The most comprehensive compilation of information on the status of
women in the world.

Latest items for ERBG-DATA-1

Oct. 22, 2019, 1:55 p.m.
Countries: Equatorial Guinea
Variables: ERBG-DATA-1

"Custom confined women in rural areas largely to traditional roles. Women in urban areas experienced less overt discrimination but did not enjoy pay or access to employment and credit on an equal basis with men" (21). "Women were paid less than men for the same work, and the terms of their contracts often were not honored. Women rarely complained due to fear of reprisals. The government did not effectively enforce labor law, making women vulnerable in terms of benefits and salaries" (26).
Sept. 17, 2019, 10:05 p.m.
Countries: China
Variables: ERBG-DATA-1

"Thirty years ago, when the country first began implementing market reforms, Chinese women earned just under 80 percent of what men made. By 2010, according to the latest official data, the average income of women in Chinese cities had fallen to 67 percent that of men, and in the countryside 56 percent." (para 12).
Aug. 9, 2019, 1 p.m.
Countries: D R Congo
Variables: ERBG-PRACTICE-1, ERBG-DATA-1

"Gender-based discrimination in employment and occupation occurred (see section 6). Although the labor code stipulates men and women must receive equal pay for equivalent work, the government did not enforce this provision effectively. According to the International Labor Organization, women often received less pay in the private sector than did men doing the same job and rarely occupied positions of authority or high responsibility" (page 52).
July 31, 2019, 6:50 p.m.
Countries: Saudi Arabia
Variables: ERBG-DATA-1

"There is no regulation requiring equal pay for equal work. In the private sector, the average monthly wage of Saudi women workers was 58 percent of the average monthly wage of Saudi men" (51).
July 30, 2019, 6:50 p.m.
Countries: Slovakia
Variables: ERBG-DATA-1

"A 2015 Eurobarometer survey estimated the gender pay gap in the country at 20 percent" (p. 15).
July 19, 2019, 12:22 p.m.
Countries: Nepal
Variables: ERBG-DATA-1

"Although the law requires equal pay for equal work for men and women, the government did not implement those provisions, particularly in many state industries" (Pg 39).
July 18, 2019, 8:56 p.m.
Countries: Bangladesh
Variables: ERBG-DATA-1

"There is still major gap in income earnings between women and men in Bangladesh. The same survey report that women, on average, are paid 20% less than men in salaried job. In the agriculture sector, this is even more pronounced. In FGDs in Dinajpur, carried out as part of consultations for this report, women reported to have been paid average 250-300 taka/day in comparison to the men who earn 350-400/taka. This is a gap of 25% or more" (15). It is referring to the Banglaesh Household Income & Expenditure Survey of 2010 published in 2012 (CCS-CODER COMMENT).
July 18, 2019, 3:05 p.m.
Countries: Hungary
Variables: ERBG-DATA-1, ERBG-DATA-2, AFE-PRACTICE-1, CONST-LAW-1

"The law provides for the same legal status and rights for women as for men. A Eurostat study from March (based on data from 2014) showed that male executives earned 33.7 percent more than female executives in the same level of job. Women held 41 percent of senior executive positions. In higher education the ratio of women among students was 6.3 percent higher than that of men. According to The Economist, the percentage of women on boards of directors was 11 percent" (Pg 29).
July 15, 2019, 3:24 p.m.
Countries: Thailand
Variables: ERBG-DATA-1

"Union leaders stated the wage differences for men and women were generally minimal and were mostly due to different skills, duration of employment, types of jobs, as well as legal requirements, which prohibit the employment of women in hazardous work. Nonetheless, a 2016 International Labor Organization (ILO) report on migrant women in the country’s construction sector found female migrant workers consistently received less than their male counterparts, and more than one-half were paid less than the official minimum wage, especially for overtime work" (page 40).
July 11, 2019, 6:30 p.m.
Countries: Estonia
Variables: ERBG-DATA-1

"According to March 2017 Eurostat statistics, women’s average earnings were 26.9 percent lower than those of men for the same work" (p. 15).
July 11, 2019, 5:35 p.m.
Countries: Bangladesh
Variables: ERBG-DATA-1

"…persistent wage gap between women and men in most sectors" (9).
July 9, 2019, 4:36 p.m.
Countries: Serbia
Variables: ERBG-DATA-1

"The law provides for equal pay, but employers frequently did not observe these provisions. Women earned on average 20 percent less per month than their male counterparts, their career advancement was slower, and they were underrepresented in most professions" (page 33).
July 9, 2019, 10:16 a.m.
Countries: Romania
Variables: ERBG-DATA-1

"The persistent gender pay gap, despite the existence of legislation on equal pay for work of equal value" (10).
July 8, 2019, 1:19 p.m.
Countries: Uganda
Variables: ERBG-DATA-1

"The law provides that “every employer shall pay males and females equal remuneration for work of equal value.” In 2013 the National Organization of Trade Unions (NOTU) reported, however, that women received much lower wages than men for the same work" (Pg 30).
July 7, 2019, 8:50 p.m.
Countries: Kazakhstan
Variables: ERBG-DATA-1

"Significant salary gaps between men and women (67 percent) remained a serious problem" (p. 32).
July 6, 2019, 1:13 p.m.
Countries: Togo
Variables: ERBG-DATA-1

"Although women and men are equal under the law, women continued to experience discrimination in education, pay (see section 7.d.), pension benefits, and inheritance. In urban areas women and girls dominated market activities and commerce. Harsh economic conditions in rural areas, where most of the population lived, left women with little time for activities other than domestic tasks and agricultural fieldwork. While formal law supersedes traditional law, it is slow, distant, and expensive to access; rural women were effectively subject to traditional law" (Pg 12). "The government, in general, did not effectively enforce the law. Gender-based discrimination in employment and occupation occurred (see section 6, Women.). Although the law requires...more
July 3, 2019, 12:27 p.m.
Countries: Tajikistan
Variables: ERBG-DATA-1

"The law provides that women receive equal pay as men for equal work, but cultural barriers continued to restrict the professional opportunities available to women. Employers forced women to work overtime without additional pay" (Pg 29).
July 3, 2019, 11:11 a.m.
Countries: Albania
Variables: ERBG-DATA-1

"The law mandates equal pay for equal work, although many private employers did not fully implement this provision" (page 18).
July 2, 2019, 2:25 p.m.
Countries: Swaziland
Variables: ERBG-DATA-1

"Gender-based discrimination in employment and occupation occurred (see section 6). While women have constitutional rights to equal treatment and may take jobs without the permission of a male relative, and the law requires equal pay for equal work, there were few measures in effect protecting women from discrimination in hiring, particularly in the private sector. Despite the law, the average wage rates for men by skill category usually exceeded those of women" (Pg 30).
July 1, 2019, 6:31 p.m.
Countries: Bulgaria
Variables: ERBG-DATA-1

"According to official data, men received 13.5 percent more pay than women for work in the same position and there were twice as many men as women with well-paid jobs" (p. 32).
July 1, 2019, 6:31 p.m.
Countries: Azerbaijan
Variables: ERBG-DATA-1

"According to the State Statistics Committee of Azerbaijan, in 2016 the average monthly salary for women was 317 manat ($185), while the average monthly salary for men was 630 manat ($368)" (p. 37).
July 1, 2019, 6:30 p.m.
Countries: Armenia
Variables: ERBG-DATA-1

"The gap between average salaries of men and women in all economic spheres was almost 36 percent" (p. 40).
June 28, 2019, 7:45 a.m.
Countries: Tunisia
Variables: ERBG-DATA-1

"Women in the private sector earned on average one-quarter less than men for similar work" (p. 23).
June 25, 2019, 9:19 p.m.
Countries: Paraguay
Variables: ERBG-DATA-1

"The stark gender wage gap of 22.2 per cent and the fact that the legal minimum wage for domestic workers is 40 per cent lower than the minimum wage for other workers, which disproportionately affects women who account for the majority of domestic workers" (9).
June 25, 2019, 7:34 a.m.
Countries: Slovenia
Variables: ERBG-PRACTICE-1, ERBG-DATA-1

"The law provides the same legal status and rights for women and men, including under family, labor, property, nationality, and inheritance laws. The law stipulates equal pay for men and women and provides for equal access to credit, pay, owning or managing a business, education, and housing. Despite legal provisions for equal pay, inequities still exist (see section 7.d.)" (Pg 12). "The law establishes a general framework for equal treatment and prohibits discrimination with respect to employment or occupation on the basis of race or ethnic origin, sex, color, religion, age, citizenship, disability, or sexual orientation. The government effectively enforced these laws. Women’s earnings were 68 percent those of men;...more
June 24, 2019, 11:18 a.m.
Countries: Cyprus
Variables: ERBG-DATA-1, GIC-LAW-1, GIC-LAW-3

"Laws and regulations prohibit direct or indirect discrimination with respect to employment or occupation regarding race, nationality, gender, disability, and sexual orientation. The government did not effectively enforce these laws or regulations. Discrimination in employment and occupation occurred with respect to race, gender, disability, sexual orientation, and HIV-positive status submitted to the Equality Authority in 2013 concerned allegations of discriminatory treatment of pregnant women in the workplace and 15 percent of the complaints concerned alleged dismissal of pregnant women" (Pg 29-30).
June 20, 2019, 3:46 p.m.
Countries: Rwanda
Variables: ERBG-DATA-1

"The law requires equal pay for equal work and prohibits discrimination in hiring decisions (see section 7.d.). Women, however, were more likely to be paid in kind than in cash, and only one-third of married women with earnings made as much as their husband" (Pg 33).
June 19, 2019, 1:33 p.m.
Countries: Pakistan
Variables: ERBG-DATA-1

"Women faced significant discrimination in employment and frequently were paid less than men for similar work" (Pg 47).
June 17, 2019, 3:53 p.m.
Countries: Iceland
Variables: ERBG-PRACTICE-3, ERBG-DATA-1

"The persistent gender wage gap that over the past years has remained at between 7 and 18 per cent and the limited scope of application of article 19 of the Act on Equal Status and Equal Rights of Women and Men, which provides that the equal pay principle applies only to women and men working for “the same employer”". (para 29).
June 17, 2019, 1:34 p.m.
Countries: South Africa
Variables: ERBG-DATA-1

Table 11 shows real average hourly earnings (in 2000 prices) of formal and informal workers in non-agricultural employment, 2005 – 2007. Regarding formal employment, in 2005 the average hourly earning for men was of 20.912 (19.474 for wage employee and 40.674 for self-employed); for women it was 19.060 (18.510 for wage employees and 31.810 for self-employed. In 2006, the average hourly earnings for men was of 24.025 (20.921 for wage employees and 64.355 for self-employed); for women it was 19.752 (18.838 for wage employees and 39.439 for self-employed). Lastly, in 2007 the average hourly earnings for men was of 23.030 (21.105 for wage employees and 50.853 for self-employed); for women...more