The most comprehensive compilation of information on the status of
women in the world.

Latest items for DTCP-LAW-1

Nov. 16, 2018, 9:46 a.m.
Countries: Burma/Myanmar
Variables: DTCP-LAW-1

"Many laws, regulations, and policies (including customary law) are disadvantageous and discriminatory towards women . . . Outside of the formal legal system, the application of customary laws which are prevalent in rural and ethnic areas can also impede women’s access to justice" (page 2). "Contrary to Government assertions, customary laws are discriminatory against women in many regions, in particular with respect to inheritance, matrimony, property, and health. Often, traditional norms and practices that discriminate against women continue to be followed, even if they contradict rights in laws or regulations because these protections are not enforced, especially at the local level" (page 6). "Additional barriers to women’s access to justice...more
Nov. 3, 2018, 10:36 a.m.
Countries: Israel
Variables: DTCP-LAW-1

"In the secular criminal and civil courts, women and men enjoy the same rights, but in some matters religious courts--responsible for adjudication of family law, including divorce--limit the rights of Jewish, Christian, Muslim, and Druze women. Women and men who do not belong to a recognized religious group face additional discrimination" (para 153)
Oct. 22, 2018, 9:31 p.m.
Countries: Iran
Variables: DTCP-LAW-1

"Shia clergy, most notably the 'supreme jurisprudent' (or supreme leader), and political leaders vetted by the clergy dominated key power structures. While mechanisms for popular election existed within the structure of the state, the supreme leader held significant influence over the legislative and executive branches of government (through various unelected councils under his authority) and held constitutional authority over the judiciary, the government-run media, and the armed forces" (para 1). "The court system was subject to political influence, and judges were appointed 'in accordance with religious criteria.' The supreme leader appoints the head of the judiciary. The head of the judiciary, members of the Supreme Court, and the prosecutor general...more
Oct. 19, 2018, 7:59 p.m.
Countries: Indonesia
Variables: DTCP-LAW-1

"In Aceh the Sharia Police, an independent provincial body, is responsible for enforcing sharia law" (para 39). "Under the sharia court system in Aceh, 19 district religious courts and one court of appeals, heard cases. In the past the courts heard only cases involving Muslims and used decrees formulated by the local government rather than the penal code. A new sharia criminal code (Qanun) that passed in 2014 took effect in October and appears to extend sharia law to non-Muslims in certain cases. Under the new criminal code, offenses including homosexuality, gambling, consumption of alcohol, and proximity to the opposite sex outside of marriage are punishable with caning, fines, and...more
Oct. 17, 2018, 7:48 p.m.
Countries: Indonesia
Variables: DTCP-LAW-1

"In an unprecedented use of Shari‘a on a non-Muslim in Indonesia, a Christian woman in the conservative Aceh province has reportedly been caned for selling alcohol. The 60-year-old woman was caned 30 times in the presence of hundreds of onlookers on Tuesday, an official told Agence France-Presse" (para 1-2). "Aceh is one of the most conservative provinces of Muslim-majority Indonesia, and the only part of the country that enforces sharia law for crimes like adultery, consumption of alcohol and homosexuality" (para 3). "Although the religious law was previously only applicable to Muslims, an amendment that took effect last year extended its reach to practitioners of other religions in particular cases,...more
Oct. 17, 2018, 1:08 p.m.
Countries: Palestine
Variables: DTCP-LAW-1

"In practice, authorities may allow abortions in the first four months of pregnancy in situations of rape or incest, or if the mother has a disability or her life is at risk. However, Sufan, the shelter director in Nablus, said, 'it is difficult, the mufti [religious jurist], hospital, and court all have to agree to allow the abortion'" (para 29). The mention to the mufti shows that religious tribunals are allowed by the government to adjudicate certain matters (CCS-CODER COMMENT). "Ikhlas Sufan, a director of a shelter in Nablus, told Human Rights Watch that 'divorce cases can go on for two to three years because the husband can claim he...more
Oct. 3, 2018, 1:03 p.m.
Countries: Egypt
Variables: ATDW-PRACTICE-2, DTCP-LAW-1

"Rights lawyer Azza Soliman told Al-Monitor: 'Under khul, a woman is required to give up her legal financial rights and return the dowry she received from her spouse. So while khul appears in theory to offer women a solution to their marital woes, in practice, the procedure is time-consuming and at times humiliating for the woman, who has to represent herself in court and is often prodded by the judge to reveal the reasons for seeking the divorce'" (para. 13).
Oct. 3, 2018, 12:53 p.m.
Countries: Tunisia
Variables: DTCP-LAW-1

"After Ennahda won power in 2011, a debate emerged in Tunisia on the inclusion of Sharia as a main source of the constitution. This debate raised concerns that such a move would threaten Tunisian society, which is governed by the Code of Personal Status and other legislation and texts stipulating the prohibition of polygamy, the right to education and employment and a recognition of gender equality" (para. 14).
Sept. 26, 2018, 11:25 a.m.
Countries: Pakistan
Variables: AOM-PRACTICE-1, DTCP-LAW-1

"Some of its legislative actions, especially the Sindh Child Marriage Restraints Act of 2013, which penalises marriage of both males and females below the age of 18 years, have gone to the extent of challenging the ideological framework of the Council of Islamic Ideology — a constitutional body mandated to provide legal advice to the government on conformity level of the country’s laws with the spirit of the Holy Quran and Sunnah" (para 1).
Sept. 26, 2018, 11:01 a.m.
Countries: Afghanistan
Variables: DSFMF-PRACTICE-3, DTCP-LAW-1

"For instance, zina laws, which deal with sexual relations outside of marriage, are frequently used to punish victims of domestic violence who leave home, and are often applied with insufficient evidence" (para 5).
Sept. 26, 2018, 10:41 a.m.
Countries: Eritrea
Variables: DTCP-LAW-1

"Religious marriage by Muslims is now governed by the NCCE, not by Sharia law. Under the TCCE the conditions common to all forms of marriage were declared inapplicable tomarriages concluded according to Islamic religion" (3). "Based on this exception bigamy (polygamy) was permitted for the followers of Islam. This approach has been abandoned and the NCCE does not contain such an exception" (7) The exception is referring to the Proclamation No. 2/1991 after Eritrea's independence, which stated that the section of the Civil Code of Ethipia that deals with necessary conditions for marriage are not applicable to Islamic marriages (CCS-CODER COMMENT).
Sept. 21, 2018, 5:23 p.m.
Countries: Oman
Variables: DTCP-LAW-1

"The Sultanate guarantees legal protection for the rights of women on a par with men through a number of judicial measures. Personal status actions are considered summary actions and are accorded special attention by the courts in the Sultanate" (Pg 8).
Sept. 14, 2018, 10:13 a.m.
Countries: Maldives
Variables: DTCP-LAW-1

"The testimony of women is equal to that of men in court, except on rape and other issues specifically stipulated by country’s legal code" (7). "Women have been historically disadvantaged, particularly in the application of Islamic law in matters such as divorce, education, inheritance, and providing legal testimony, including on rape" (17).
Sept. 5, 2018, 9:59 a.m.
Countries: Tanzania
Variables: DTCP-LAW-1

"In Zanzibar qadi courts handle inheritance, marital, and custody issues" (24).
Sept. 5, 2018, 9:54 a.m.
Countries: United Arab Emirates
Variables: DTCP-LAW-1

"Sharia (Islamic law) courts, which adjudicate criminal and family law, have the option of imposing flogging as punishment for adultery, prostitution, consensual premarital sex, pregnancy outside marriage, defamation of character, and drug or alcohol abuse" (3). "Women normally inherit less than men under the government’s interpretation of sharia" (22).
Sept. 4, 2018, 11:28 a.m.
Countries: Zimbabwe
Variables: DTCP-LAW-1

"It is legal for parents and schools to inflict corporal punishment on boys, but not girls" (36).
Sept. 4, 2018, 10:28 a.m.
Countries: Qatar
Variables: DTCP-LAW-1

"The government interprets sharia as allowing corporal punishment for certain criminal offenses, including court-ordered flogging in cases of alcohol consumption and extramarital sex by Muslims" (2). "In matters involving family law, Shia and Sunni judges may apply their interpretations of sharia for their religious groups. In family law matters, a woman’s testimony or worth is not weighed equally with that of a man. In some cases a woman’s testimony is deemed half of a man’s, and in some cases a female witness is not accepted at all" (6).
Sept. 4, 2018, 10:27 a.m.
Countries: Papua New Guinea
Variables: DTCP-LAW-1

"Village courts tended to impose jail terms on women found guilty of adultery while penalizing men lightly or not at all. The law requires district courts to endorse orders for imprisonment before the imposing sentences, and National Court justices frequently annulled such village court sentences" (16).
Sept. 4, 2018, 10:18 a.m.
Countries: Kuwait
Variables: DTCP-LAW-1

"Sharia (Islamic law) courts have jurisdiction over personal status and family law cases for Sunni and Shia Muslims. Sharia, as implemented in the country, discriminates against women in judicial proceedings, freedom of movement, marriage, child custody, and inheritance...Secular courts allow any person to testify and consider male and female testimony equally, but in sharia courts the testimony of one man equals that of two women." (25).
Aug. 28, 2018, 10:03 a.m.
Countries: Mali
Variables: DTCP-LAW-1

"The Committee is also concerned that discrimination against women continues to be perpetuated by the current coexistence and application of statutory, customary and religious laws (sharia) and that there is no envisaged time frame for the revision and repeal of discriminatory laws and provisions (see CEDAW/C/MLI/CO/5, para. 11)" (page 4). "The Committee . . . notes with concern the disproportionately adverse impact on rural women of the Land Code (2000), under which the application of customary law to land acquisition through succession, as well as to the administration of property, is recognized, thereby limiting women’s access to economic resources and financial credit" (page 11-12).
Aug. 20, 2018, 11:08 a.m.
Countries: Philippines
Variables: DTCP-LAW-1

"The Committee is concerned, however, that inequality in marriage and family relations continues to exist under the law and notes with particular concern: . . . The contradictions between the provisions of the Magna Carta of Women and those of the Code of Muslim Personal Laws and customary laws applicable to Muslim and indigenous communities, which provide for unequal relations between husband and wife, including harmful practices such as polygamy and child and forced marriage, as well as unequal practices with respect to inheritance" (page 14-15).
June 28, 2018, 4:51 p.m.
Countries: Tanzania
Variables: DTCP-LAW-1

". . . some statutory and customary laws, such as the Law of Marriage Act (1971), the Local Customary Law (Declaration) Order (1963), the Penal Code, the Tanzania Citizenship Act (1995) and inheritance laws, continue to contain discriminatory provisions that are incompatible with the Convention; . . . customary and religious law have not been fully harmonized with statutory law and aligned with the provisions of the Convention" (page 3). "[The Committee] is concerned, however, that women continue to face multiple barriers in obtaining access to justice, including the unavailability of courts, legal fees and a lack of legal literacy, especially in rural areas. It is particularly concerned that customary...more
June 8, 2018, 8:28 p.m.
Countries: Ecuador
Variables: DTCP-LAW-1

"Previously, the criminal code in Ecuador only included protection measures that would go into effect if a woman filed a complaint directly with the judicial system. The new comprehensive law established special procedures and speeds up response times. For example, public servants (police officers, justice operators and other authorities) are now required to take immediate, timely and effective measures to any threat or act of violence against women" (para 8).
June 8, 2018, 1:24 p.m.
Countries: Turkey
Variables: MARR-LAW-5, PW-LAW-1, DTCP-LAW-1

"The Committee notes with concern: (a) That the recent Constitutional Court judgment which, in effect, decriminalizes a religious marriage that was not preceded by a civil marriage, may provoke an increase in the number of polygamous and child marriages and may constitute a significant risk for women, given that unregistered religious marriages leave them with no economic protection guaranteed by civil law" (page 16).
May 15, 2018, 10:03 a.m.
Countries: Nigeria
Variables: DTCP-LAW-1

"The Committee notes the efforts to review discriminatory laws by the Nigerian Law Reform Commission and through the ongoing constitutional review process. It also notes the pluralistic legal system in the State party, whereby statutory, customary and Islamic personal laws are applicable side by side. It is concerned that certain aspects of those laws are incompatible with one another and with the Convention" (4).
April 11, 2018, 9:04 p.m.
Countries: Albania
Variables: LRW-LAW-3, ATDW-LAW-1, DTCP-LAW-1

"The Committee welcomes Law No. 77/2014 amending Law No. 10039 on legal aid to provide access to legal assistance for women who are victims of gender-based violence. The Committee is concerned, however, that, despite that improvement, women, especially those belonging to disadvantaged and marginalized groups, remain unaware of their right to legal aid and continue to face significant legal and practical barriers in gaining access to justice, which is reflected in the low number of complaints filed. It is also concerned about the widespread problem of non-execution of court orders, including orders concerning the payment of alimony. The Committee is further concerned that the State party has still not reversed...more
April 11, 2018, 9:23 a.m.
Countries: Burkina Faso
Variables: DTCP-LAW-1

"Wildland is in fact subject to both customary and modern law, with customs unfavourable to women carrying more weight" (33).
April 7, 2018, 11:16 a.m.
Countries: Brunei
Variables: LRW-PRACTICE-3, MURDER-PRACTICE-1, DTCP-LAW-1

"The Committee is gravely concerned at the State party’s restrictive interpretation of sharia law and at the adverse impact on women’s human rights of the recently adopted Sharia Penal Code Order 2013, which, under its third phase of implementation, will impose the death penalty by stoning for several 'crimes', in particular adultery and extramarital relations ( zina). While noting that the same penalties apply to women and men, the Committee is seriously concerned that women are disproportionately affected by punishment for 'crimes' involving sex, and are at a higher risk of being convicted of adultery and extramarital relations, owing to discriminatory investigative policies and provisions on the weighing of evidence....more
April 5, 2018, 9:17 p.m.
Countries: Lebanon
Variables: DTCP-LAW-1

"The Committee welcomes the progress achieved since the consideration in 2008 of the State party’s third periodic report (CEDAW/C/LBN/3) in undertaking legislative reforms, in particular the adoption of the following legislation: Law No. 162 of 2011, repealing article 562 of the Penal Code, which had allowed reduced sentences for crimes committed in the name of so-called honour" (pg 1-2). "The Committee welcomes the initial review by the State party of legislation containing discriminatory provisions against women, but is concerned about the delays in adopting relevant amendments. The Committee welcomes the amendment of the Criminal Code and the repeal of its article 562. It is concerned, however, about the remaining discriminatory...more
April 4, 2018, 9:59 a.m.
Countries: East Timor
Variables: DTCP-LAW-1

"The fact that women largely continue to use the traditional rather than the formal justice system, which limits the enjoyment of their rights by perpetuating and reinforcing discriminatory social norms" (3). "That traditional or church marriages are rarely registered with the Civil Registry office, which means that women’s right to inheritance or property upon separation or as a result of bereavement are negatively affected by the lack of civil registration" (14).