The most comprehensive compilation of information on the status of
women in the world.

Latest items for ERBG-DATA-3

Nov. 30, 2018, 1:43 p.m.
Countries: Bangladesh
Variables: ERBG-DATA-3

"Despite representing a majority of total workers, women were generally underrepresented in supervisory and management positions and generally earned less than their male counterparts, even when performing similar functions" (38).
Nov. 9, 2018, 1:24 p.m.
Countries: Saudi Arabia
Variables: ERBG-DATA-2, ERBG-DATA-3

"A report published this week by the General Authority for Statistics said that the number of divorces among women who held jobs was 72,895 while the figure among women who did not work was 14,856, indicating that working women were more likely to be divorced than non-working wives" (para 2).
Oct. 19, 2018, 10:12 p.m.
Countries: Comoros
Variables: ERBG-DATA-3

"By matrimonial status, results indicate that women who are divorced/separated (47%) and those in a union (49%) are proportionally more likely to have worked in the twelve months preceding the survey than single women (28%). The number of children equally influences the activity of women: as the number of children increases, the proportion of working women also increases, from 33% when women have no children to 52% when they have 5 or more . . . . Marital status also influences the level of economic activity of men. The proportion of economically active men during the 12 previous months varied from 91% among those in union, to 84% among those...more
Aug. 31, 2018, 10:10 a.m.
Countries: United States
Variables: ERBG-DATA-3, MULV-DATA-1

“The large majority of mothers are in the workforce, including 62 percent of mothers who gave birth within the last 12 months” (95)
Aug. 31, 2018, 10:10 a.m.
Countries: United States
Variables: ERBG-DATA-3

“During the past four decades, the labor force participation rate for mothers of children under six has more than doubled, from just under a third (32.1 percent) in 1970 to just over two thirds (67.1 percent) in 2013. During the same period, the labor force participation rate of fathers hardly changed at all, falling from 97.9 percent in 1970 to 94.4 percent in 2013. Trends in the allocation of time between paid work, child care, and housework between 1975 and 2011 show that both mothers and fathers of young children now spend more time on these three activities combined than they did forty years ago (Figure 3.7). Yet, while mothers...more
Aug. 31, 2018, 10:10 a.m.
Countries: United States
Variables: ERBG-DATA-3

“Seventy-nine percent of black mothers of children under the age of six are in the workforce, more than ten percentage points higher than the rate for all women (67.1 percent; Figure 3.8). Hispanic and Asian/Pacific Islander women have the lowest rates (at 59.2 and 60.0 percent respectively). Fathers are more likely to be in the workforce than mothers among all of the major racial and ethnic groups, and there is less variation among groups. Asian/ Pacific Islanders and white men have the highest rates (95.1 and 95.0 percent respectively), and Native American fathers have the lowest rate (84 percent). The gap in parents’ labor force participation rates is smallest for...more
Aug. 6, 2018, 2:45 p.m.
Countries: Montenegro
Variables: ERBG-DATA-3

“[There is] discrimination against women in the labour market on the basis of marital status and maternity” (10)
May 31, 2018, 2:35 p.m.
Countries: Tanzania
Variables: ERBG-DATA-3

"More than 8 in 10 currently married women age 15-49 and virtually all currently married men age 15-49 reported being employed in the 12 months before the survey (Table 15.1) . . . The percentage of employed married women was 89% in the 2010 TDHS and declined slightly to 84% in the 2015-16 TDHS-MIS." (page 326).
April 17, 2018, 4:54 p.m.
Countries: Tanzania
Variables: ERBG-DATA-3

"Women are more likely to work if they are divorced, separated or widowed (89%) than if they are married (78%)" See Table 3.6.1 (page 55, 69-72).
March 7, 2018, 7:32 p.m.
Countries: Germany
Variables: ERBG-DATA-2, ERBG-DATA-3

"In Germany, 75 percent of women with two children work" (para 9).
March 7, 2018, 7:28 p.m.
Countries: Italy
Variables: ERBG-DATA-3

"One in four Italian women do not return to work after giving birth" (para 8). "In Germany, 75 percent of women with two children work. In Italy, the figure is 54 percent" (para 9).
Feb. 7, 2018, 10:37 a.m.
Countries: Sweden
Variables: ERBG-DATA-3

"In 2000-2012 the proportion of children whose mother works full time increased by 7 percentage points, even though it is still more common for the children’s father to work full time. Between 2000 and 2012 the proportion of children with a mother in paid work increased by 3 percentage points, from 79 to 82 per cent. For fathers the corresponding increase was from 90 to 92 per cent" (page 52).
Jan. 8, 2018, 11:54 a.m.
Countries: Burma/Myanmar
Variables: ERBG-DATA-3

"Women are more likely to work if they are divorced, separated, or widowed than if they are married (78% versus 64%), but the reverse is true for men (87% versus 97%). Never-married men are less likely to be employed than ever-married men" (30).
Dec. 26, 2017, 10:52 p.m.
Countries: Panama
Variables: ERBG-DATA-3, CBMC-PRACTICE-2

"Despite a lack of statistics, the Ombudsman’s Office shared anecdotal information of a perceived increase in recently hired women who were fired once their pregnancies were known. Although an illegal practice, many potential employers requested pregnancy tests"(18)
Dec. 5, 2017, 1:09 p.m.
Countries: India
Variables: ERBG-PRACTICE-1, ERBG-PRACTICE-2, ERBG-DATA-2, ERBG-DATA-3, CL-PRACTICE-1, GIC-LAW-3

"Of the MGNREGA [National Rural Employment Guarantee Act], it has been reported that despite incorporation of a provision which 'in the event that there are at least five children under the age of 6 at the worksite, one of the female workers should be deputed to look after them and she should be paid the same wage as other NREGA workers,' most women joining the program are discouraged from bringing children to work. A social audit on the implementation of the MGNREGA revealed that 70% of the women interviewed had no access to child-care services at the worksite, and 65% of them were unaware of this guaranteed right (Nayaranan 2008,...more
Dec. 5, 2017, 10:38 a.m.
Countries: South Africa
Variables: ERBG-DATA-3, CL-DATA-1

"Women commonly face difficulties in reconciling responsibilities in the care economy—particularly the minding and educating of children of pre-school age—and employment on farms. In addition to modes of remuneration, the unavailability of public child-care services combined with poor transportation services may lead women to bring children with them to work on plantations. This has been documented in the horticultural sector in Punjab (Gill 2001), and in informal settlements established near plantations during the working season in South Africa (Barrientos, Dolan, and Tallontire 2003)"(47)
Nov. 30, 2017, 6:39 p.m.
Countries: Japan
Variables: ERBG-PRACTICE-2, ERBG-DATA-3, MULV-DATA-1

"Only 38 percent of women remain in their jobs after having a baby, according to the OECD, due to heavy social expectations placed on mothers and a dearth of child-care centers" (para 8).
Nov. 29, 2017, 1:38 p.m.
Countries: India
Variables: ERBG-DATA-3

"Women commonly face difficulties in reconciling responsibilities in the care economy—particularly the minding and educating of children of pre-school age—and employment on farms. In addition to modes of remuneration, the unavailability of public child-care services combined with poor transportation services may lead women to bring children with them to work on plantations. This has been documented in the horticultural sector in Punjab (Gill 2001)"(47)."Of the MGNREGA [National Rural Employment Guarantee Act], it has been reported that despite incorporation of a provision which 'in the event that there are at least five children under the age of 6 at the worksite, one of the female workers should be deputed to look...more
Nov. 7, 2017, 4:20 p.m.
Countries: Palestine
Variables: ERBG-DATA-3

"[Iman] Assaf noted that the laws in the guideline comply with the 2000 Palestinian Labor Law No. 7, the 2012 Minimum Wage Law ($370/month) and the 2016 Social Security Law No. 6, which guaranteed working women in the private and public sectors the right to a social security paid maternity leave. Assaf expects female employment to increase when the Social Security Law is implemented at the end of October, because the employer won’t have to pay maternity leave expenses — which will be paid by the social security fund. Many employers refuse to employ women due to the likelihood of pregnancy and the subsequent financial burden on the company"(para 10-11)."[Iman]...more
Oct. 31, 2017, 2:11 p.m.
Countries: India
Variables: ERBG-DATA-3

"Pratibha R, of the Garment and Textile Workers Union in Bangalore, said the [maternity leave] bill did little to resolve the problems of working mothers. 'Our members are entitled to the 26 weeks, but what happens after? According to the new law, workplaces are supposed to provide creches on site, and women are supposed to be able to go see their babies four times a day, but in practice that doesn’t happen.The facilities provided are unclean and low quality, women don’t feel comfortable leaving their babies there. Women are very afraid to leave small babies there, and so they just leave after pregnancy.' A survey by the Associated Chambers of...more
Oct. 26, 2017, 11:20 a.m.
Countries: Russia
Variables: ERBG-PRACTICE-2, ERBG-DATA-2, ERBG-DATA-3

"Women carried a special burden on their shoulders during the republic’s two wars. Men fought on both sides, and for those who didn’t, it was dangerous to move through the republic’s numerous checkpoints. They could be arrested, abducted, tortured or killed. Women became the main breadwinners"(para 12)."Many Chechen women remain family breadwinners and still have to do all the housework, but since the war their social status has dramatically changed for the worse"(para 14)
Oct. 4, 2017, 7:02 p.m.
Countries: Afghanistan
Variables: ERBG-PRACTICE-1, ERBG-DATA-3

"Conceiving soon after marriage is highly glorified in Afghan society. Women continuously quit their jobs or drop out of schools because of the societal pressure to prove they are able to have babies soon after marriage"(para 7)
Sept. 26, 2017, 7:45 p.m.
Countries: Germany
Variables: ERBG-DATA-2, ERBG-DATA-3

"When the Berlin Wall fell in 1989, female employment in the East was near 90 percent; in the West it was 55 percent. Today, over 70 percent of German women work. But only 12 percent of those with children under 3 work full time" (para 28).
Sept. 22, 2017, 4:25 p.m.
Countries: Jordan
Variables: MISA-PRACTICE-1, ERBG-PRACTICE-1, ERBG-DATA-2, ERBG-DATA-3

"'Girls who get married at a really young age are more at risk of sexual or domestic violence as well as miscarriages because their bodies are not really ready for giving birth yet. Also, girls who get married at an early age are not mentally ready to raise children and are less able to complete their education and find a job,' Omaima explained. Although it's illegal to get married under 18 in Jordan, the practice is increasingly common among Syrian refugees. In 2015, 35% of all Jordan marriages involved a minor, up from 18% in 2012, according to the Jordanian Higher Population Council, citing statistics from the Chief Islamic Justice...more
Sept. 22, 2017, 4:24 p.m.
Countries: Syria
Variables: MISA-PRACTICE-1, ERBG-PRACTICE-1, ERBG-DATA-2, ERBG-DATA-3, DV-DATA-1

"'Girls who get married at a really young age are more at risk of sexual or domestic violence as well as miscarriages because their bodies are not really ready for giving birth yet. Also, girls who get married at an early age are not mentally ready to raise children and are less able to complete their education and find a job,' Omaima explained. Although it's illegal to get married under 18 in Jordan, the practice is increasingly common among Syrian refugees. In 2015, 35% of all Jordan marriages involved a minor, up from 18% in 2012, according to the Jordanian Higher Population Council, citing statistics from the Chief Islamic Justice...more
Aug. 7, 2017, 4:16 p.m.
Countries: Japan
Variables: ERBG-DATA-3

"In a marked shift from Japan’s past, some companies are now supporting mothers by offering them increased responsibility and financial incentives to decrease maternity leave and return to work sooner. At first glance, this seems counterintuitive – research shows that women are more likely to return to work after childbirth when given at least twelve weeks of leave and when they can arrange a flexible work schedule. However, in the case of Japan, where mothers and fathers may take combined leave of up to fourteen months, some mothers feel the ´mommy track´ is too slow¨(para 1-2)."Perhaps not surprisingly then, 68 percent of mothers in Japan quit their jobs upon marriage...more
Aug. 4, 2017, 8:25 a.m.
Countries: United States
Variables: ERBG-DATA-3

"Research has shown that women also do not negotiate for salary increases as often or for as much as men and they still face the maternal wall, when companies expect them to leave to care for children, which contributes to the pay gap" (para 12).
July 5, 2017, 4:06 p.m.
Countries: Israel
Variables: ERBG-DATA-3

¨Al-Monitor: You are also responsible for senior citizens. Do you think that elderly women are worse off than elderly men? Gamliel: Indeed. For a large part of their lives, women cut back on their activities so that they can raise their children, and they lose a decade from their pension. They retire somewhat earlier than men, and their pension savings, if they have any, are very limited¨(para 18-19)
June 28, 2017, 11:15 a.m.
Countries: United States
Variables: ERBG-DATA-3, ERBG-DATA-4, MULV-DATA-1

Figure 3.3 shows women’s share of part-time workers by main reason for part-time work in 2013. For those who work part-time because they are retired or have a social security limit on earnings, women make up 49.2%. For those who work part-time for slack work or business conditions, women make up 51.4%. For those who work part-time because they are in school or training, women make up 56.5%. For those who could only find part-time work, women make up 59%. For those who turn to part-time work because they have other family or personal obligations, women make up 90.1% of them. And for people who have child care problems and...more
Jan. 26, 2017, 2:23 p.m.
Countries: Saudi Arabia
Variables: ERBG-DATA-3

"'Two-income families are becoming the norm.' Indeed, in the first quarter of 2015, roughly 1.3 million of the nearly 1.9 million women employed in Saudi Arabia were married, according to the Ministry of Labor" (para 8).