The most comprehensive compilation of information on the status of
women in the world.

Latest items for ERBG-DATA-5

Sept. 5, 2018, 9:59 a.m.
Countries: Tanzania
Variables: ERBG-DATA-5

"While employers in the formal sector were more attentive to laws against discrimination, problems were particularly acute in the informal sector, in which women were disproportionately employed. Women often were employed for low pay and in hazardous jobs, and reported high levels of bullying, threats, and sexual harassment" (34).
Sept. 5, 2018, 9:58 a.m.
Countries: Thailand
Variables: ERBG-DATA-5

"[The committee] remains concerned about: ...The high concentration of women in the informal employment sector, including as domestic workers, who continue to be excluded from labour and social security protections, such as minimum wage protection, overtime compensation and maternity leave" (11).
Sept. 5, 2018, 9:42 a.m.
Countries: Vietnam
Variables: ERBG-DATA-5

"[The Committee] is concerned about: ...The concentration of women in low-paid jobs in the informal sector without access to social protection and outside the scope of the Labour Code" (9). "The Committee is concerned: ...That most women in the agricultural and informal sectors, older women and minority women have limited access to full social protection and have limited access to training opportunities and financial resources, such as formal credits through bank loans, income and pension and social security schemes, compared with men" (11).
Sept. 4, 2018, 10:25 a.m.
Countries: Mozambique
Variables: ERBG-DATA-5

"Women held a relatively small proportion of private-sector salaried jobs, and they had correspondingly lower social security benefits and less access to higher-paying occupations than did men. Many worked as casual laborers or in the informal sector, primarily in subsistence agriculture" (16).
Aug. 28, 2018, 10:03 a.m.
Countries: Mali
Variables: ERBG-DATA-5

"The Committee remains concerned (see CEDAW/C/MLI/CO/5, para. 29) that women, specifically in rural areas, are concentrated in the informal sector in non skilled and low-paid jobs and excluded from social protection" (page 10). "The Committee . . . is concerned, however, about the lack of active participation by women in the design and implementation of these activities and about the discriminatory laws that require women to obey their husbands, thereby restricting their exercise of their economic rights. The Committee notes the severe disruption of women’s livelihoods, including their ability to trade, resulting from the conflict" (page 11).
Aug. 24, 2018, 12:29 p.m.
Countries: Burma/Myanmar
Variables: ERBG-DATA-5

"The Committee . . . is concerned, however, at . . . the concentration of women in the informal employment sector" (page 12).
Aug. 20, 2018, 11:08 a.m.
Countries: Philippines
Variables: ERBG-DATA-5

"The Committee . . . remains concerned about: (a) Women’s overrepresentation in the informal sector" (page 10). "The Committee welcomes the initiatives taken by the State party to develop a social protection floor, but is concerned that women living in poverty in rural and urban areas, in particular those working in the informal sector, lack access to social security" (page 12).
July 6, 2018, 6:49 p.m.
Countries: Uruguay
Variables: ERBG-DATA-5

". . . in the 'self-employed without business premises' category, the number of women fell by almost half (5.2 per cent to 3.3 per cent); but there were still almost twice as many women as men (Table 29)" (page 24). "Greater job insecurity was found in the category “self-employed without premises”, which had twice as many persons of African as of non-African descent for both periods—8.8 per cent men, 9.4 per cent women in 2007, as opposed to 4.2 per cent men and 4.8 per cent women; the 2013 rates for those of African descent were 3.3 per cent for men and 5.5 per cent for women" (page 36).more
June 28, 2018, 4:51 p.m.
Countries: Tanzania
Variables: ERBG-DATA-5

"The Committee remains concerned at persistent discrimination against women in the labour market, in particular: (a) The high rate of unemployed young women and their marginalization from formal labour markets" (page 11).
June 26, 2018, 9:09 a.m.
Countries: New Zealand
Variables: ERBG-DATA-5

"Some Tokelauan women also take handicrafts to regional events to promote and sell . . . In May and July 2014 successful handicraft markets were held by Fatupaepae representatives" (page 56 (Coder comment: Fatupaepae are Women's Committees on Tokelau - ARR).
June 25, 2018, 10:56 a.m.
Countries: Turkmenistan
Variables: ERBG-DATA-5

"According to the 2015 survey, out of the total number of able-bodied respondents, men make up 57 per cent and women — 43 per cent. On average, the level of those employed in the informal sector was 7.5 per cent of the surveyed working population, of whom women made up 29.3 per cent. The proportion of the working population in the informal sector living in rural areas was 9.7 per cent, of them women made up 29.4 per cent" (31). Of those who work in the informal sector, 29.3% are women (36).
June 8, 2018, 1:24 p.m.
Countries: Turkey
Variables: ERBG-DATA-5

"[The Committee] is furthermore concerned about: . . . The significant number of women working in low-paid jobs in the informal sector in precarious conditions and without access to health insurance or social security" (page 14).
May 30, 2018, 7:55 a.m.
Countries: Zimbabwe
Variables: ERBG-DATA-5

"Tokupai madomasi! Tokupai mbambaira! Do you want tomatoes or sweet potatoes? Mune marii? How much do you have? Scores of women and children carrying bundles of vegetables, sacks of sweet potatoes and containers full of farming produce shout above the din of moving vehicles, trying to sell their produce for a meagre profit" (Para 1). "A study by the Zimbabwe National Chamber of Commerce (2016) on Women Agribusiness Entrepreneurs revealed that fewer women smallholder farmers meet the banking sector’s stringent borrowing requirements, and women are more likely to operate informally" (Para 7).
May 9, 2018, 4:01 p.m.
Countries: Haiti
Variables: ERBG-DATA-5

"Women are concentrated in the informal sector in non-skilled and low paid jobs, where they are not covered by social protection and often face sexual harassment" (11).
April 20, 2018, 4:05 p.m.
Countries: Hungary
Variables: ERBG-DATA-5

"It also notes with concern the absence of statistical data on the situation of women in the informal economy and the barriers to women’s entrepreneurship" (9)
April 17, 2018, 4:54 p.m.
Countries: Tanzania
Variables: ERBG-DATA-5

"Overall, 53% of women employed in the past 12 months were paid in cash (plus an additional 8% were paid in both cash and kind), 54% were self-employed, and 52% worked seasonally. How women are paid, who they work for, and how often they work varies greatly depending on whether or not they work in the agricultural sector (Table 3.8). Trends: On average, the percentage of employed women who are paid cash increased from 33% in 2010 to 53% in 2015-16. Women engaged in agriculture who received cash payment also increased over time, from 9% in 2010 to 24% in 2015-16. Similarly the percentage of women engaged in nonagricultural work...more
April 11, 2018, 9:23 a.m.
Countries: Burkina Faso
Variables: ERBG-DATA-5

"Most women work in the informal sector, including petty trade, agricultural-, livestock- and forest-product processing and marketing, hairdressing and weaving. That sector is characterized by women’s considerable vulnerability because of limited access to credit and unstable income" (32).
April 4, 2018, 9:59 a.m.
Countries: East Timor
Variables: ERBG-DATA-5

"That most women do not participate at all in the labour force: 78 per cent of those who do participate are engaged in the informal sector without appropriate social security coverage" (10).
April 3, 2018, 10:42 p.m.
Countries: Madagascar
Variables: ERBG-DATA-5

"The Committee reiterates its concern about the high proportion of women in the informal sector, where they face persistent poverty and are not covered by social protection. The Committee is also concerned about the precarious situation of women and girls in domestic work in private households. The Committee recommends that the State party: . . . (b) Further strengthen the capacity of labour inspectors to monitor workplaces, including in private households, and enforce labour standards through adequate sanctions, when applicable, and use their findings for policy review and the development of best practices; (c) Take measures to close the existing wage gaps between women and men and to implement equality...more
April 2, 2018, 8:19 a.m.
Countries: Bolivia
Variables: ERBG-DATA-5

"The Committee is concerned about a persistent gender gap in employment, including...The disproportionately high number of women working in the informal sector and de facto barriers to access to social security" (9).
March 21, 2018, 5:20 p.m.
Countries: Namibia
Variables: ERBG-PRACTICE-2, ERBG-PRACTICE-3, ERBG-LAW-2, ERBG-DATA-5, DLB-DATA-1, GIC-LAW-1, GIC-LAW-2, GIC-LAW-3

"The Committee is concerned about the high rates of unemployment among women in the State party. It also notes with concern the continued occupational segregation between women and men in the labour market and the low representation of women in managerial positions in the private sector. The Committee is also concerned that, notwithstanding the concentration of women in domestic work in private households, it has not ratified the Domestic Workers Convention, 2011 (No. 189), of the International Labour Organization. It is further concerned at the lack of statistical data on cases of sexual harassment in the workplace and measures taken to address it. In addition, the Committee is concerned that...more
March 19, 2018, 8:20 a.m.
Countries: Colombia
Variables: ERBG-DATA-5

"It is further concerned that the large majority of the female working population is engaged in the informal labour sector, hence having no access to social security benefits. It is concerned at the mitigating circumstances contained in Law No. 1010 (2006) with respect to sexual harassment in the workplace" (Pg 9).
March 14, 2018, 6:54 p.m.
Countries: Senegal
Variables: ERBG-PRACTICE-1, ERBG-PRACTICE-2, ERBG-LAW-2, ERBG-DATA-1, ERBG-DATA-2, ERBG-DATA-5, GIC-LAW-1, GIC-LAW-2, GIC-LAW-3

"The Committee welcomes the adoption of the 2009-2015 plan for the implementation of the National Gender Equality and Equity Strategy, which includes measures for economic empowerment and autonomy of women. It remains concerned, however, about: (a) The persistent gender wage gap and occupational segregation of women and men; (b) The high unemployment rate among women and the concentration of women in the informal sector; (c) The absence of legal provisions explicitly criminalizing sexual harassment in the workplace; (d) The existence of discriminatory legal provisions allocating child benefits only to the father (art. 21 of the Code of Social Security), excluding the children of a deceased employed woman from her pension...more
March 14, 2018, 3:42 p.m.
Countries: Guinea
Variables: ERBG-DATA-5

"most women are employed within the informal sector, without social benefits such as maternity leave" (12). "The Committee is concerned, however, about...The widespread poverty among women despite the wealth of natural resources in the country and the lack of measures to introduce a social protection network for women in the informal sector" (12).
March 14, 2018, 12:08 p.m.
Countries: Swaziland
Variables: ERBG-DATA-5

"The Committee is concerned about the continued occupational segregation between women and men in the labour market and the fact that women are concentrated in low-paid jobs in the informal economy" (page 9).
March 7, 2018, 6:52 p.m.
Countries: Sri Lanka
Variables: ERBG-DATA-5

"Women engaged in housework are not included in the definition of ‘economically active’ population. This effectively removes almost 75 per cent of the female population over the age of 15 and overlooks the economic value of housework" (41).
Feb. 28, 2018, 5:36 p.m.
Countries: Kenya
Variables: ERBG-DATA-5

"Currently, women in Kenya do the vast majority of agricultural work and produce/market the majority of food. Only 29 per cent of those earning a formal wage throughout the country are women, leaving a huge percentage of women to work in the informal sector without any federal support. Nearly 40 per cent of households are run solely by women and, because of a lack of fair income, nearly all these homes suffer from poverty or extreme poverty (FSD, 2014)" (28).
Feb. 27, 2018, 11:14 p.m.
Countries: Niger
Variables: ERBG-DATA-5

"It has invested in the field of labour-saving devices for such household chores as threshing and pounding cereals, which are very time-consuming activities for women, and undertakes in particular to rehabilitate wells and acquire mills, millet threshers, pulleys (wells), peanut oil presses, ox- and donkey carts" (pg 27).
Feb. 14, 2018, 11:45 a.m.
Countries: Palestine
Variables: ERBG-DATA-5

"That leaves a substantial segment of women workers outside the scope of the law, since a majority of informal workers are women" (45). "A significant proportion of [the informal] sector’s numerous activities are engaged in by women, the most notable being light manufacturing such as sewing and weaving, seasonal agriculture, and running informal family enterprises" (48). "Excluding agriculture, the proportions of workers in the informal sector in 2015 were about 14.2 per cent for females, 29.3 per cent for males" (48).
Feb. 7, 2018, 10:37 a.m.
Countries: Sweden
Variables: ERBG-DATA-5

"Few women are formally active in the fishing industry but women are still linked to it in various ways. The proportion of women in the industry is probably higher than shown by the statistics, but women have an informal role in family businesses, for instance. As part of the Swedish Fisheries Programme in the period 2007-2013 when projects were selected they were asked how the project is expected to impact on gender equality. At the end of 2012, 96 completed cases had been registered as positive for gender equality while 645 had been judged to be neutral and none were negative" (page 60).