The most comprehensive compilation of information on the status of
women in the world.

Latest items for DLB-DATA-1

Dec. 14, 2017, 8:03 p.m.
Countries: Bangladesh
Variables: ERBG-PRACTICE-2, ERBG-DATA-2, ERBG-DATA-5, DLB-DATA-1, ATFPA-PRACTICE-2

At 13:37 of the video a woman interviewed says "For six months of rain and storms, our husbands can’t work, so we sit idle and live in misery" (ENB-Coder Comment)
Dec. 7, 2017, 7:40 p.m.
Countries: Nigeria
Variables: DLB-DATA-1

"The hit [from an oil spill caused by militant groups] to the country’s economy is significant, as more than than two-thirds of state budget comes from crude exports. But what do these numbers not show? How this disaster has shrunk the time that many women had to do paid work by increasing their unpaid work load. The labor that keeps the women in the Niger Delta busy tends to be care work—looking after children, the elderly, the ill—as well as cooking and cleaning. This is work that technically has a market value, but is done for free inside the home, and therefore traditional productivity measures like GDP don’t capture it. ...more
Dec. 5, 2017, 1:12 p.m.
Countries: Singapore
Variables: DLB-DATA-1, ATFPA-PRACTICE-2, ATFPA-PRACTICE-3, DMW-PRACTICE-1

"Relying on this provision, the CEDAW Committee has urged Singapore to combat the 'persistence of patriarchal attitudes and deep-rooted stereotypes regarding the roles and responsibilities of women and men within the family and society at large,' and expressed its concern that, 'despite the legal equality accorded to spouses, discriminatory traditional cultural attitudes that continue to utilize “the head of the household” concept, assigning this role to men, persist' within that state"(78)
Dec. 5, 2017, 12:57 p.m.
Countries: Russia
Variables: CL-PRACTICE-1, DLB-DATA-1, DMW-PRACTICE-1, ATC-DATA-1

"Under the same provision of the CEDAW Convention, the CEDAW Committee expressed its concern about the 'emphasis on the role of women as mothers and caregivers' in the Russian Federation, noting that 'a shift from a focus on women primarily as wives and mothers to individuals and actors equal to men in society is required for the full implementation of the Convention and the achievement of equality of women and men'"(79)
Dec. 5, 2017, 12:54 p.m.
Countries: Nepal
Variables: DLB-DATA-1, LO-DATA-1, ATFPA-PRACTICE-2, NGOFW-DATA-1

"Time reallocations resulting from Nepal’s joining the Vegetable and Fruit Cash Crop Programme (VFC) were investigated in 1991–1993. The VFC aimed to encourage commercialization of fruits and vegetables by quality and productivity improvements, for the benefit of families who had hitherto produced fruits and vegetable for their own consumption. Using various methodologies to observe 264 households, researchers found that VFC participation increased the time dedicated by women (and even moderately by men) to children under 5 years of age in families with more than one preschooler. In contrast, in households with only one preschooler, parents tended to spend more time on cultivation, especially for the cash crops, at the expense ...more
Dec. 5, 2017, 10:38 a.m.
Countries: South Africa
Variables: CL-PRACTICE-1, DLB-DATA-1

"Women commonly face difficulties in reconciling responsibilities in the care economy—particularly the minding and educating of children of pre-school age—and employment on farms. In addition to modes of remuneration, the unavailability of public child-care services combined with poor transportation services may lead women to bring children with them to work on plantations. This has been documented in the horticultural sector in Punjab (Gill 2001), and in informal settlements established near plantations during the working season in South Africa (Barrientos, Dolan, and Tallontire 2003)"(47)
Dec. 5, 2017, 10:17 a.m.
Countries: Iran, Thailand
Variables: DLB-DATA-1

"Studies in Thailand and Iran found that children whose mothers worked in the formal sector (Thailand) or spend more than 3 hours per day outside the home (Iran) could experience worsened nutritional or health outcomes because of the reduced time allocated to care by the mother. These studies conclude that 'reduced maternal care effects' predominate over 'income effects' when the mother takes up employment outside the home (Chutikul 1986; Rabiee and Giessler 1992)"(69)
Dec. 5, 2017, 10:17 a.m.
Countries: South Africa
Variables: DLB-DATA-1

"Even when most contracted work is performed by the wife and other family members, it is not unusual for the contract to be signed by the husband, as head of household. This is seen in sugar contract farming in South Africa"(37)
Dec. 5, 2017, 10:17 a.m.
Countries: Philippines
Variables: DLB-DATA-1

"Most studies, however, including a major study using household-level data in the Philippines in 1985 and in 2003–2004, conclude instead that income effects predominate. Although time dedicated to care may in some cases decline, the welfare of children generally is increased when mothers augment their income with employment outside the home (Salazar and Quisumbing 2009)"(69)."An oft-cited example is the work by the international NGO Helen Keller International, launched initially in Bangladesh in the 1980s, and expanded later to Cambodia, Nepal, and the Philippines (Ianotti, Cunningham, and Ruel 2009; Meinzen-Dick et al. 2011b). Working together with local partners, Helen Keller International supports women’s production of nutritious food on family plots, with ...more
Dec. 5, 2017, 10:17 a.m.
Countries: Papua New Guinea
Variables: DLB-DATA-1

"Training in Papua New Guinea by the United States Agency for International Development could not be attended by most women because of the required travel and 3 days away from family responsibilities (Cahn 2008)"(30)
Dec. 5, 2017, 10:17 a.m.
Countries: Bangladesh, Cambodia, Nepal
Variables: DLB-DATA-1

"An oft-cited example is the work by the international NGO Helen Keller International, launched initially in Bangladesh in the 1980s, and expanded later to Cambodia, Nepal, and the Philippines (Ianotti, Cunningham, and Ruel 2009; Meinzen-Dick et al. 2011b). Working together with local partners, Helen Keller International supports women’s production of nutritious food on family plots, with significant reductions in micronutrient deficiencies (vitamin A, iron, and zinc) in the households concerned. In addition to increasing dietary diversity, such strategies may allow women to build economic assets (with the raising of poultry, for example), and improve their role in decision making within the family while fulfilling their domestic and child-care responsibilities. Women’s ...more
Dec. 5, 2017, 10:17 a.m.
Countries: Sri Lanka
Variables: DLB-DATA-1

"The opportunity cost of women’s time rises due to their employment, affecting food consumption patterns and causing a shift to time-saving foods—especially commercially baked breads, as documented in Sri Lanka (Senauer, Sahn, and Alderman 1986)"(70)
Dec. 5, 2017, 10:17 a.m.
Countries: China
Variables: DLB-DATA-1

"Even when most contracted [farming] work is performed by the wife and other family members, it is not unusual for the contract to be signed by the husband, as head of household. This is seen in sugar contract farming in South Africa, vegetable contract farming in the Indian Punjab, and in some cases in the PRC (FAO, IFAD, and WFP 2011, p. 13; Behrman et al. 2011, p. 11; Kumar 2006; Meinzen-Dick 2011b)"(37)
Dec. 5, 2017, 10:17 a.m.
Countries: Indonesia
Variables: DLB-DATA-1

"Other members of the household (especially girls and the elderly) may be recruited to undertake a greater part of the housework as women benefiting from a microcredit program spend more time on their businesses. This is illustrated by a survey of 121 women benefiting from the Small Farmers Development Program (SFDP)—launched by the Government of Indonesia in the early 1990s—when their answers were compared to those of a control group of 94 women. The responses showed that the program, which targeted not only women in poor agricultural families but also those active in fishing, home industry, and trading, allowed women beneficiaries to command more contributions from other members of the ...more
Dec. 5, 2017, 9:57 a.m.
Countries: Mexico
Variables: CL-PRACTICE-1, DLB-DATA-1, ATFPA-PRACTICE-2, AFE-PRACTICE-1, AFE-DATA-1, NGOFW-DATA-3

"From the gender perspective, the impacts of CCT [cash transfer] programs are ambiguous. The conditionalities may significantly improve the educational attainments of girls. Since the benefits are generally provided to women as care givers (following the examples of Mexico and Brazil), this strengthens their role within the family"(53)
Nov. 30, 2017, 12:32 p.m.
Countries: Philippines
Variables: DLB-DATA-1

"A 2010 survey by the World Bank and IFPRI and by an earlier study of 304 rural households in the Philippines found that women generally join women self-help groups or women’s groups, whereas men tend to socialize in cooperatives or other producers’ organizations. Godquin and Quisumbing summarized their main conclusions Males are more likely to be members of production groups, while females are more likely to participate in civic groups. This may indicate a division of labour within the household or separate spheres of decision making. Men, who are more heavily involved in agricultural production, are indeed more involved in groups related to income generation whereas women, who tend to ...more
Nov. 30, 2017, 12:02 p.m.
Countries: China
Variables: DLB-DATA-1, ATFPA-PRACTICE-2

"Some 85% of the cost of the project went to salaries for the women, with each woman paid on average $686 for 110 workdays. The program enabled many participating women to move their families above the poverty line for the first time. The flexible nature of the output-based payment system enabled women to reconcile participation with other household and farm responsibilities, including income-generating activities (e.g., pig raising and selling vegetables)"(58)
Nov. 29, 2017, 4:11 p.m.
Countries: Sri Lanka
Variables: DLB-DATA-1, ATFPA-PRACTICE-2, LR-DATA-1, AFE-PRACTICE-1, AFE-DATA-1

"Tamil women on tea plantations in Sri Lanka, who are the majority of tea pickers, evidence high rates of illiteracy and lack of numeracy skills. Customarily, the husband or a male kin collects their daily payment at weighing time, with little of it accessed by the woman worker (Nandini Gunewardena, personal communication"(46)
Nov. 29, 2017, 1:38 p.m.
Countries: India
Variables: DLB-DATA-1

"Male agents, on the other hand, may have less understanding of the specific constraints faced by women, such as time poverty, limits on mobility, and the gendered division of tasks in agricultural work"(30)."Paris et al. (2008) worked in submergence- and drought-prone villages in Uttar Pradesh, India to identify the impact on women’s empowerment of PPB [participatory plant breeding] using a measure of women’s empowerment, the Women’s Empowerment Index (WEI). This index is determined by who the decision-maker is within the household (husband or wife), and by the activities decided by women—e.g., which rice to grow, and whether to sell or exchange the seeds with neighbors. PPB was found to have ...more
Nov. 29, 2017, 10:09 a.m.
Countries: Bangladesh
Variables: DLB-DATA-1

"Coping strategies adopted by families in the face of higher food prices and loss of income commonly impose a disproportionate burden on women. Zohir et al. (2010) asked people in urban slums in Bangladesh about their coping strategies after the food crisis. The most common strategies revealed by responses and a review of other studies were spending out of savings, borrowing from friends and relatives, and the sale of assets. Households also reduce expenditures by replacing market-bought goods with home-produced substitutes—such as prepared food or fuel wood. They also substitute family-provided services for services previously sourced from outside—such as child-care or elementary health care. Whenever possible, work time tends to ...more
Nov. 28, 2017, 9:39 p.m.
Countries: Mauritius
Variables: CL-PRACTICE-1, DLB-DATA-1

"Similarly, while welcoming the adoption in Mauritius of the 2008 National Gender Policy Framework, the Committee recorded its concern about:…the persistence of discriminatory cultural norms and practices as well as patriarchal attitudes and deep-rooted stereotypes concerning the roles and responsibilities of women and men in family and society whereby men are largely still considered the main breadwinners and women are considered as having the primary responsibility for child-rearing and domestic tasks"(79)
Nov. 10, 2017, 4:45 p.m.
Countries: South Korea
Variables: DLB-DATA-1

"It has been estimated that in middle-income countries such as the Republic of Korea and South Africa, unpaid care work represents the equivalent of 15% of gross domestic product (GDP) if it were valued in monetary terms (as when such services are subject to market transactions). The comparable figure is 63% for low-income countries such as India and Tanzania (Budlender 2010). If this unpaid care work were to be financed by the public purse, it would represent 94% of the total tax revenue of the Republic of Korea, and 182% of the total tax revenue of India"(3-4)."A major cause of the persistence of existing gender roles is that many men ...more
Nov. 10, 2017, 4:45 p.m.
Countries: India
Variables: DLB-DATA-1

"A study on the Indian state of Gujarat estimated that reducing to 1 hour a day the time spent fetching water by women would allow the women to increase their incomes by $100 yearly using the time saved (United Nations Development Programme [UNDP] 2006)"(3)."It has been estimated that in middle-income countries such as the Republic of Korea and South Africa, unpaid care work represents the equivalent of 15% of gross domestic product (GDP) if it were valued in monetary terms (as when such services are subject to market transactions). The comparable figure is 63% for low-income countries such as India and Tanzania (Budlender 2010). If this unpaid care work were ...more
Nov. 10, 2017, 4:45 p.m.
Countries: China
Variables: DLB-DATA-1

"In the absence of redistribution of existing gender roles, gains for women that should result from investments in physical infrastructure, for example, may be short-lived, or benefit them less than men. After one village in the People’s Republic of China (PRC) was electrified, it was found that the main effect was to lead women to shift their domestic responsibilities to the evening, resulting in them working longer hours in the field. Leisure time increased for the village as a whole, but men were the primary beneficiaries (FAO, IFAD, and ILO 2010, p. 40, referring to Lucas et al. 2003)"(4)
Nov. 10, 2017, 4:45 p.m.
Countries: Sri Lanka
Variables: DLB-DATA-1

"Most rural households and communities in the region manage their agricultural production systems based on social norms and practices that determine the gender division of labor. These vary from the notably constrained roles and opportunities of women in South Asia (with the exception of Sri Lanka) to the more complementary gender roles found in parts of Southeast Asia and some of the Pacific island nations"(8)
Nov. 10, 2017, 4:45 p.m.
Countries: Indonesia, Pakistan
Variables: DLB-DATA-1

"A major cause of the persistence of existing gender roles is that many men in the formal sector work long hours, providing at least a partial explanation of why they are not assuming a greater share of family responsibilities. In countries such as Indonesia, Republic of Korea, and Pakistan, more than 30% of all employees work more than 48 hours per week. Male employees especially tend to work excessive hours—both a consequence and cause of gender stereotypes reinforcing the existing division of labor (Lee, McCann, and Messenger 2007, p. 240)"(6)
Nov. 10, 2017, 4:45 p.m.
Countries: South Africa
Variables: DLB-DATA-1

"It has been estimated that in middle-income countries such as the Republic of Korea and South Africa, unpaid care work represents the equivalent of 15% of gross domestic product (GDP) if it were valued in monetary terms (as when such services are subject to market transactions"(3)
Nov. 10, 2017, 4:45 p.m.
Countries: Tanzania
Variables: DLB-DATA-1

"It has been estimated that in middle-income countries such as the Republic of Korea and South Africa, unpaid care work represents the equivalent of 15% of gross domestic product (GDP) if it were valued in monetary terms (as when such services are subject to market transactions). The comparable figure is 63% for low-income countries such as India and Tanzania (Budlender 2010). If this unpaid care work were to be financed by the public purse, it would represent 94% of the total tax revenue of the Republic of Korea, and 182% of the total tax revenue of India"(3-4)
Nov. 7, 2017, 11 p.m.
Countries: Tajikistan
Variables: DLB-DATA-1

"The workday begins at half past three in the morning, when they start sweeping the streets with handmade brooms. Later in the day, women in orange hi-vis vests can be seen digging the earth, planting shrubs and tending roadside flowers...Street cleaners are now mostly female, although there are a few men who join their ranks, either very young or elderly. The salary is small, but it makes a difference to the family budget"(para 3, 5)
Nov. 7, 2017, 9:21 p.m.
Countries: Bangladesh
Variables: DLB-DATA-1, MARR-PRACTICE-7

"Two months ago, she [Shaheen, a Village Education Resource Centre community coordinator] stopped by the home of a local widow, to find out if her 14-year-old daughter Jasmine, who had been forced to leave school as money was short, was interested in some training to become a garment factory worker.Many slum residents find work at Dhaka's garment factories, earning about $50 per month of 12-hour shifts, or spend their days recycling plastic wrapping in sheds within the slum.Jasmine's mother said the training wasn't necessary, as she planned to send her daughter back to their native village to marry.Shaheen contacted members of a women's group, who visited to urge Jasmine's mother ...more