The most comprehensive compilation of information on the status of
women in the world.

Latest items for ERBG-DATA-5

April 19, 2019, 9:51 a.m.
Countries: Bosnia-Herzegovina
Variables: ERBG-DATA-5

"Share of the grey economy in the gross domestic product reaches a level of around 30 per cent. Labour market surveys regularly point to the lack of official statistics on unemployment, and the reason indicated is a significant employment rate in the informal economy in which women are also represented (...) One of the measures that contributes to the implementation of Recommendation 34 (d) UN CEDAW/C/BIH/CO/4-5 is the Proposal for a decision on the cancellation of the Convention on Underground Work for Women, No. 45 from 1935 of the ILO, in order to harmonize this area with the European Social Charter. CoM BiH established this proposal for the decision in...more
April 5, 2019, 6:49 a.m.
Countries: Bolivia
Variables: ERBG-DATA-5

"Sixty percent of women worked in the informal sector and thus were not protected by formal-sector labor laws, which afford maternity benefits, breast-feeding hours, permission to work fewer hours, and more holidays than their male counterparts" (p. 30 - 31).
April 5, 2019, 6:49 a.m.
Countries: Bolivia
Variables: ERBG-DATA-5

"During the year UN Women reported that six of every 10 women were engaged in informal economic activity and on average earned 19 percent less than their male counterparts. Those working part-time and hourly jobs did not have these protections" (p. 31).
March 29, 2019, 5:33 p.m.
Countries: Malawi
Variables: ERBG-DATA-5

"Nevertheless, women had significantly lower levels of literacy, education, and formal and nontraditional employment opportunities, as well as lower rates of access to resources for farming" (para 92). "Many boys worked as vendors, and young girls in urban areas often worked outside of their families as domestic servants, receiving low or no wages" (para 131). "Despite the law against discrimination based on gender or marital status, discrimination against women was pervasive, and women did not have opportunities equal to those available to men. Women had significantly lower levels of literacy, education, and formal and nontraditional employment opportunities. Few women participated in the limited formal labor market, and those that did...more
March 29, 2019, 4:03 p.m.
Countries: China
Variables: ERBG-DATA-5

"Many vulnerable workers were employed in the informal economy. In 2012 Chinese Academy of Social Sciences researchers estimated the prevalence of informal employment ranged from 20 percent to 37 percent overall, based on the definition used, with between 45 percent and 65 percent of migrants employed in the informal sector. UN experts reported that women were particularly active in the informal economy, often as domestic workers or petty entrepreneurs. Workers in the informal sector often lacked coverage under labor contracts, and even with contracts, migrant workers in particular had less access to benefits, especially social insurance. Workers in the informal sector worked longer hours and earned one-half to two-thirds as...more
March 28, 2019, 10:34 a.m.
Countries: Cuba
Variables: ERBG-DATA-2, ERBG-DATA-5

"According to government statistics, 567,982 workers (33 percent of whom were female) were self-employed at the end of June, a 5 percent increase from 2016" (p. 28).
March 18, 2019, 7:25 a.m.
Countries: France
Variables: ERBG-DATA-5

"In 2016 the NGO Committee against Modern Slavery assisted 167 victims of forced labor, including 125 women" (p. 26).
March 7, 2019, 11:23 a.m.
Countries: Mauritania
Variables: ERBG-DATA-5

"The majority of the working population labored in the informal sector, primarily in subsistence agriculture and animal husbandry. According to the General Confederation of Workers of Mauritania, only 25 percent of workers filled positions with regular pay" (page 31).
March 1, 2019, 11:52 p.m.
Countries: Qatar, Qatar
Variables: ERBG-DATA-5, LR-DATA-1

"The report shows a rise in the adult literacy rate for both sexes, from 96.7 per cent in the 2015 report to 97.8 per cent in the 2016 report" (8).
March 1, 2019, 9:06 a.m.
Countries: Tajikistan
Variables: ERBG-DATA-5

"One in three employed women work in agriculture" (29).
Feb. 3, 2019, 9:09 p.m.
Countries: Costa Rica
Variables: ERBG-DATA-5

"It nevertheless remains concerned about: (b) The high unemployment and self-employment rates among women, the overrepresentation of women in the informal sector and the limited social protection schemes for women working in that sector" (9) Data is not included (CCS-CODER COMMENT).
Feb. 1, 2019, 4:30 p.m.
Countries: Paraguay
Variables: ERBG-DATA-5

"The UN Development Program’s 2013 Human Development and Social Security study concluded that 81.3 percent of the labor force (2,371,000) worked in informal jobs and did not enjoy retirement or health benefits. According to a 2013 survey conducted by the DGEEC, there were 107,245 domestic workers, most of them women" (page 37).
Feb. 1, 2019, 2:36 p.m.
Countries: Ethiopia
Variables: ERBG-DATA-5

"Table 3.8 presents the percent distribution of women who were employed in the 12 months preceding the survey by type of earnings, type of employer, and continuity of employment, according to sector of employment (agricultural or nonagricultural). Seven in 10 women (70%) engaged in agricultural work are unpaid workers, most likely employed by family members at the peak of the agricultural season. Trends: The proportion of self-employed women in the agricultural sector increased from 22% in 2005 to 46% in 2016. There has been no marked change among women in employment by non-family members since 2005, but the proportion of women working in agricultural sectors who are paid in cash...more
Jan. 28, 2019, 7:32 p.m.
Countries: Honduras
Variables: ERBG-DATA-5

"The Committee welcomes the progress achieved since its consideration in 2007 of the State party's combined fourth to sixth periodic reports (CEDAW/C/HON/6) in undertaking legislative reforms, in particular the adoption of the following: (...) d) Act for Protection of Earnings and Regularization of Informal Employment (Decree No. 318-2013), incorporating workers from the informal sector, who are primarily women, into the public health and security systems" (1-2). "The Committee reiterates its concern about the disproportionately high unemployment rate among women, their concentration in low-paid jobs in the informal labour sector and persistent horizontal and vertical occupational segregation. It notes with concern: a) The lack of targeted measures to facilitate the entry...more
Jan. 2, 2019, 2:04 p.m.
Countries: Tunisia
Variables: ERBG-DATA-5

"According to World Bank statistics, the informal sector-- more than half of which is women--employed more than 54 percent of the total workforce" (page 25).
Dec. 21, 2018, 4:39 p.m.
Countries: Tunisia
Variables: ERBG-DATA-5

"According to World Bank statistics, the informal sector employed more than 54 percent of the total workforce, more than half of which was women" (page 30).
Nov. 15, 2018, 12:07 p.m.
Countries: Mexico
Variables: ERBG-DATA-5

"The Committee is also concerned about the considerable pay differentials between men and women and that 56.6% of the female working population is engaged in the informal labour sector and hence without access to social security benefits. It is further concerned at the unequal working conditions of domestic workers; 99% of whom are women and that they experience discrimination with respect to wages, working hours and benefits" (8).
Nov. 2, 2018, 9:21 a.m.
Countries: Kazakhstan
Variables: ERBG-PRACTICE-2, ERBG-DATA-5

"More women than men were self-employed or underemployed relative to their education level" (page 39).
Sept. 5, 2018, 9:59 a.m.
Countries: Tanzania
Variables: ERBG-DATA-5

"While employers in the formal sector were more attentive to laws against discrimination, problems were particularly acute in the informal sector, in which women were disproportionately employed. Women often were employed for low pay and in hazardous jobs, and reported high levels of bullying, threats, and sexual harassment" (34).
Sept. 5, 2018, 9:58 a.m.
Countries: Thailand
Variables: ERBG-DATA-5

"[The committee] remains concerned about: ...The high concentration of women in the informal employment sector, including as domestic workers, who continue to be excluded from labour and social security protections, such as minimum wage protection, overtime compensation and maternity leave" (11).
Sept. 5, 2018, 9:42 a.m.
Countries: Vietnam
Variables: ERBG-DATA-5

"[The Committee] is concerned about: ...The concentration of women in low-paid jobs in the informal sector without access to social protection and outside the scope of the Labour Code" (9). "The Committee is concerned: ...That most women in the agricultural and informal sectors, older women and minority women have limited access to full social protection and have limited access to training opportunities and financial resources, such as formal credits through bank loans, income and pension and social security schemes, compared with men" (11).
Sept. 4, 2018, 10:25 a.m.
Countries: Mozambique
Variables: ERBG-DATA-5

"Women held a relatively small proportion of private-sector salaried jobs, and they had correspondingly lower social security benefits and less access to higher-paying occupations than did men. Many worked as casual laborers or in the informal sector, primarily in subsistence agriculture" (16).
Aug. 28, 2018, 10:03 a.m.
Countries: Mali
Variables: ERBG-DATA-5

"The Committee remains concerned (see CEDAW/C/MLI/CO/5, para. 29) that women, specifically in rural areas, are concentrated in the informal sector in non skilled and low-paid jobs and excluded from social protection" (page 10). "The Committee . . . is concerned, however, about the lack of active participation by women in the design and implementation of these activities and about the discriminatory laws that require women to obey their husbands, thereby restricting their exercise of their economic rights. The Committee notes the severe disruption of women’s livelihoods, including their ability to trade, resulting from the conflict" (page 11).
Aug. 24, 2018, 12:29 p.m.
Countries: Burma/Myanmar
Variables: ERBG-DATA-5

"The Committee . . . is concerned, however, at . . . the concentration of women in the informal employment sector" (page 12).
Aug. 20, 2018, 11:08 a.m.
Countries: Philippines
Variables: ERBG-DATA-5

"The Committee . . . remains concerned about: (a) Women’s overrepresentation in the informal sector" (page 10). "The Committee welcomes the initiatives taken by the State party to develop a social protection floor, but is concerned that women living in poverty in rural and urban areas, in particular those working in the informal sector, lack access to social security" (page 12).
July 6, 2018, 6:49 p.m.
Countries: Uruguay
Variables: ERBG-DATA-5

". . . in the 'self-employed without business premises' category, the number of women fell by almost half (5.2 per cent to 3.3 per cent); but there were still almost twice as many women as men (Table 29)" (page 24). "Greater job insecurity was found in the category “self-employed without premises”, which had twice as many persons of African as of non-African descent for both periods—8.8 per cent men, 9.4 per cent women in 2007, as opposed to 4.2 per cent men and 4.8 per cent women; the 2013 rates for those of African descent were 3.3 per cent for men and 5.5 per cent for women" (page 36).more
June 28, 2018, 4:51 p.m.
Countries: Tanzania
Variables: ERBG-DATA-5

"The Committee remains concerned at persistent discrimination against women in the labour market, in particular: (a) The high rate of unemployed young women and their marginalization from formal labour markets" (page 11).
June 26, 2018, 9:09 a.m.
Countries: New Zealand
Variables: ERBG-DATA-5

"Some Tokelauan women also take handicrafts to regional events to promote and sell . . . In May and July 2014 successful handicraft markets were held by Fatupaepae representatives" (page 56 (Coder comment: Fatupaepae are Women's Committees on Tokelau - ARR).
June 25, 2018, 10:56 a.m.
Countries: Turkmenistan
Variables: ERBG-DATA-5

"According to the 2015 survey, out of the total number of able-bodied respondents, men make up 57 per cent and women — 43 per cent. On average, the level of those employed in the informal sector was 7.5 per cent of the surveyed working population, of whom women made up 29.3 per cent. The proportion of the working population in the informal sector living in rural areas was 9.7 per cent, of them women made up 29.4 per cent" (31). Of those who work in the informal sector, 29.3% are women (36).
June 8, 2018, 1:24 p.m.
Countries: Turkey
Variables: ERBG-DATA-5

"[The Committee] is furthermore concerned about: . . . The significant number of women working in low-paid jobs in the informal sector in precarious conditions and without access to health insurance or social security" (page 14).