The most comprehensive compilation of information on the status of
women in the world.

Latest items for DSFMF-PRACTICE-4

Aug. 3, 2018, 2:09 p.m.
Countries: Zimbabwe
Variables: DSFMF-PRACTICE-4

"Virginity testing, although reportedly decreasing, continued to occur in some parts the country during the year" (34). "An NGO study published in March 2014 found that because of the cultural emphasis placed on virginity, any loss of virginity--real or perceived, consensual or forced--could result in marriage, including early or forced marriage" (37).
July 17, 2018, 9:04 p.m.
Countries: Mozambique
Variables: DSFMF-PRACTICE-4

"Reports continued of many women expelled from their homes and abandoned by their husbands and relatives because they were HIV positive" (21).
June 8, 2018, 1:24 p.m.
Countries: Turkey
Variables: DSFMF-PRACTICE-4

"Article 287 of the Penal Code on 'genital examinations', according to which virginity testing authorized by a judge or prosecutor remains legal even if the woman or girl does not consent to the intrusive practice, which constitutes a violation of both her privacy and her physical and mental integrity . . . The Committee recommends that the State party make all efforts necessary to ensure that all laws that are discriminatory towards women are repealed, and: (a) Amend the Penal Code and abolish the provision allowing for genital examinations, including virginity testing, to be performed on a woman or girl without her consent. It also recommends that the State party...more
May 13, 2018, 7:53 p.m.
Countries: Afghanistan
Variables: DSFMF-PRACTICE-4, DSFMF-LAW-1, DV-PRACTICE-1, DTCP-PRACTICE-1

"Women in need of protection who could not find it often ended up in prison, either due to a lack of a protection center in their province or district, or based on local interpretation of “running away” as a moral crime. Adultery, fornication, and kidnapping are crimes under the law. Women often were convicted of those crimes in situations of abuse, rape, or forced marriage, or on the basis of invalid evidence, including virginity tests. Running away is not a crime under the law, and both the Supreme Court and AGO issued directives to this effect, but women and girls continued to be detained for running away from home or...more
April 20, 2018, 3:05 p.m.
Countries: Fiji
Variables: DSFMF-PRACTICE-4

"This is a very important law reform in the sense that in our iTaukei Fijian culture as well as the Fijian Indian culture, there is always a stigma over losing virginity before marriage especially for young women. This leads to a rigid control of women’s and girls’ rights to protect their chastity and family honour, ensuring that girls have no option to explore their sexuality except within marriage" (40).
March 27, 2018, 8:23 p.m.
Countries: Indonesia
Variables: DSFMF-PRACTICE-4

"New York based rights group Human Rights Watch (HRW) has urged President Joko 'Jokowi' Widodo to order the chiefs of the National Police and Indonesian Military (TNI) to immediately ban virginity testing for female applicants, saying the practice is a form of gender based violence" (para 1).
Jan. 8, 2018, 12:11 p.m.
Countries: Russia
Variables: DSFMF-PRACTICE-4

"Doctors have begun implementing an order from the Russian Investigative Committee - seen as the equivalent of the FBI - demanding that all medical evidence of sex involving girls under the age of 16 should be reported to the police" (para 2). "Doctors must 'inform police about all cases when virginity was lost as well as about cases of pregnancies and abortions involving girls under 16 years old', he demanded. Specifically, the order instructs doctors to check girls 'and report all cases when the integrity of the hymen is damaged'" (para 6-7). "The Russian Health Ministry put itself at loggerheads with the Investigative Committee in attacking the move [to perform...more
Dec. 28, 2017, 4 p.m.
Countries: Burkina Faso
Variables: DSFMF-PRACTICE-4

"Chantal, the mother of the 2-month-old baby, was forced to leave her family when her older brother discovered she was 7 months’ pregnant, so 'he threw me out of the house because he was afraid to die because of me,' she said. 'I had nowhere else to go. So I lived in the streets for two weeks. A woman saw me and proposed me to stay and sleep with her at home.' Chantal ended up at the shelter, too. When she gave birth, her mother and older sister came once to visit her and the baby during his baptism. It is forbidden for Mossi to have babies at home if...more
Dec. 14, 2017, 8:03 p.m.
Countries: Bangladesh
Variables: DSFMF-PRACTICE-4

At 5:48 of the video Razia's dad said "You all know about the condition of Dhaka city. Keeping a grown up girl here, no one knows what would happen. Better to get married, it’s not a bad idea"(ENB-Coder Comment). At 8:33 of the video Razia's dad says "Listen, if my daughter is walking down the road talking to a boy, and someone sees, they will tell everyone that my daughter is seeing him. Then your honour is immediately lost. As soon as people start thinking that this has happened, everything is finished, you will lose face .It’s like thieves, they always scream that thieves have stolen something from you. And...more
Dec. 7, 2017, 4:07 p.m.
Countries: Egypt
Variables: DSFMF-PRACTICE-2, DSFMF-PRACTICE-4, DMW-PRACTICE-1, AFE-PRACTICE-1

"The Egyptian Center for Women’s Rights (ECWR) strongly condemns the statements of the two MPs addressing women. The first MP released a statement calling for female university students to undergo mandatory virginity tests and to submit what proves their virginity. He added that this virginity test should be conducted every year as a condition for the female university students to get their university ID. He claims that this procedure will reduce ‘urfi marriage. After few days another MP announces that he is currently working on a draft law calling for female students at the vocational schools to undergo mandatory virginity tests as well, using words that are abusive for all...more
Nov. 30, 2017, 6:26 p.m.
Countries: Egypt
Variables: DSFMF-PRACTICE-4

"In conservative Egyptian society, sex is only acceptable within the framework of marriage. A woman's body and sexual organs are shrouded in sanctity, and rape is considered a heinous, socially unacceptable act. In some parts of Egypt, a woman can be killed by her family members if she has an affair with a stranger" (para 11).
Nov. 3, 2017, 8:07 a.m.
Countries: Afghanistan
Variables: DSFMF-PRACTICE-4

"Six months after the wedding, her new husband summarily divorced her, claiming that she had not been a virgin when they married" (para 1). "Virginity is highly prized in conservative Afghan society, seen as a symbol of modesty and family pride. Girls who are deemed to have had sex before marriage face public shame, divorce and even death. Women and girls also face invasive and degrading forced virginity tests to determine whether their hymen is intact. Although President Ashraf Ghani has promised to ban these tests as part of official procedure, they are routine for women accused of anything that falls under the vague category of so-called moral crimes" (para...more
Sept. 1, 2017, 1:17 p.m.
Countries: Morocco
Variables: DSFMF-PRACTICE-4

“The penal code also allows rapists to escape prosecution if they marry their victims, leading to horrifying cases of abuse, particularly in conservative country areas where families pressure girls to marry their attackers to avoid the social opprobrium and reduced marriage prospects for those known to no longer be virgins” (para 20).
Aug. 31, 2017, 5:38 p.m.
Countries: India
Variables: DSFMF-PRACTICE-4

“The victim had support from the police early on as well as from her father, a white-bearded scrap dealer named Sabruddin, who was outraged at what his daughter had gone through. In this, she was lucky: Many families don’t report rapes for fear it will bring dishonor upon them” (para 19-20). “The doctor also performed what is known as the ‘two-finger test,’ a once-routine practice in rape exams where two fingers are used to determine the pliability of the hymen. The exam has long been used by defense attorneys as evidence that a victim had an alleged prior sexual history, although courts have said that should have no bearing. …...more
Aug. 31, 2017, 11:34 a.m.
Countries: Egypt
Variables: DSFMF-PRACTICE-4

“Girls here [Cairo] sometimes reported their inability to confide in family members when facing problems, in particular sexual harassment. Their reasons were fear of people blaming them, fear of being prevented from leaving home, fear of fights, and fear of damaging their family’s reputation. Sometimes, though, they were often afraid not of their families, but for their families – they were afraid their fathers and brothers would try to fight the harasser and end up getting hurt” (28).
Jan. 26, 2017, 2:43 p.m.
Countries: Egypt
Variables: DSFMF-PRACTICE-4

"And earlier during the first transitional period, peaceful female demonstrators were submitted to forced virginity tests by the military police forces, which violate privacy rights and promote the conservative culture values against Women’s participation in demonstrations and political action" (2).
Jan. 4, 2017, 2:59 p.m.
Countries: Jordan
Variables: DSFMF-PRACTICE-4

“The Ministry of Justice indicated that seven so-called “honor crimes” were referred to the judicial system through October, with one case still under investigation, while NGOs reported 14 potential honor crimes through September. Activists reported that many such crimes went unreported” (30). “In “honor crime” cases, the family of the victim and the family of the alleged perpetrator were often the same, since the perpetrator and victim usually were related. There were no reported instances of forced marriage as an alternative to a potential honor killing during the year, although NGOs note that many cases of forced marriage occur shortly after an accusation of rape due to family and societal...more
Dec. 24, 2016, 1:06 a.m.
Countries: Pakistan
Variables: DSFMF-PRACTICE-4

"Pakistani men who kill their female relatives in the name of honour will no longer be able to evade punishment after the country’s parliament finally passed long-promised legislation" (para 1).
Dec. 1, 2016, 12:24 p.m.
Countries: Guinea
Variables: DSFMF-PRACTICE-2, DSFMF-PRACTICE-3, DSFMF-PRACTICE-4, DSFMF-LAW-1

"Adultery is frowned on, but not uncommon, and to some degree may be expected for both men and women. Traditional punishments involve a fine imposed on the male adulterer by the aggrieved husband, and no particular formal punishment for the woman"(para 2)
Nov. 23, 2016, 7:55 a.m.
Countries: South Africa
Variables: IIP-PRACTICE-1, DSFMF-PRACTICE-4

"Fear of sexual violence leads many parents to restrict their daughters’ mobility. Parents also fear that their daughters might intentionally seek out sexual liaisons when away from home, which leads them to place strict controls on when and where they may travel: 'Definitely going to town, my girls need permission from me. You know how naughty children can be. They will say they are going to town whereas they are going to see their boyfriends and the end result is pregnancy.' (Thokozane, 35-year-old father, EC, urban, adult interviewer) Boys’ travel is also controlled to some extent, since boys are seen to be at risk of violent attack, but girls typically...more
Nov. 8, 2016, 10:20 p.m.
Countries: Syria
Variables: DSFMF-PRACTICE-4

"Syrian women and girls face sexual violence, forced and early marriages, and "honor" crimes, amongst other forms of gender- based violence; and they lack adequate protections, access to justice, and victim services" (1). "Upon release from detention or checkpoints, and after house raids, women are often alienated from their families and viewed as “unfit” for marriage, and in some instances divorced or killed, because family members believe they were raped. The fear of sexual violence and its consequences is also a trigger in the displacement of many families" (2). "Many in Syria are raised to believe that defending the chastity of their sisters, daughters and other female family members is...more
Oct. 8, 2016, 4:08 p.m.
Countries: Lesotho
Variables: DSFMF-PRACTICE-4

“The median age at first sexual intercourse is 1.8 years earlier than the median age at first marriage for women and 6.4 years earlier for men, indicating that both women and men engage in sex before marriage” (57). “Postponing marriage but not sex: Women and men in Lesotho are waiting longer to get married, but not to initiate sex. Since 2004, the median age at first sexual intercourse has changed little among women (18.7 years in 2004 versus 18.5 years in 2014), while for men, it has dropped from 19.0 years to 18.1. During the same period, the median age at first marriage for women has increased from 19.1 years...more
Oct. 8, 2016, 4:07 p.m.
Countries: Bangladesh
Variables: DSFMF-PRACTICE-4

“Table 4.5 shows that the median age at first sexual intercourse among women age 20-49 (16.2 years) is almost equal to the median age at first marriage (16.1 years). The median age at first sexual intercourse is higher among women age 20-24 than among older women” (43).
Oct. 7, 2016, 11 a.m.
Countries: Fiji
Variables: IIP-PRACTICE-1, DSFMF-PRACTICE-4

"Young, unmarried [Indo-Fijian] women are seldom permitted to go out during the day on their own or with female friends and never at night unless accompanied by the family. In some cases, females are not even permitted to hang around their own front or back yards unnecessarily, especially if there are young males in the neighbourhood. Failure to comply is likely to result in physical punishment meted out by the father or brother. Female friendships are conducted only at school or in the workplace and are seldom extended beyond this realm, while women’s participation in the public world is, virtually nil. ... In part, restrictions on women’s physical space are...more
Oct. 1, 2016, 5:34 p.m.
Countries: Afghanistan
Variables: DSFMF-PRACTICE-4

"Earlier this year, the nongovernmental organization Civil and Liberal Initiative for Peace (CLIP) sought to map the practice of baad and its social impact in Afghanistan. Focusing on nine districts in Kabul, Parwan, and Panjshir provinces, the survey showed a significant decline in baad cases... Amiri confirmed that the victims of baad are mostly under-aged girls who are sacrificed to settle an inter-family dispute. Girls who run away from home with a boy or are accused of having premarital sex are also targeted, according to CLIP's findings" (para 5-7).
Sept. 30, 2016, 10:33 a.m.
Countries: Guinea
Variables: MARR-PRACTICE-2, DSFMF-PRACTICE-4

“‘Broadly speaking, non-excision of girls is considered dishonourable in Guinean society,’ the report says. “Social pressure is such that girls may request excision for fear of being excluded or forced to remain unmarried if they do not suffer the practice’” (para 7).
Sept. 27, 2016, 4:55 p.m.
Countries: India
Variables: DSFMF-PRACTICE-4

“‘Letting go of female children is dishonorable, in itself,’ explained Pramanand Das, who presides over an informal family council. Minati Das, the mother of a 19-year-old, got to the point quicker. ‘Not everyone wants a daughter-in-law who is a working woman,’ she said. ‘They think she has lost her chastity’” (para 19-20).
Sept. 14, 2016, 4:05 p.m.
Countries: Nigeria
Variables: DSFMF-PRACTICE-4

“Women and men in Nigeria tend to initiate sexual activity before marriage. The median age at first sexual intercourse is 17.6 years for women and 21.1 years for men age 25-49” (53). “Table 13.18 shows that 17 percent of young women and 3 percent of young men age 15-24 initiated sexual activity before age 15, and 52 percent of young women and 19 percent of young men age 18-24 had their first sexual intercourse before age 18. As expected, the proportion of youth who initiated sexual activity early is higher among ever-married youth than among those who have not yet married. The likelihood of early sexual debut generally decreases with...more
Sept. 14, 2016, 3:55 p.m.
Countries: Namibia
Variables: DSFMF-PRACTICE-4

“Findings in Figure 14.2 indicate that 73-80 percent of women and men age 15-49 believe that young women and men should wait until they are married to have sexual intercourse” (204). “Women on average have two partners in their lifetime. While there are variations by age, marital status, urban-rural residence, education and wealth quintile, the most notable differences are found by region—less than two partners among women in Kavango, Ohangwena, and Omusati, and four partners among women in Kunene and Omaheke… The mean number of lifetime sexual partners reported by men is seven. This figure varies significantly across subgroups. As expected, the number is larger for older men (three for...more
Sept. 14, 2016, 3:44 p.m.
Countries: Ghana
Variables: DSFMF-PRACTICE-4

“Overall, 44 percent of never-married men have never had sexual intercourse, as compared with 38 percent of never-married women” (49). “The data show that among women age 25-49, 11 percent had their first sexual intercourse by age 15, 44 percent by age 18, and 68 percent by age 20. The median age at first intercourse among women age 25-49 is 18.4 years, more than two years lower than the median age at first marriage (20.7 years), suggesting that Ghanaian women in general initiate sexual intercourse before their first marriage” (54). “Overall, 47 percent of women and 56 percent of men age 15-24 have never had sexual intercourse. Young women and...more