The most comprehensive compilation of information on the status of
women in the world.

Latest items for ERBG-DATA-3

Jan. 8, 2018, 11:54 a.m.
Countries: Burma/Myanmar
Variables: ERBG-DATA-3

"Women are more likely to work if they are divorced, separated, or widowed than if they are married (78% versus 64%), but the reverse is true for men (87% versus 97%). Never-married men are less likely to be employed than ever-married men" (30).
Dec. 26, 2017, 10:52 p.m.
Countries: Panama
Variables: ERBG-DATA-3, CBMC-PRACTICE-2

"Despite a lack of statistics, the Ombudsman’s Office shared anecdotal information of a perceived increase in recently hired women who were fired once their pregnancies were known. Although an illegal practice, many potential employers requested pregnancy tests"(18)
Dec. 5, 2017, 1:09 p.m.
Countries: India
Variables: ERBG-PRACTICE-1, ERBG-PRACTICE-2, ERBG-DATA-2, ERBG-DATA-3, CL-PRACTICE-1, GIC-LAW-3

"Of the MGNREGA [National Rural Employment Guarantee Act], it has been reported that despite incorporation of a provision which 'in the event that there are at least five children under the age of 6 at the worksite, one of the female workers should be deputed to look after them and she should be paid the same wage as other NREGA workers,' most women joining the program are discouraged from bringing children to work. A social audit on the implementation of the MGNREGA revealed that 70% of the women interviewed had no access to child-care services at the worksite, and 65% of them were unaware of this guaranteed right (Nayaranan 2008, ...more
Dec. 5, 2017, 10:38 a.m.
Countries: South Africa
Variables: ERBG-DATA-3, CL-DATA-1

"Women commonly face difficulties in reconciling responsibilities in the care economy—particularly the minding and educating of children of pre-school age—and employment on farms. In addition to modes of remuneration, the unavailability of public child-care services combined with poor transportation services may lead women to bring children with them to work on plantations. This has been documented in the horticultural sector in Punjab (Gill 2001), and in informal settlements established near plantations during the working season in South Africa (Barrientos, Dolan, and Tallontire 2003)"(47)
Nov. 30, 2017, 6:39 p.m.
Countries: Japan
Variables: ERBG-PRACTICE-2, ERBG-DATA-3, MULV-DATA-1

"Only 38 percent of women remain in their jobs after having a baby, according to the OECD, due to heavy social expectations placed on mothers and a dearth of child-care centers" (para 8).
Nov. 29, 2017, 1:38 p.m.
Countries: India
Variables: ERBG-DATA-3

"Women commonly face difficulties in reconciling responsibilities in the care economy—particularly the minding and educating of children of pre-school age—and employment on farms. In addition to modes of remuneration, the unavailability of public child-care services combined with poor transportation services may lead women to bring children with them to work on plantations. This has been documented in the horticultural sector in Punjab (Gill 2001)"(47)."Of the MGNREGA [National Rural Employment Guarantee Act], it has been reported that despite incorporation of a provision which 'in the event that there are at least five children under the age of 6 at the worksite, one of the female workers should be deputed to look ...more
Nov. 7, 2017, 4:20 p.m.
Countries: Palestine
Variables: ERBG-DATA-3

"[Iman] Assaf noted that the laws in the guideline comply with the 2000 Palestinian Labor Law No. 7, the 2012 Minimum Wage Law ($370/month) and the 2016 Social Security Law No. 6, which guaranteed working women in the private and public sectors the right to a social security paid maternity leave. Assaf expects female employment to increase when the Social Security Law is implemented at the end of October, because the employer won’t have to pay maternity leave expenses — which will be paid by the social security fund. Many employers refuse to employ women due to the likelihood of pregnancy and the subsequent financial burden on the company"(para 10-11)."[Iman] ...more
Oct. 31, 2017, 2:11 p.m.
Countries: India
Variables: ERBG-DATA-3

"Pratibha R, of the Garment and Textile Workers Union in Bangalore, said the [maternity leave] bill did little to resolve the problems of working mothers. 'Our members are entitled to the 26 weeks, but what happens after? According to the new law, workplaces are supposed to provide creches on site, and women are supposed to be able to go see their babies four times a day, but in practice that doesn’t happen.The facilities provided are unclean and low quality, women don’t feel comfortable leaving their babies there. Women are very afraid to leave small babies there, and so they just leave after pregnancy.' A survey by the Associated Chambers of ...more
Oct. 26, 2017, 11:20 a.m.
Countries: Russia
Variables: ERBG-PRACTICE-2, ERBG-DATA-2, ERBG-DATA-3

"Women carried a special burden on their shoulders during the republic’s two wars. Men fought on both sides, and for those who didn’t, it was dangerous to move through the republic’s numerous checkpoints. They could be arrested, abducted, tortured or killed. Women became the main breadwinners"(para 12)."Many Chechen women remain family breadwinners and still have to do all the housework, but since the war their social status has dramatically changed for the worse"(para 14)
Oct. 4, 2017, 7:02 p.m.
Countries: Afghanistan
Variables: ERBG-PRACTICE-1, ERBG-DATA-3

"Conceiving soon after marriage is highly glorified in Afghan society. Women continuously quit their jobs or drop out of schools because of the societal pressure to prove they are able to have babies soon after marriage"(para 7)
Sept. 26, 2017, 7:45 p.m.
Countries: Germany
Variables: ERBG-DATA-2, ERBG-DATA-3

"When the Berlin Wall fell in 1989, female employment in the East was near 90 percent; in the West it was 55 percent. Today, over 70 percent of German women work. But only 12 percent of those with children under 3 work full time" (para 28).
Sept. 22, 2017, 4:25 p.m.
Countries: Jordan
Variables: MISA-PRACTICE-1, ERBG-PRACTICE-1, ERBG-DATA-2, ERBG-DATA-3

"'Girls who get married at a really young age are more at risk of sexual or domestic violence as well as miscarriages because their bodies are not really ready for giving birth yet. Also, girls who get married at an early age are not mentally ready to raise children and are less able to complete their education and find a job,' Omaima explained. Although it's illegal to get married under 18 in Jordan, the practice is increasingly common among Syrian refugees. In 2015, 35% of all Jordan marriages involved a minor, up from 18% in 2012, according to the Jordanian Higher Population Council, citing statistics from the Chief Islamic Justice ...more
Sept. 22, 2017, 4:24 p.m.
Countries: Syria
Variables: MISA-PRACTICE-1, ERBG-PRACTICE-1, ERBG-DATA-2, ERBG-DATA-3, DV-DATA-1

"'Girls who get married at a really young age are more at risk of sexual or domestic violence as well as miscarriages because their bodies are not really ready for giving birth yet. Also, girls who get married at an early age are not mentally ready to raise children and are less able to complete their education and find a job,' Omaima explained. Although it's illegal to get married under 18 in Jordan, the practice is increasingly common among Syrian refugees. In 2015, 35% of all Jordan marriages involved a minor, up from 18% in 2012, according to the Jordanian Higher Population Council, citing statistics from the Chief Islamic Justice ...more
Aug. 7, 2017, 4:16 p.m.
Countries: Japan
Variables: ERBG-DATA-3

"In a marked shift from Japan’s past, some companies are now supporting mothers by offering them increased responsibility and financial incentives to decrease maternity leave and return to work sooner. At first glance, this seems counterintuitive – research shows that women are more likely to return to work after childbirth when given at least twelve weeks of leave and when they can arrange a flexible work schedule. However, in the case of Japan, where mothers and fathers may take combined leave of up to fourteen months, some mothers feel the ´mommy track´ is too slow¨(para 1-2)."Perhaps not surprisingly then, 68 percent of mothers in Japan quit their jobs upon marriage ...more
Aug. 4, 2017, 8:25 a.m.
Countries: United States
Variables: ERBG-DATA-3

"Research has shown that women also do not negotiate for salary increases as often or for as much as men and they still face the maternal wall, when companies expect them to leave to care for children, which contributes to the pay gap" (para 12).
July 5, 2017, 4:06 p.m.
Countries: Israel
Variables: ERBG-DATA-3

¨Al-Monitor: You are also responsible for senior citizens. Do you think that elderly women are worse off than elderly men? Gamliel: Indeed. For a large part of their lives, women cut back on their activities so that they can raise their children, and they lose a decade from their pension. They retire somewhat earlier than men, and their pension savings, if they have any, are very limited¨(para 18-19)
June 28, 2017, 11:15 a.m.
Countries: United States
Variables: ERBG-DATA-3, ERBG-DATA-4, MULV-DATA-1

Figure 3.3 shows women’s share of part-time workers by main reason for part-time work in 2013. For those who work part-time because they are retired or have a social security limit on earnings, women make up 49.2%. For those who work part-time for slack work or business conditions, women make up 51.4%. For those who work part-time because they are in school or training, women make up 56.5%. For those who could only find part-time work, women make up 59%. For those who turn to part-time work because they have other family or personal obligations, women make up 90.1% of them. And for people who have child care problems and ...more
Jan. 26, 2017, 2:23 p.m.
Countries: Saudi Arabia
Variables: ERBG-DATA-3

"'Two-income families are becoming the norm.' Indeed, in the first quarter of 2015, roughly 1.3 million of the nearly 1.9 million women employed in Saudi Arabia were married, according to the Ministry of Labor" (para 8).
Jan. 4, 2017, 2:59 p.m.
Countries: Jordan
Variables: ERBG-DATA-3, MULV-DATA-1, ATFPA-PRACTICE-1

“Union officials reported that sectors employing predominantly women, such as secretarial work, offered wages below the official minimum wage of 190 JD ($266) per month. Many women said traditional social pressures discouraged them from pursuing professional careers, especially after marriage” (45).
Dec. 9, 2016, 1:30 p.m.
Countries: South Korea
Variables: ERBG-DATA-3

"According to MOEL, 17,000 mothers lost their jobs or went on unpaid pregnancy leave in 2014" (26).
Oct. 8, 2016, 4:08 p.m.
Countries: Lesotho
Variables: ERBG-DATA-3

“Women are more likely to work if they are divorced, separated, or widowed than if they are married, but the reverse is true for men. Never-married women and men are least likely to be employed (Table 3.5.1 and Table 3.5.2)” (34). “About half of currently married women are employed compared with 83% of currently married men. One-third of currently married women who receive cash earnings report deciding for themselves how earnings will be used; 62% say they decide on use of earnings with their husband” (255). “Men are more likely to be employed than women. Half of currently married women age 15-49 reported being employed at any time in the ...more
Oct. 8, 2016, 4:07 p.m.
Countries: Bangladesh
Variables: ERBG-DATA-3

“At the time of the survey, 33 percent of ever-married women age 15-49 were currently employed. Three percent were not working, although they had worked in the 12 months prior to the survey, while the remaining 64 percent said that they had not been employed in the previous 12 months” (34). “The level of employment increases with the number of children. Women who have five or more children are more likely to be employed (37 percent) compared with women with no children (23 percent)” (34). “Thirty-four percent of currently married women age 15-49 reported some forms of employment in the past 12 months. By age, employment increases from 17 percent ...more
Sept. 14, 2016, 4:05 p.m.
Countries: Nigeria
Variables: ERBG-DATA-3

“Women in the oldest age groups (21 percent); women who are divorced, separated, or widowed (26 percent); women with five or more children (20 percent); rural women (22 percent); and women with a primary education (29 percent) are more likely to work in the agricultural sector” (47). “The table shows that 71 percent of currently married women were employed in the 12 months preceding the survey and that almost all currently married men were employed (99 percent). Younger women are less likely than older women to be employed, while there is no such variation by age among currently married men” (280). “The proportion of currently married women and men employed ...more
Sept. 14, 2016, 3:55 p.m.
Countries: Namibia
Variables: ERBG-DATA-3

“The proportion currently employed is considerably lower among younger respondents, especially those age 15-19, probably because many are still in school. Single women and men are also less likely to be working than those who are married or formerly married. For example, 38 percent of women who have never married were employed, compared with 54 percent of women who are married or living together” (33). “Table 15.2 shows that six in ten married women (61 percent) and 90 percent of married men are currently employed. Employment among married women increases with age, ranging from 30 percent among women age 15-19 to 66-67 percent among women in their thirties and early ...more
Sept. 14, 2016, 3:44 p.m.
Countries: Ghana
Variables: ERBG-DATA-3

“Never-married women are less likely to be currently employed (50 percent) compared with currently or previously married women (85 percent and 88 percent, respectively). Current employment increases with the number of living children from 51 percent of women with no children to 89 percent among those with five or more children” (42). “Similar to women, never-married men (64 percent) and those with no living children (66 percent) are much less likely to be currently employed than ever-married men (96-99 percent) and men with living children (98-100 percent)” (43). “The table shows that 87 percent of currently married women and almost all currently married men (99 percent) age 15-49 were employed ...more
Sept. 12, 2016, 3:55 a.m.
Countries: Nigeria
Variables: ERBG-DATA-3

“Women in the oldest age groups (21 percent); women who are divorced, separated, or widowed (26 percent); women with five or more children (20 percent); rural women (22 percent); and women with a primary education (29 percent) are more likely to work in the agricultural sector” (47). “The table shows that 71 percent of currently married women were employed in the 12 months preceding the survey and that almost all currently married men were employed (99 percent). Younger women are less likely than older women to be employed, while there is no such variation by age among currently married men” (280). “The proportion of currently married women and men employed ...more
Sept. 12, 2016, 3:50 a.m.
Countries: Kenya
Variables: ERBG-DATA-3

“Only 75 percent of currently married women age 15-49 were employed in the past 12 months, as compared with virtually all currently married men. The results show an improvement over time in the proportion of employed women, from 67 percent in the 2008-09 KDHS to 75 percent in 2014. There is no difference from 2008-09 to 2014 in the proportion of men who were employed” (274).
Sept. 12, 2016, 3:47 a.m.
Countries: Nigeria
Variables: ERBG-DATA-3

“Women in the oldest age groups (21 percent); women who are divorced, separated, or widowed (26 percent); women with five or more children (20 percent); rural women (22 percent); and women with a primary education (29 percent) are more likely to work in the agricultural sector” (47). “The table shows that 71 percent of currently married women were employed in the 12 months preceding the survey and that almost all currently married men were employed (99 percent). Younger women are less likely than older women to be employed, while there is no such variation by age among currently married men” (280). “The proportion of currently married women and men employed ...more
Sept. 12, 2016, 3:46 a.m.
Countries: Swaziland
Variables: ERBG-DATA-3

“Women who have never been married, have no children, and are living in rural areas are less likely than other women to be employed. Women who are divorced or separated are more likely to be employed than women who have never married or are currently married or living together (62 percent for divorced or separated women, 49 percent for women who are married or living together, and 28 percent for never married women)” (39). “More than half of women who have three or more living children are employed compared with 20 percent of women who have no living children. Women who reside in urban areas are much more likely to ...more
Sept. 12, 2016, 3:45 a.m.
Countries: Philippines
Variables: ERBG-DATA-3

“Half of the women who are married or living with a man are currently employed (51 percent). Ten percent were not working although they had been employed in 12 months prior to survey, while the remaining 39 percent said that they had not employed in the previous 12 months” (26). “Women who were divorced/separated or widowed are more likely to be employed than currently married women. The more children women have, the more likely they are to be currently employed” (26). “Over 6 in 10 currently married women (61 percent) age 15-49 reported being employed in the 12 months before the survey. Forty-six percent of married women with cash earnings ...more