Committee is, however, concerned at: (a) The persistence of structural and other barriers to girls’ access to high-quality education, in particular at the secondary and tertiary levels, owing to, among other things, inadequate budget allocations to the sector, which result in a lack of school infrastructure, including adequate sanitary facilities, teacher shortages and a poor learning environment and teaching materials, especially in rural areas" (page 10). " . . . (d) The limited access to modern contraceptives, especially in rural areas" (page 12). "The...more
June 26, 2018, 9:09 a.m.
Countries: New Zealand
Variables: CWC-DATA-2

"Rural women aged 15 years and over had a higher before-tax mean income ($31,200) than urban women ($30,500) in the year to March 2013. Other statistics drawn from the New Zealand Census show that in 2013: 13 per cent of women in New Zealand lived in rural areas. The percentage of young rural women in full-time study is greater than the percentage of young urban women in full-time study, and 59 per cent of rural women owned or partly owned their usual residence, compared with 49 per cent of urban women" (page 31). "The Ministry for Primary Industries has funded Rural Women NZ during recent adverse climatic events, most recently...more
June 8, 2018, 1:24 p.m.
Countries: Turkey
Variables: CWC-DATA-2

"The Committee is concerned about the persistent disadvantaged situation of Kurdish women that is exacerbated by prejudice against their ethnic and linguistic identity, leading to their further marginalization with respect to their civil, political, economic, social and cultural rights. The Committee calls upon the State party to address the inequalities faced by Kurdish women, which are compounded by the intersecting forms of discrimination to which they are subjected. It recommends that the State party take all measures necessary to bridge the gap between Kurdish women and other women in the State party, and ensure the fulfilment of the State party’s obligations under the Convention towards all women under its jurisdiction,...more
May 31, 2018, 2:35 p.m.
Countries: Tanzania
Variables: CWC-DATA-2

"In areas of high malaria transmission, by the time an individual reaches adulthood, she or he has acquired partial immunity that can protect him/her against severe disease. However, pregnant women---especially those pregnant for the first time---lose some immunity and are once again susceptible to the disease. . . . In 2010, the WHO issued new IPTp guidelines in which pregnant women should receive one dose of SP/Fansidar at each ANC visit after the first trimester with at least one month between doses. . . . Urban women are more likely (11%) than rural women (6%) to have received IPTp3+ during their most recent pregnancy in the past two years. Similarly,...more