The most comprehensive compilation of information on the status of
women in the world.

Latest items for DTCP-LAW-1

April 22, 2019, 7:33 a.m.
Countries: United Arab Emirates
Variables: ATDW-LAW-5, DTCP-LAW-1

"For a woman to obtain a divorce with a financial settlement, she must prove her husband inflicted physical or moral harm upon her, abandoned her for at least three months, or had not provided for her or their children’s upkeep. Physical abuse claims require medical reports and two male witnesses. It is up to the judge’s discretion to consider women as full witnesses or half witnesses. Alternatively, women may divorce by paying compensation or surrendering their dowry to their husbands" (p. 25).
April 17, 2019, 9:19 a.m.
Countries: El Salvador
Variables: DTCP-LAW-1

"The law establishes sentences of one to three years in prison for public officials who deny a person’s civil rights based on gender" (p. 23 - 24).
April 10, 2019, 8:03 p.m.
Countries: Israel
Variables: DTCP-LAW-1

"Separate religious court systems adjudicate matters such as marriage and divorce for the Jewish, Muslim, Christian, and Druze communities. The country lacks a civil marriage law. In order to be considered legal, civil marriages, marriages of some non-Orthodox Jews, marriages in non-Orthodox ceremonies, same-sex marriages, marriages of a Jew to a non-Jew, or marriages of a Muslim woman to a non-Muslim must take place outside the country to be considered legal, because religious courts refuse to conduct these marriages" (17). "The majority of Jewish citizens objected to exclusive Orthodox control over aspects of their personal lives, including marriage and 'kashrut' (Jewish dietary laws), according to a survey of 800 Jewish...more
April 9, 2019, 12:57 p.m.
Countries: Iran
Variables: DTCP-LAW-1

"The Islamic Republic of Iran is a theocratic republic with a Shia Islamic political system based on 'velayat-e faqih' ('guardianship of the jurist' or 'rule by the jurisprudent'). Shia clergy, most notably the 'Rahbar' ('supreme jurisprudent' or 'supreme leader'), and political leaders vetted by the clergy dominate key power structures" (1). "Prosecutors frequently used moharebeh as a criminal charge against political dissidents and journalists, accusing them of 'struggling against the precepts of Islam' and against the state that upholds those precepts. Authorities have expanded the scope of this to include 'working to undermine the Islamic establishment' and 'cooperating with foreign agents or entities.' The judiciary is required to review and...more
April 5, 2019, 8:26 a.m.
Countries: United Kingdom
Variables: DTCP-LAW-1

"In Northern Ireland women did not have a separate facility from juveniles" (p. 3).
April 4, 2019, 3:14 p.m.
Countries: Oman
Variables: DTCP-LAW-1

"Local interpretations of Islamic law and practice of cultural traditions, in social and legal institutions discriminated against women" (14).
March 21, 2019, 11:12 p.m.
Countries: Syria
Variables: DTCP-LAW-1

"The law generally permits women to initiate divorce proceedings against their spouses, although some Christian sects strongly discouraged both women and men from doing so. For Muslims personal status law treats men and women differently. Some personal status laws mirror Islamic law regardless of the religion of those involved in the case. The law does not entitle a divorced woman to alimony in some cases, such as if she gave up her right to alimony to persuade her husband to agree to the divorce. In addition, under the law a divorced mother loses the right to guardianship and physical custody of her sons when they reach the age of 13...more
March 11, 2019, 11:13 a.m.
Countries: Kazakhstan
Variables: DTCP-LAW-1

"At the same time, the Criminal Code establishes conditions for mitigating criminal penalties against women; in particular, women are not sentenced to the death penalty or life imprisonment; pregnant women, women with children under three years of age, and women aged 58 years and over, are not sentenced to community service; pregnant women, women with children under three years of age, and women aged 58 years and over who have been sentenced to imprisonment are not required to do forced labour; in the case of pregnant women who have been convicted, the court may defer the serving of the sentence for up to one year; for convicted women with young...more
March 7, 2019, 11:23 a.m.
Countries: Mauritania
Variables: DTCP-LAW-1

"Sharia is, in part, the basis for law and court procedures. Courts did not treat women equally with men in all cases" (page 8). "Human rights activists and lawyers reported that rape victims were stigmatized, persecuted, and even imprisoned. Since rape is often associated with the concept of adultery, judges could, in theory, accuse the victim of fornication under sharia, hold the victim responsible for the rape, and imprison her. There were no reports that this provision or interpretation of the law was enforced" (page 16-17). "Traditional sharia judges handled many domestic violence cases" (page 17). "The law considers women to be minors, and women faced other legal discrimination. According...more
March 6, 2019, 7:48 p.m.
Countries: Afghanistan
Variables: DTCP-LAW-1

"Most courts administered justice unevenly, employing a mixture of codified law, sharia, and local custom. Traditional justice mechanisms remained the main recourse for many, especially in rural areas. Corruption was common within the judiciary, and often criminals paid bribes to obtain their release or a reduction in sentence" (9). "Some municipal and provincial authorities, including judges, had minimal training and often based their judgments on their personal understanding of sharia without appropriate reference to statutory law, tribal codes of honor, or local custom. The number of judges who graduated from law school continued to increase. Access to legal codes and statutes increased, but their limited availability continued to hinder some...more
March 5, 2019, 2:35 p.m.
Countries: Malaysia
Variables: DTCP-LAW-1

"Many NGOs complained that women did not receive fair treatment from sharia courts, especially in cases of divorce and child custody" (8). "Islamic authorities may enter private premises without a warrant if they deem swift action necessary to catch Muslims suspected of engaging in offenses such as gambling, consumption of alcohol, and sexual relations outside marriage" (9). This shows that religious authorities influence a lot of aspects of private life (CCS-CODER COMMENTS). "Non-Muslim women are subject to civil and criminal law but not sharia (...) Civil law gives non-Muslim mothers and fathers equal parental rights, while sharia favors fathers" (24).
March 1, 2019, 11:52 p.m.
Countries: Qatar
Variables: DTCP-LAW-1

"The Family Act draws its provisions from Islamic law, and helps judges made consistent rulings in various family law cases" (54).
Feb. 15, 2019, 11:45 a.m.
Countries: United Kingdom
Variables: DTCP-LAW-1

"Religious arbitration varies in formality and openness; what is consistent is the power and control arbitrators hold and how they are perceived in eyes of the women and the community. Impacts of arbitration behind closed doors must be investigated." (para. 2). "In my experience, this vulnerability is often used by religious arbitrators to coerce them into doing things that benefit the reputation of the community and family, rather than the safety of the children or the woman." (para 6). "The ‘Sharia court’ told her that her husband’s physical and verbal abuse resulted from her not fulfilling her wifely duties sexually. She expressed to me that she blamed herself. The ‘Sharia...more
Feb. 7, 2019, 3:47 p.m.
Countries: Lebanon
Variables: DTCP-LAW-1

"The law criminalizes rape. While the government effectively enforced the law, its interpretation by religious courts precluded full implementation of civil law in all provinces. Rape and domestic violence were underreported. The minimum prison sentence for a person convicted of rape is five years, or seven years for raping a minor. According to the penal code, the state would not prosecute a rapist and would nullify his conviction if the rapist married his victim. The law does not criminalize spousal rape. According to the domestic NGO KAFA (Enough Violence and Exploitation), 80 percent of domestic-violence victims the NGO assisted suffered spousal rape" (Pg 27). "In matters of child custody, inheritance,...more
Feb. 6, 2019, 3:14 p.m.
Countries: Kyrgyzstan
Variables: DTCP-LAW-1

"The Sezim Center reported approximately 50 percent of its clients were in unregistered marriages, which do not have legal force. Observers reported there was a greater frequency of early marriage, polygamy, and bride kidnapping in connection with unregistered religious marriages. This also affected data availability on such marriages" (Pg 25).
Feb. 6, 2019, 2:48 p.m.
Countries: Liberia
Variables: DTCP-LAW-1

"The social stigma of rape, especially in rural areas, contributed to the pervasiveness of out-of-court settlements and discouraged formal prosecution of cases. An overtaxed justice system also prevented timely prosecution, although local NGOs pushed for judicial action and sometimes provided lawyers to indigent victims. The government raised awareness of rape through billboards, radio broadcasts, and other outreach campaigns" (Pg 15).
Feb. 3, 2019, 9:09 p.m.
Countries: Costa Rica
Variables: DTCP-LAW-1

"The Committee notes that mechanisms such as amparo allow women to claim protection of their rights and welcomes the establishment of alternative dispute resolution centres offering services free of charge. Nevertheless, the Committee notes with concern: (a) Economic barriers to women’s access to justice and the limited coverage of legal aid clinics and the Bar Association’s advocacy services; (b) The lack of accessible information and limited awareness among women about their rights and legal remedies to claim them; (c) Discriminatory stereotypes about women seeking justice and the limited knowledge of women’s rights among law enforcement officers, including the police, throughout the State party; (d) Barriers to access to justice by...more
Jan. 11, 2019, 12:27 p.m.
Countries: Saudi Arabia
Variables: DTCP-LAW-1

"Government had filed an appeal before the Riyad Court in Saudi Arabia, on behalf of the Sri Lankan female domestic worker, who was recently sentenced to be stoned to death after being found guilty of having a clandestine affair, Foreign Employment Ministry said" (para 1) Riyad Court, an appellate court, reviews decisions for compliance with Sharia (AMG-CODER COMMENT). "The Ministry sources said the woman was married and having children in Sri Lanka, when she had convicted for adultery with a Sri Lankan youth employed in Saudi Arabia. After she was produced before the Riyad Court, the woman had pleaded guilty and she was sentenced to be stoned to death according...more
Jan. 10, 2019, 6:21 p.m.
Countries: Germany
Variables: DTCP-LAW-1

"'We don’t want any parallel societies,' she said. 'Our law takes precedence before tribal rules, codes of honor and sharia'" (para 12).
Jan. 8, 2019, 4:14 p.m.
Countries: El Salvador
Variables: DTCP-LAW-1

"Vásquez, now 32, is one of at least 19 women in El Salvador serving long prison sentences after suffering obstetric complications during pregnancy. Abortion has been banned in all circumstances since 1998. El Salvador is one of five countries where there are no exceptions, even if the woman is raped, her health or life is at risk, or if the foetus is seriously deformed" (para 3) Arbortion laws heavily influenced by religious conservatives in government (AMG-CODER COMMENT).
Jan. 8, 2019, 9:46 a.m.
Countries: Nigeria
Variables: DTCP-LAW-1

"Justice Onyeabo said, 'That custom says that only the eldest son inherits all the real properties. The man was very wealthy; no letter of administration was obtained; the other children are saying that the man had migrated from his state to the South-West a long time ago. The children can only remember that they went to the East when they were very young. But only their eldest brother has taken over the estate because the father’s property was shared according to the ethnic custom which says only the first male can inherit all the real properties. The other children are insisting that their father lived all his life in Yorubaland...more
Jan. 7, 2019, 12:03 p.m.
Countries: Malaysia
Variables: DTCP-LAW-1

"The UN Special Rapporteur on the sale and sexual exploitation of children, Maud de Boer-Buquicchio, called on the Government to enter into a dialogue with religious communities and judges who continue to grant exceptions under “certain circumstances” that allow the marriage of children of any age under Sharia law" (para 2).
Jan. 7, 2019, 11:47 a.m.
Countries: Mali
Variables: RCDW-PRACTICE-2, DTCP-LAW-1

"During their brief control of key towns in the north, jihadist groups imposed a version of Sharia law which forced women to wear veils and set whipping and stoning as punishment for transgressions" (para 6).
Jan. 5, 2019, 10:25 a.m.
Countries: Laos
Variables: DTCP-LAW-1

"The National Assembly has adopted a number of laws to ensure the rights of the Lao citizens without discrimination, particularly Article 13 of the Law on Criminal Procedure 2012 stipulates that the criminal proceedings must be conducted on the basis of equal rights of all citizens before the laws and the people’s courts without discrimination on the basis of gender, race, ethnicity, socio-economic status, language, education, occupation, belief, place of residence, and etc" (Pg 36).
Jan. 2, 2019, 7:04 p.m.
Countries: Brunei
Variables: DTCP-LAW-1

"The state added that consent of both parties, as well as parents’ consent, is necessary for minors to enter a marriage. And in the case of Muslim marriage, permission from a Syariah judge is also needed" (para 9).
Jan. 2, 2019, 2:04 p.m.
Countries: Tunisia
Variables: DTCP-LAW-1

"Codified civil law is based on the Napoleonic code, although on occasion judges drew upon interpretations of sharia (Islamic law) as a basis for customary law in family and inheritance disputes" (page 17).
Dec. 21, 2018, 4:39 p.m.
Countries: Tunisia
Variables: DTCP-LAW-1

"Codified civil law is based on the Napoleonic code, although on occasion, judges drew upon interpretations of sharia (Islamic law) as a basis for customary law in family and inheritance disputes" (page 23).
Nov. 16, 2018, 9:46 a.m.
Countries: Burma/Myanmar
Variables: DTCP-LAW-1

"Many laws, regulations, and policies (including customary law) are disadvantageous and discriminatory towards women . . . Outside of the formal legal system, the application of customary laws which are prevalent in rural and ethnic areas can also impede women’s access to justice" (page 2). "Contrary to Government assertions, customary laws are discriminatory against women in many regions, in particular with respect to inheritance, matrimony, property, and health. Often, traditional norms and practices that discriminate against women continue to be followed, even if they contradict rights in laws or regulations because these protections are not enforced, especially at the local level" (page 6). "Additional barriers to women’s access to justice...more
Nov. 3, 2018, 10:36 a.m.
Countries: Israel
Variables: DTCP-LAW-1

"In the secular criminal and civil courts, women and men enjoy the same rights, but in some matters religious courts--responsible for adjudication of family law, including divorce--limit the rights of Jewish, Christian, Muslim, and Druze women. Women and men who do not belong to a recognized religious group face additional discrimination" (para 153)
Oct. 22, 2018, 9:31 p.m.
Countries: Iran
Variables: DTCP-LAW-1

"Shia clergy, most notably the 'supreme jurisprudent' (or supreme leader), and political leaders vetted by the clergy dominated key power structures. While mechanisms for popular election existed within the structure of the state, the supreme leader held significant influence over the legislative and executive branches of government (through various unelected councils under his authority) and held constitutional authority over the judiciary, the government-run media, and the armed forces" (para 1). "The court system was subject to political influence, and judges were appointed 'in accordance with religious criteria.' The supreme leader appoints the head of the judiciary. The head of the judiciary, members of the Supreme Court, and the prosecutor general...more