The most comprehensive compilation of information on the status of
women in the world.

Latest items for EMCMS-LAW-1

Jan. 30, 2017, 9:45 p.m.
Countries: United Arab Emirates
Variables: EMCMS-LAW-1, RISW-PRACTICE-1

"The UAE celebrated its first female F-16 fighter pilot, Major Mariam Al-Mansouri" (para 4).
July 27, 2016, 7:49 p.m.
Countries: Bahamas
Variables: EMCMS-LAW-1

“The law prohibits discrimination in employment based on race, creed, sex, marital status, political opinion, age, HIV status, or disability, but not in regard to language, sexual orientation and/or gender identity, or social status. The government did not effectively enforce the law.” (20).
Feb. 29, 2016, 9:23 a.m.
Countries: Ukraine
Variables: EMCMS-LAW-1

""Women are not drafted into the Ukrainain military; they choose to join." Alyona Zubchenko" (24)
Sept. 7, 2015, 11:57 p.m.
Countries: Kazakhstan
Variables: EWCMS-LAW-2, EWCMS-DATA-1, EMCMS-LAW-1

"Women as well as men perform military service on a voluntary enlistment basis. In 2010, women officers amounted to 4.2 per cent, and women non-commissioned officers and rank-and-file soldiers to 30 per cent, of total enlisted military personnel" (35)
Aug. 1, 2015, 11 p.m.
Countries: Bahamas
Variables: EMCMS-LAW-1

"The Bahamas does not have an active military, but females are members of the Royal Bahamas Defense Force" (para 4)
Sept. 9, 2014, 3:02 p.m.
Countries: Eritrea
Variables: EWCMS-PRACTICE-3, EWCMS-LAW-1, EWCMS-LAW-2, EWCMS-LAW-3, EWCMS-LAW-5, EWCMS-DATA-1, EWCMS-DATA-2, EWCMS-DATA-3, EMCMS-LAW-1

"Eritrea conscripts all men and unmarried women into 'national service.' Although Eritrean law limits national service to 18 months, most conscripts serve for much of their working lives. Conscripts are routinely used as forced labor on essentially civilian jobs. In 2013, Human Rights Watch reported that conscripts were used by a state-owned construction company, Segen Construction Co., engaged by Canadian mining firm Nevsun Resources, to build infrastructure at its Bisha gold mine. Former conscripts described working long hours for minimal food rations, primitive lodging, and wages too low to sustain themselves, much less their families. They were not allowed to leave the work site. Children as young as 15 are ...more
Sept. 4, 2014, 11:28 a.m.
Countries: Iran
Variables: EMCMS-LAW-1

"Last week, we mentioned the growing role of the PKK, the Kurdish Workers' Party, in the fighting. Despite being designated a terrorist group by the United States for waging a decades-long battle against Turkey, the group has become a formidable opponent in the battle against ISIS. Helping to lead the way have been female guerrillas who enlisted in the battle to fighting alongside the Kurdish Peshmerga" (para. 5).
Sept. 4, 2014, 11:28 a.m.
Countries: Iraq
Variables: EMCMS-LAW-1

"Last week, we mentioned the growing role of the PKK, the Kurdish Workers' Party, in the fighting. Despite being designated a terrorist group by the United States for waging a decades-long battle against Turkey, the group has become a formidable opponent in the battle against ISIS. Helping to lead the way have been female guerrillas who enlisted in the battle to fighting alongside the Kurdish Peshmerga" (para. 5).
Sept. 4, 2014, 11:28 a.m.
Countries: Syria
Variables: EMCMS-LAW-1

"Last week, we mentioned the growing role of the PKK, the Kurdish Workers' Party, in the fighting. Despite being designated a terrorist group by the United States for waging a decades-long battle against Turkey, the group has become a formidable opponent in the battle against ISIS. Helping to lead the way have been female guerrillas who enlisted in the battle to fighting alongside the Kurdish Peshmerga" (para. 5).
Sept. 4, 2014, 11:28 a.m.
Countries: Turkey
Variables: EMCMS-LAW-1

"Last week, we mentioned the growing role of the PKK, the Kurdish Workers' Party, in the fighting. Despite being designated a terrorist group by the United States for waging a decades-long battle against Turkey, the group has become a formidable opponent in the battle against ISIS. Helping to lead the way have been female guerrillas who enlisted in the battle to fighting alongside the Kurdish Peshmerga" (para. 5).
March 18, 2011, 10:58 p.m.
Countries: Belarus
Variables: EMCMS-LAW-1

"Regarding the involvement of women in matters relating to peace and in the armed forces, women were involved in peace-related activities such as participation in the Stockholm-Moscow-Minsk Peace Mark and worked in support of the constructive position of the Government in that area. Women were not subject to compulsory military service, although women with a medical qualification were registered and, whenever necessary, might be employed as medical personnel in the armed forces" (para. 141)
Feb. 24, 2010, 6:40 p.m.
Countries: Brunei
Variables: EMCMS-LAW-1

"The growth outlook for Brunei businesswomen is very encouraging, with the government and the influential Women’s Business Council vigorously working for their advancement. Women are not barred from any profession, except combat roles in the armed forces" (4).
Sept. 17, 2009, 3:10 p.m.
Countries: Burma/Myanmar
Variables: ASR-PRACTICE-2, ASR-LAW-2, ASR-DATA-2, SRACE-PRACTICE-1, SRACE-PRACTICE-2, SRACE-LAW-1, EMCMS-LAW-1

"The Eighth Students' Annual Sports Festival was held in Hakha, the capital of Chin state, inMarch 1998. Altogether 798 girl athletes (about 34 per cent of the total athletes) competed for nine sports activities, individually as well as in teams. At every festival, there is a cultural fashion show and beauty contest for girl students. The beauty queen is awarded a golden crown, golden sceptre and scholarship for her study at the tertiary level. Nineteen outstanding women athletes, who are able to represent the country, have emerged from these festivals" (16).
June 26, 2009, 8:29 p.m.
Countries: Argentina, Croatia, Germany, Mexico, Romania, Slovakia, South Africa, Vietnam
Variables: EMCMS-LAW-1, EMCMS-LAW-2

"Argentina, Croatia, Germany, Mexico, Romania, Slovakia, South Africa and Viet Nam took steps to recruit more women for military service and changed policies to improve their access to service, including by repealing discriminatory policies, offering equal opportunities and equal treatment for women, promulgating policies known as "fast tracking" to increase women’s representation in the higher echelons of the armed forces and creating other opportunities for women’s professional advancement" (9-10).
May 15, 2009, 6:12 p.m.
Countries: Belgium
Variables: EMCMS-LAW-1

"The law of 12 January 2007 on verifying the application of the resolutions of the global conference on women held in Beijing in September 1995 and integrating the dimension of gender within the totality of federal policies, published in the Belgian Monitor on 13 February 2007. This law, developed at the initiative of the federal Minister of Equal Opportunity during the period under examination, provides for the evaluation of the impact of gender for all draft laws and regulations undertaken by the Government with the goal of preventing or correcting any deleterious effects on the situation with respect to women and of taking into consideration their specific needs" (11-12).more
April 15, 2009, 9:39 a.m.
Countries: Sudan
Variables: EMCMS-LAW-1

"While some interviewed WAAFG [women associated with armed forces and groups] voluntarily supported the SPLA and OAGs and travelled with them to the battle lines, others were forced—sometimes through abduction—to be porters or cooks. Forced recruitment during the conflict is well documented. In focus groups, southern women said they accepted that when armed groups passed their villages, each family would do what it could to support them, including by providing food, child recruits, and porters to carry goods to the front line. Village chiefs were often the ones to organize the handovers."(3). "During the conflict, WAAFG [women associated with armed forces and groups] organized themselves into complex work structures based ...more
Dec. 29, 2008, 12:17 p.m.
Countries: Peru
Variables: EWCMS-LAW-1, EWCMS-LAW-2, EWCMS-LAW-3, EMCMS-LAW-1

"Military service was governed by the Compulsory Military Service Act, which provided for military training for all eligible men and women" (para. 312, Concluding Observations).
Nov. 26, 2008, 2:19 p.m.
Countries: Spain
Variables: EMCMS-LAW-1

"As stipulated in the preamble to the Armed Forces Personnel (Regulations) Act, Act No. 17/1999, compulsory military service is being abolished and a new system introduced in which all military personnel will be professional members of the armed forces. Article 1, paragraph 1, of the same Act sets out its aim and scope, stipulating: "The aim of the present Act is to establish regulations for professional military personnel, to determine the command staff and maximum troop levels and to set out the military training system and the procedures for enrolment. It also aims to regulate the enlistment of additional personnel to the Armed Forces when required by the exigencies of ...more
March 27, 2008, 9:52 p.m.
Countries: Luxembourg
Variables: EWCMS-LAW-2, EMCMS-LAW-1

As Luxembourg abolished compulsory military service in 1967, no one can be compulsorily recruited for military service.
March 7, 2008, 12:45 p.m.
Countries: Iceland
Variables: EMCMS-LAW-1

There is no military service in Iceland (20).
March 5, 2008, 10:16 p.m.
Countries: Iceland
Variables: EMCMS-LAW-1

"The Committee notes that the State party does not have armed forces and that consequently there is no legal regulation of voluntary or compulsory recruitment (2)"
March 5, 2008, 10:08 p.m.
Countries: Iceland
Variables: EMCMS-LAW-1

"'With regard to Article 3, paragraph 2, of the Optional Protocol to the Convention on the Rights of the Child on the Involvement of Children in Armed Conflict, the Republic of Iceland declares that it has no national armed forces, and hence, a minimum age for recruitment is not applicable in the case of the Republic of Iceland' (2)..Armed groups do not exist in Iceland (2)...Iceland has called for the minimum age for participation in armed conflict to be 18 years. A resolution to this effect was passed by a Nordic ministerial meeting held in Iceland in 1999 (4)."
Feb. 29, 2008, 9:32 a.m.
Countries: Serbia
Variables: EMCMS-LAW-1

"On the basis of the provisions cited above, it is possible to conclude that women have the right to enrol on military schools, colleges and academies. However, the Decision of the Chief of General Staff contains a provision according to which an applicant for military schools and military academies must be of male sex" (p. 57). "Furthermore, the provision of Article 283 of the same Law provides for that women are not subject to compulsory drafting or to compulsory military service" (p. 62).
Feb. 26, 2008, 11:29 p.m.
Countries: Guatemala
Variables: EMCMS-LAW-1

"In this context, it must be acknowledged that during the war, forcible military recruitment was common practice both for the national army and the guerrilla groups that made up the Unidad Revolucionaria Nacional Guatemalteca. According to both the official report of the Commission for Historical Clarification, established under the peace agreements, and the reports of non-governmental organizations and indigenous movements, such as the National Coordinating Committee of Guatemalan Widows (CONAVIGUA), during the internal armed conflict some 45 per cent of the male population was recruited at some time by one or other of the parties to the conflict, and 20 per cent of those recruited were minors... Before the peace ...more
Feb. 26, 2008, 11:20 p.m.
Countries: Guatemala
Variables: EMCMS-LAW-1

"The Committee notes with appreciation: The State party's declaration made upon the ratification of the Optional Protocol that the minimum age for compulsory recruitment into the armed forces of Guatemala is 18 years... The Committee, while recognising the reference to the right of persons under 18 years old not to be recruited, even in case of armed conflict, in the Integral Law for the Protection of Children and Adolescents of 2003, is concerned that is no clear prohibition of the recruitment of children below the age of 18 and no specific provision in the Criminal Code criminalizing forced recruitment below the age of 18. Furthermore, the Committee is concerned that ...more
Feb. 8, 2008, 9:04 a.m.
Countries: El Salvador
Variables: EMCMS-LAW-1

"The Constitution of the Republic (art. 215, para. 1) also stipulates that: "Military service shall be compulsory for all Salvadorans between the ages of 18 and 30 years." Notwithstanding this provision, the same article of the Constitution stipulates that, where the military situation so requires, "all Salvadorans who are fit for military services" shall be conscripted" (7).
Feb. 5, 2008, 6:16 p.m.
Countries: El Salvador
Variables: EMCMS-LAW-1

"Pregnant female personnel have access, entirely free of charge, to the medical facilities of the Military Hospital, as do their minor children" (40).
Dec. 12, 2007, 12:16 p.m.
Countries: Eritrea
Variables: EWCMS-LAW-1, EMCMS-LAW-1

"Women are exempt from National Service on grounds of marriage"
Dec. 1, 2007, 1:46 p.m.
Countries: Burma/Myanmar
Variables: EMCMS-LAW-1

"The Committee welcomes the recent order of the Government of Myanmar, which overruled those provisions of the Towns Act and the Village Act that authorized the Government to extract forced labour from women. The Committee considers forced labour of women to be a contemporary form of slavery and a denial of their rights. The Committee, however, is concerned that the Towns Act and the Village Act remains as legislation. It is further concerned that there is little information about the implementation and enforcement of the recent order" (113).
Nov. 28, 2007, 7:36 p.m.
Countries: Botswana
Variables: EMCMS-LAW-1

"Botswana does not have any laws that permit compulsory military service. Even in practice there are no such cases" (40).