The most comprehensive compilation of information on the status of
women in the world.

Latest items for ERBG-DATA-5

July 19, 2020, 1:45 p.m.
Countries: Nepal
Variables: ERBG-PRACTICE-1, ERBG-DATA-5

"Women are far more likely to be employed in agriculture than men (70% versus 33%). Trends: Involvement in agricultural work has decreased among both women and men over the past 5 years, from 75% and 35% in 2011 to 70% and 33% in 2016, respectively. In contrast, involvement in professional/technical/managerial work has increased, from 4% to 6% among women and from 8% to 10% among men. Women are less likely than men to be employed in professional/technical/managerial occupations (6% versus 10%), as well as clerical services (2% versus 6%), sales and services (13% versus 23%), skilled manual labor (6% versus 15%), and unskilled manual labor (3% versus 13%). Women who...more
June 5, 2020, 1:19 p.m.
Countries: Papua New Guinea
Variables: ERBG-DATA-5

"Tables 3.7.1 and 3.7.2, respectively, show that 43% of employed women and 48% of men age 15-49 are engaged in agricultural occupations" (38). "Among working women, the proportion employed in the agricultural sector is highest in East Sepik and West Sepik, while among men, it is highest in Southern Highlands and Milne Bay. For both women and men, the proportion employed in agriculture is lowest in National Capital District" (39). "Almost half of women who work are not paid (47%), while 40% are paid in cash only and 9% are paid in cash and in kind. Over half of working women (57%) are self-employed, while 22% work for a family...more
May 31, 2020, 6:36 p.m.
Countries: India
Variables: ERBG-DATA-5

"A large majority of women who worked in the past year and did agricultural work are employed by family members (83%) and earn cash for their work (70%). Ninety-two percent of women who did non-agricultural work earned cash for their work. Eleven percent of women who worked in past year were self employed" (57). " A large majority of employed women (81%) and men (90%) earned cash for their work, but 15 percent of women and 8 percent of men did not receive any payment" (57).
May 21, 2020, 8:43 p.m.
Countries: Guatemala
Variables: ERBG-DATA-5

"Considering just women in that sector, until the first half of 2013, the majority were in rural areas. By 2014, that figure had fallen to 40.8 per cent. At the same time, the number of women in the urban informal sector increased, a phenomenon probably explained by the migration of both the population and production units to urban centres, and not necessarily by an increase in formal employment opportunities in rural areas. Looking at the ethnic origin aspect of women in the informal sector, the share of Mayan women has been declining steadily, while that of Ladino women increased from 17.2 per cent in 2012 to 38.9 per cent in...more
May 15, 2020, 7:15 p.m.
Countries: Nigeria
Variables: ERBG-DATA-5

"Eighteen percent of employed women in Nigeria are not paid for their work. Women engaged in agricultural work are much more likely (47%) than those working in nonagricultural occupations (10%) to not be paid for their work. Seventy percent of women who worked in the past year are selfemployed" (48). "Women and men living in rural areas are more likely to be engaged in agriculture (32% and 60%, respectively) than those living in urban areas (10% and 17%, respectively)" (48). "Among those employed, women are less likely than men to be paid in cash only (73% versus 80%). Fifteen percent of women and 8% of men do not receive any...more
April 14, 2020, 5:17 p.m.
Countries: Indonesia
Variables: ERBG-DATA-5

"Furthermore, more than half of women engaged in agricultural work are unpaid workers, most likely employed by family members at the peak of the agricultural season. Fifty-six percent of women engaged in agriculture are employed by family members. One in three women (30%) engaged in agriculture is a seasonal employee (Table 3.8)" (31).
March 29, 2020, 6:41 p.m.
Countries: Maldives
Variables: ERBG-DATA-5

"Almost all women (97%) are paid in cash only, while less than 2% are unpaid workers. Almost half of working women (48%) are self-employed, while 40% work for a non-family employer and 12% are employed by a family member" (37).
March 28, 2020, 7:35 a.m.
Countries: China
Variables: ERBG-PRACTICE-4, ERBG-DATA-5

"Forty percent of these entrepreneurs are under 35, and 50 percent are women. The number female entrepreneurs and their wealth are much higher than their counterparts in western countries" (para 2). "Another important finding in the survey is that of all the Asian entrepreneurs surveyed, 40 percent of them are women. On Chinese mainland, 37 percent of entrepreneurs surveyed are female and over 52 percent of them are under the age of 35. In comparison, the percentage of female entrepreneurs in the West is only 31 percent. The average asset of female entrepreneurs on the mainland is 4 million dollars, exceeding male entrepreneurs' 3.5 million dollars" (para 6).more
Feb. 15, 2020, 9:16 p.m.
Countries: Italy
Variables: ERBG-DATA-5

"It aims to promote women’s entrepreneurship by facilitating access to credit for women-owned businesses. The initial 10-million-Euro budget of the Section, financed by DEO, was increased by further 20 million euros, by Law-Decree 145/2013, converted with amendments into Act 9/2014 (the so-called “Destination-Italy Plan”). Therefore, it currently amounts to 30 million euros, 50 per cent of which is destined to female business start-up. The endowment of the Section allows benefits granting as: direct guarantee, co guarantee; and countersecurity. It covers financial transactions for businesses with a majority female ownership. In December 2014, DEO, the Ministry of Economic Development and the Ministry of Economy signed the additional Act to extend this...more
Feb. 5, 2020, 5:50 p.m.
Countries: East Timor
Variables: ERBG-DATA-5

"Among those who are employed, 32% of women are in agriculture" (pg 33). "Seventy-four percent of women who work in agriculture are unpaid and 51% work on a seasonal basis" (pg 33). "The percentage of women employed in agriculture has fallen from 61% to 32%, while the percentage employed in domestic service has increased from 4% to 18% since 2009-10" (pg 33).
Dec. 14, 2019, 3:07 p.m.
Countries: Japan
Variables: ERBG-DATA-5

"Ever since Japan's speculative stock and property bubble burst in the early 1990s, wages have flatlined. The long-held social compact between employers and workers-- in which few people were ever laid off and employees were guaranteed lifelong employment-- has diminished. About one-fifth of men are now consigned to irregular contract jobs that offer little stability or potential for advancement" (para 31).
Dec. 8, 2019, 8:28 p.m.
Countries: China
Variables: ERBG-DATA-5

"The number of female entrepreneurs keeps growing, now accounting for one quarter of the total number of entrepreneurs in China. The government has initiated an action plan to promote entrepreneurship and innovation among women, encouraging women to seek employment in emerging industries. About 55 percent of new Internet businesses are being founded by women" (para. 14). "The state protects the rights and interests of rural women in relation to land. China is a large agricultural country, and women living in rural areas account for about 70 percent of the total agricultural labor force. While forging ahead with deeper all-round reform and promoting village-level self-government in rural areas, the state has...more
Oct. 22, 2019, 1:55 p.m.
Countries: Equatorial Guinea
Variables: ERBG-DATA-5

"Women mostly worked in the informal sector and did not have access to benefits or social security" (26).
Oct. 1, 2019, 2:44 p.m.
Countries: Philippines
Variables: ERBG-DATA-5

"A 2010 survey, the most recent data available, reported that 1.9 million people were employed as domestic workers, with nearly 85 percent being women and girls as young as 15" (39).
July 30, 2019, 6:50 p.m.
Countries: Slovakia
Variables: ERBG-DATA-5

"33 percent of entrepreneurs were female" (p. 15).
July 19, 2019, 4:56 p.m.
Countries: Niger
Variables: ERBG-DATA-5

"Very few women (3 per cent in 2012) are employed in the formal sector and covered by social protection and that women are concentrated in low-paid domestic work, where they are often exploited, exposed to precarious working conditions and subject to abuse by their employers" (10).
July 15, 2019, 3:24 p.m.
Countries: Thailand
Variables: ERBG-DATA-5

"A large income gap remained between formal and informal employment, with workers in nonagricultural sectors earning an average of three times more than those in the agricultural sector. According to government statistics, 55 percent of the labor force worked in the informal economy, with limited protection under labor laws and the social security system" (page 41).
July 12, 2019, 8:51 a.m.
Countries: Cambodia
Variables: ERBG-DATA-5

"The percentage of women who are self-employed or work for themselves without wages was 54 per cent in 2014, a slight increase from 52 per cent in 2009, and higher than men (45 per cent)" (42).
July 11, 2019, 5:35 p.m.
Countries: Bangladesh
Variables: ERBG-DATA-5

"...low participation rate of women in the formal economy" (9). "Women domestic workers in the State party are subjected to violence, abuse, food deprivation and murder... such crimes go unreported and that the victims have limited access to justice and redress" (10).
July 9, 2019, 4:36 p.m.
Countries: Serbia
Variables: ERBG-DATA-5

"According to labor force survey data, informal employment represented 22.1 percent of total employment in the second quarter of the year. Independent estimates suggested the informal sector may represent up to 30 percent of the economy" (page 33-34).
July 8, 2019, 9:30 a.m.
Countries: Senegal
Variables: ERBG-DATA-2, ERBG-DATA-5

"Women represent 52 percent of the population, but they perform 90 percent of domestic work and 85 percent of agricultural work" (page 24).
June 19, 2019, 8:49 p.m.
Countries: Guatemala
Variables: ERBG-DATA-5

"The Committee is also concerned that the majority of women employed in the informal sector do not have access to the national social security system, social protection or compensation programmes" (13).
June 17, 2019, 1:34 p.m.
Countries: South Africa
Variables: ERBG-DATA-5

"Using an employment-based definition of informal work, the number of persons in non-agricultural informal employment in South Africa was estimated at 3.96 million in 2005 but fell to 3.65 million in 2007. As a share of total non-agricultural employment, informal employment declined from 34 per cent in 2005 to 30 per cent in 2007" (6). "There is an approximately equal number of men and women in the informal economy, but informal employment contributes a larger share to total employment among women than among men. In metro areas, women in informal employment are more likely than their male counterparts to be wage employees, but the converse applies in non-metro areas" (6)....more
May 21, 2019, 8:53 p.m.
Countries: Czech Republic
Variables: ERBG-DATA-2, ERBG-DATA-5

"In 2016 women made up 44 percent of the nonagricultural workforce" (p. 22).
May 11, 2019, 5:11 p.m.
Countries: Fiji
Variables: ERBG-DATA-2, ERBG-DATA-5

"According to the Asian Development Bank, approximately 30 percent of the economically active female population engaged in the formal economy, and a large number of these women worked in semisubsistence farming or were self- employed" (23).
May 7, 2019, 11:16 p.m.
Countries: Palestine
Variables: ERBG-DATA-5, GEW-PRACTICE-1

"Women working as domestic workers were vulnerable to forced labor conditions in both the West Bank and Gaza, since the PA and de facto Hamas authorities do not regulate domestic labor within households or in the large informal sector" (115).
April 19, 2019, 9:51 a.m.
Countries: Bosnia-Herzegovina
Variables: ERBG-DATA-5

"Share of the grey economy in the gross domestic product reaches a level of around 30 per cent. Labour market surveys regularly point to the lack of official statistics on unemployment, and the reason indicated is a significant employment rate in the informal economy in which women are also represented (...) One of the measures that contributes to the implementation of Recommendation 34 (d) UN CEDAW/C/BIH/CO/4-5 is the Proposal for a decision on the cancellation of the Convention on Underground Work for Women, No. 45 from 1935 of the ILO, in order to harmonize this area with the European Social Charter. CoM BiH established this proposal for the decision in...more
April 5, 2019, 6:49 a.m.
Countries: Bolivia
Variables: ERBG-DATA-5

"Sixty percent of women worked in the informal sector and thus were not protected by formal-sector labor laws, which afford maternity benefits, breast-feeding hours, permission to work fewer hours, and more holidays than their male counterparts" (p. 30 - 31).
April 5, 2019, 6:49 a.m.
Countries: Bolivia
Variables: ERBG-DATA-5

"During the year UN Women reported that six of every 10 women were engaged in informal economic activity and on average earned 19 percent less than their male counterparts. Those working part-time and hourly jobs did not have these protections" (p. 31).
March 29, 2019, 5:33 p.m.
Countries: Malawi
Variables: ERBG-DATA-5

"Nevertheless, women had significantly lower levels of literacy, education, and formal and nontraditional employment opportunities, as well as lower rates of access to resources for farming" (para 92). "Many boys worked as vendors, and young girls in urban areas often worked outside of their families as domestic servants, receiving low or no wages" (para 131). "Despite the law against discrimination based on gender or marital status, discrimination against women was pervasive, and women did not have opportunities equal to those available to men. Women had significantly lower levels of literacy, education, and formal and nontraditional employment opportunities. Few women participated in the limited formal labor market, and those that did...more