The most comprehensive compilation of information on the status of
women in the world.

Latest items for ERBG-DATA-2

Feb. 15, 2020, 9:16 p.m.
Countries: Italy
Variables: ERBG-DATA-2

"Decree 76/2013, providing incentives for companies recruiting young people and focussing on the re-entry to the labour market (18,000 requests have been submitted to the National Social Security Agency (INPS), 38 per cent of which concerned women under the age of 29)." (para 14). "As for “data and assessment,” between 2011-2014, the employed women rate has increased from 9,258,000 to 9,334,000. Between 2011-2012, employed women have increased of more than 100,000 units (9, 372,000); between 2012-2013 they decreased. In 2013, 46.5 per cent of women were employed — 12.3 per cent less than the EU28 average; and in 2014 they increased again (ISTAT data annexed). In the first semester of...more
Feb. 8, 2020, 7:27 p.m.
Countries: South Africa
Variables: ERBG-DATA-2

"Among respondents age 15-49, men are more likely to be employed than women; 34% of women are currently employed, as compared with 46% of men. An additional 4% of women and 6% of men reported that they were not currently employed but had worked in the past 12 months" (38). "For women, employment increases with increasing household wealth, rising from 22% in the lowestquintile to 53% in the highest quintile. For men, those in the highest quintile (60%) are more likely than those in other quintiles (41%-45%) to be currently employed" (38). "A higher proportion of in-union men (79%)were employed than in-union women (47%). In-union women and men who were...more
Feb. 5, 2020, 5:50 p.m.
Countries: East Timor
Variables: ERBG-DATA-2

"34% of women and 70% of men are currently employed" (pg 29). "Men are more likely to be employed than women; 34% of women age 15-49 are currently employed compared with 70% of men age 15-49 (Tables 3.6.1 and 3.6.2). An additional 3% of women and men reported working in the past 12 months although they were not currently employed" (pg 32). "Since 2009-10, current employment levels have declined by 15 percentage points, from 85% to 70% among men, and by 5 percentage points, from 39% to 34% among women" (pg 32). "The percentage of women employed in agriculture has fallen from 61% to 32%, while the percentage employed in...more
Dec. 31, 2019, 3:56 p.m.
Countries: Sweden
Variables: ERBG-DATA-2

"'There are more men than women, and a ratio of one woman out of ten investment managers. Maybe a few more in fund selection, but the ratio might then be two females out of ten,' said Maria Björklund, portfolio manager, Private Equity, Real Estate & Infrastructure at Postens Pensionsstiftelse in Sweden. While confirming that the fund world is still male dominated, Susanne Bolin Gärtner, head of Fund Selection at Folksam said: 'I do not really think of it so much. There was never a question if I was a man or woman when I got my position' (para. 34-35).
Dec. 31, 2019, 3:56 p.m.
Countries: Spain
Variables: ERBG-DATA-2

"The tone slightly changed when asking women in southern European countries such as Spain. Also noting a wide disparity between men and women in the asset management and fund selection sectors, Susana Michelena, financial adviser investment solutions at Allfunds Bank, looks at motherhood and unequal pay as main reasons for the lack of women in fund selection in Spain. 'I believe the number of women will increase in the future but there’s still a long path ahead. Family responsibilities and sometimes a lower salary for the same job are the main reasons for this inequality in numbers,' she says. Marta Campello (pictured), portfolio manager at Abante Asesores in Madrid, says...more
Dec. 31, 2019, 3:55 p.m.
Countries: Italy
Variables: ERBG-DATA-2

"In August 2011, the Italian parliament approved the law 120/2011 according to which all the companies listed within the following year were obliged to leave one fifth of their boardroom to their women employees, referred to as 'the less represented gender'. The law – dubbed Golfo-Mosca after the two ministers who worked to have it approved – also requires that by the second and third year after the implantation, women will have to make up a third of the companies’ boardrooms. By 2022 the law is meant to cease enforcing and in case of non-compliance, the companies would be fined with between €20,000 and €200,000 by trade unions. After 2022,...more
Dec. 14, 2019, 3:07 p.m.
Countries: Japan
Variables: ERBG-DATA-2

"The shift is tied to the changing Japanese work force. Close to 70 percent of women ages 15 to 64 now have jobs-- a record" (para 19).
Dec. 8, 2019, 8:28 p.m.
Countries: China
Variables: ERBG-DATA-2

"The state improves the employment structure for women. In 2013, the total number of women employed nationwide was 346.4 million, accounting for 45 percent of the total employed population. The latest survey of the social status of Chinese women shows that women in secondary and tertiary industries grew by 25 percentage points in comparison with 10 years ago, and that female heads of various departments, professional and technical personnel, and clerical and related personnel increased by 13 percentage points. In 2013, the number of middle-ranking and senior female professional and technical personnel reached 6.61 million, or 44.1 percent of the total in this category, an increase of 9 percentage points...more
Dec. 8, 2019, 8:22 p.m.
Countries: Afghanistan
Variables: ERBG-DATA-2

"The 2018 Women, Peace, and Security Index by Georgetown University and the Peace Research Institute of Oslo ranks Afghanistan as the second-worst place in the world to be a woman. Only Syria was ranked worse. That study notes that only 16 percent of Afghanistan's workforce is female and that half of all Afghan women have four years or less of education" (para. 21-22).
Sept. 17, 2019, 10:05 p.m.
Countries: China
Variables: ERBG-DATA-2

"Over the past decade, China’s ranking in the World Economic Forum’s global gender gap index has declined significantly — from 57th out of 139 countries in 2008 to 103rd in 2018." (para 18). "China once enjoyed one of the highest rates of female labor force participation in the world, with nearly three in four women working as recently as 1990. Now the figure is down to 61 percent, according to the International Labor Organization." (para 19).
Aug. 21, 2019, 10:15 p.m.
Countries: Zimbabwe
Variables: ERBG-DATA-2

"Men are more likely to be employed than women; 41 percent of women age 15-49 are currently employed, compared with 65 percent of men age 15-49 (Figures 3.3 and 3.4 and Tables 3.6.1 and 3.6.2). An additional 9 percent of men and 10 percent of women reported working in the past 12 months even though they were not currently employed" (38).
July 31, 2019, 6:50 p.m.
Countries: Saudi Arabia
Variables: ERBG-DATA-2

"The overall percentage of female labor force participation was about 22 percent in the third quarter of 2016, according to government statistics" (42). "The third-quarter 2016 Labor Force Survey report by the General Authority for Statistics found that Saudi girls and women (15 years of age and above) constituted 22 percent of the country’s total labor force (Saudi and non-Saudi, 15 years of age and above). The same report estimated that women and girls, both Saudi and foreign, represented 17 percent of all employed persons (15 years of age and above) in the country" (51).
July 21, 2019, 6:15 p.m.
Countries: Yemen
Variables: ERBG-DATA-2

"While the increasing representation of women in public spaces can be considered a positive development, should their increasing participation in the labor market in such atrocious circumstances and conditions be applauded as a milestone on the road toward gender equality, or is war-torn Yemen simply heading for equality in misery?" (para 6).
July 20, 2019, 8:20 a.m.
Countries: Syria
Variables: ERBG-DATA-2

"Before the conflict began, 16 percent of women participated in the formal labor force, compared with 72 percent of men. Female employment participation decreased as violence and insecurity increased" (Pg 46).
July 19, 2019, 12:46 p.m.
Countries: Turkey
Variables: ERBG-DATA-2

"According to government statistics based on 2015 data, women’s participation in the labor force was 27.5 percent, corresponding to more than eight million women" (page 63).
July 18, 2019, 3:05 p.m.
Countries: Hungary
Variables: ERBG-DATA-1, ERBG-DATA-2, AFE-PRACTICE-1, CONST-LAW-1

"The law provides for the same legal status and rights for women as for men. A Eurostat study from March (based on data from 2014) showed that male executives earned 33.7 percent more than female executives in the same level of job. Women held 41 percent of senior executive positions. In higher education the ratio of women among students was 6.3 percent higher than that of men. According to The Economist, the percentage of women on boards of directors was 11 percent" (Pg 29).
July 12, 2019, 8:51 a.m.
Countries: Cambodia
Variables: ERBG-DATA-2

"In 2014, the labour force participation rate was 83 per cent, 78 per cent for women and 88 per cent for men. This is a slight decline from 80 per cent for women in 2009. The total unemployment rate for both women and men (0.1 per cent) is very low but this statistic does not adequately capture the issues of unemployment or underemployment in Cambodia. In 2015, employment of women in the wage sector was 42.2 per cent and employment of women in the agriculture sector was 45.7 per cent. The proportion of women employed in the industrial sector decreased to 45.5 per cent in 2015 from 73.7 per cent...more
July 11, 2019, 6:30 p.m.
Countries: Estonia
Variables: ERBG-DATA-2

"Women constituted one-third of managers" (p. 15).
July 9, 2019, 10:16 a.m.
Countries: Romania
Variables: ERBG-DATA-2

"The high unemployment rate among women, especially in rural areas and among Roma women, the unequal division of family responsibilities between women and men, the closure of kindergartens, especially in rural areas, and the disproportionate burden of unpaid care work for women, further restricting their access to formal employment and resulting in lower pension benefits for women compared with men or the exclusion of women from the pension system" (10).
July 8, 2019, 9:19 p.m.
Countries: Uganda
Variables: ERBG-DATA-2

"Seventy-three percent of women age 15-49 are currently employed, as compared with 92% of men age 15-49" (45).
July 8, 2019, 9:30 a.m.
Countries: Senegal
Variables: ERBG-DATA-2, ERBG-DATA-5

"Women represent 52 percent of the population, but they perform 90 percent of domestic work and 85 percent of agricultural work" (page 24).
July 7, 2019, 8:51 p.m.
Countries: Malaysia
Variables: ERBG-DATA-2

"A UN report noted participation in the labor market for women was 46.1 percent, compared with 78.7 percent for men" (p. 33).
July 1, 2019, 6:30 p.m.
Countries: Armenia
Variables: ERBG-DATA-2

"According to World Bank data released in 2016, more than one-half of women with intermediary education and one-third of women with advanced education did not participate in paid work" (p. 39).
June 28, 2019, 10:58 a.m.
Countries: Sri Lanka
Variables: ERBG-PRACTICE-1, ERBG-DATA-2

"Wage boards have equal minimum wages for male and female workers. In the white-collar categories, wages are largely set for the job irrespective of sex. Legal provisions relating to leave and holidays apply equally to men and women other than for one or two minor exceptions. Employment in government service may require a person to acquire proficiency in an official language within a reasonable period of time. While the government effectively enforced these laws and regulations, discrimination occurred based on the above categories with respect to employment and occupation. Some institutions would regularly specify particular positions as requiring male or female recruits. Women had no legal protection against discrimination in...more
June 25, 2019, 8:40 p.m.
Countries: Kuwait
Variables: ERBG-DATA-2

"According to government statistics submitted to the Convention on the Elimination of All Forms of Discrimination against Women meeting in Geneva in November, women represented… a total female workforce participation rate of 56 percent" (p. 30).
June 21, 2019, 12:48 p.m.
Countries: Saudi Arabia
Variables: ERBG-DATA-2

"The overall percentage of female workforce participation was 21 percent, according to the World Economic Forum’s Gender Gap Report 2015. The law does not require equal pay for equal work (see section 7.d.)" (Pg 38).
June 18, 2019, 8:29 p.m.
Countries: Greece
Variables: ERBG-DATA-2

"On February 21, the national employment agency announced that more than 60 percent of registered unemployed persons were women" (p. 21).
June 17, 2019, 1:34 p.m.
Countries: South Africa
Variables: ERBG-DATA-2

"The percentage point decline in the unemployment rate was greater among women than men (4.47% vs. 2.04%) but unemployment rates remained higher among women than men over the entire period. In 2007, for example, about 28 per cent of women over the age of 15 were unemployed compared to 21 per cent of men" (12). "Unemployment rates among both men and women were lower in metro areas as compared with non-metro areas" (12). Table 2 displays labor market status of the working age population in South Africa by metro status and gender, 2005 – 2007. Regarding not economically active population: in 2005 the national total was of 13,628,999 people, 5,309,992...more
June 17, 2019, 12:20 p.m.
Countries: Oman
Variables: ERBG-DATA-1, ERBG-DATA-2, GIC-LAW-1, GIC-LAW-3

"Although some educated women held positions of authority in government, business, and the media, many women faced job discrimination based on cultural norms. The law entitles women to paid maternity leave and equal pay for equal work. The government, the largest employer of women, observed such regulations, as did many private-sector employers. Economic studies conducted by the World Economic Forum from 2015, however, showed that women earned 68 percent less than men and that their unemployment rate was at least twice as high. According to the forum, only 31 percent of women participated in the work force" (Pg 16).
June 10, 2019, 5:45 p.m.
Countries: Malawi
Variables: ERBG-DATA-2

"Men are more likely to be employed than women; 63% of women are currently employed, as compared with 81% of men" (31).