The most comprehensive compilation of information on the status of
women in the world.

Latest items for ERBG-PRACTICE-1

Feb. 15, 2020, 9:16 p.m.
Countries: Italy
Variables: ERBG-PRACTICE-1

"In addition to Article 3 of the Italian Constitution, Art. 1 of the Code on Equal Opportunities Between Women and Men (Legislative Decree 198/2006) sets forth: “Relevant provisions envisage measures, aimed at eliminating whatsoever distinction, exclusion or limitation based on sex, which might affect or hinder the enjoyment and exercise of human rights and fundamental freedoms (...)” in all spheres of life. Thus, there is no legal discrimination with regard to civil, political, social, economic or cultural rights between women and men." (para 11). "Act 228/2012 introducing the obligation for national bodies dealing with gender equality to exchange information with corresponding European bodies and extending the prohibition of gender-based discrimination...more
Feb. 14, 2020, 12:34 p.m.
Countries: Lebanon
Variables: ERBG-PRACTICE-1

"The law does not distinguish between women and men in employment and provides for equal pay for men and women. On wage equality for similar work, the report indicated a considerable difference between wages for women and men in the workplace" (29). "Most reports of abuse came from transgender women. An AFE and Marsa project highlighted employment discrimination faced by transgender women due to the inconsistency between official documentation and gender self-presentation" (33). "Although the government generally respected these provisions, they were not enforced in some areas, especially in economic matters, and aspects of the law and traditional beliefs discriminated against women. Discrimination in employment and occupation occurred with respect...more
Feb. 8, 2020, 7:27 p.m.
Countries: South Africa
Variables: ERBG-PRACTICE-1

"Women and men who are in a union (married or living together with a partner as though married) or divorced/separated/widowed women and men are more likely to be employed than those who have never been married or lived with a partner as though married" (38). "Among those who are employed, 20% of women work in professional, technical, or managerial occupations; 19% work in unskilled manual occupations; 18% are engaged in sales and services; and 16% do clerical work. One-third (33%) of men who are employed are engaged in skilled manual occupations; 14% work in professional, technical, or managerial occupations; 14% work in sales and services; and 13% are engaged in...more
Feb. 5, 2020, 5:50 p.m.
Countries: East Timor
Variables: ERBG-PRACTICE-1

"Among those who are employed, 32% of women are in agriculture; domestic service, and sales and service are other dominant occupational fields for women (Table 3.7.1 and Figure 3.6) . . . Women and men are equally likely to be employed in professional, technical, or managerial occupations (11% and 12% respectively)" (pg 33). "Ninety percent of women who are employed are either self-employed or employed by a family member (Table 3.8)" (pg 33).
Feb. 5, 2020, 8:01 a.m.
Countries: Congo
Variables: ERBG-PRACTICE-1

"A draft bill on gender violence that addresses sexual harassment and female genital mutilation is being developed" (8). "A project entitled 'Women and income-generating activities' was implemented by MPFIFD, with the support of bilateral and multilateral partners. Ministry teams toured all the national territory to identify beneficiaries, encourage them to organize into groups, train them in management of production units and distribute agricultural materials and working kits (hairdressing, tailoring, etc.)" (10). "There is no legislation that discriminates against women with regard to access to employment and during the course of employment. In practice, however, they are less likely than men to obtain certain jobs, especially because of illiteracy, lack of...more
Jan. 30, 2020, 1:05 p.m.
Countries: Yemen
Variables: ERBG-PRACTICE-1, ERBG-LAW-2

"The labor law does not address sexual orientation, political opinion, national origin, social origin, gender identity, HIV status, or other communicable diseases. Authorities did not consistently enforce the law, and discrimination based on race, gender, and disability remained a serious problem in employment and occupation" (36).
Jan. 13, 2020, 8:20 p.m.
Countries: Somalia
Variables: ERBG-PRACTICE-1

"The exclusion of women was more pronounced in al-Shabaab-controlled areas, where women’s participation in economic activities was perceived as anti-Islamic." (34).
Dec. 31, 2019, 3:56 p.m.
Countries: Spain
Variables: ERBG-PRACTICE-1

"The tone slightly changed when asking women in southern European countries such as Spain. Also noting a wide disparity between men and women in the asset management and fund selection sectors, Susana Michelena, financial adviser investment solutions at Allfunds Bank, looks at motherhood and unequal pay as main reasons for the lack of women in fund selection in Spain. 'I believe the number of women will increase in the future but there’s still a long path ahead. Family responsibilities and sometimes a lower salary for the same job are the main reasons for this inequality in numbers,' she says" (para. 36-37).
Dec. 31, 2019, 3:55 p.m.
Countries: Italy
Variables: ERBG-PRACTICE-1

"Claudia Segre, general secretary of Italy’s Financial Markets Association, Assiom Forex, says few women work in fund selection in Italy at present and more needs to be done to get them involved. 'We need to persuade industry associations to implement education programmes to attract more women professionals to fund selection, so that they can make their views heard in the industry,' she adds" (para. 30-31).
Dec. 14, 2019, 3:07 p.m.
Countries: Japan
Variables: ERBG-PRACTICE-1

"But their careers are often held back by a relentless tide of domestic burdens, like filling out the meticulous daily logs required by their children's day-care centers, preparing the intricate meals often expected of Japanese women, supervising and signing off on homework from school and afterschool tutoring sessions, or hanging rounds of laundry" (para 19).
Dec. 8, 2019, 8:28 p.m.
Countries: China
Variables: ERBG-PRACTICE-1

"It supports female college graduates in seeking employment and starting businesses, providing training in employment, guidance in starting businesses and internship opportunities, and it has implemented the Sunshine Project, improving the quality and skills of the rural female workforce and creating conditions to promote the transfer of rural female workforce to non-agricultural sectors and urban areas. There are now more than 200,000 training schools for women nationwide, providing training sessions to a total of nearly 200 million women in new agricultural technologies and new crop species. A total of 1.5 million women have obtained titles and qualifications as agricultural technicians, and 53,000 women’s professional cooperatives have been founded" (para. 13)....more
Dec. 6, 2019, 1:53 p.m.
Countries: Guatemala
Variables: ERBG-PRACTICE-1

"Cuc Choc started attending activist meetings in El Estor at age 13 with her brother Ramiro, another prominent activist, but their experiences quickly diverged. While both have been subject of threats and smear campaigns, Cuc Choc has been threatened with sexual violence, physically abused by her father and ex-husband because of her work, and received vulgar and explicit gender-related insults" (para 3). "'It's hard to find women who are well-organised in this work, because there always exists machismo behind us,' said Cuc Choc" (para 4). "Only 12 percent of the land rights defenders killed in 2018 were women, but female land defenders are exposed to additional violence and intimidation. Pressure...more
Nov. 14, 2019, 10:20 p.m.
Countries: Iran
Variables: ERBG-PRACTICE-1

"...hard-liners in the clerical and military establishments accused [Ms Shahindokht Molaverdi] of undermining Islamic values by encouraging women to work...It even rankled that she had managed to become the first woman in Iran to secure a license to run a notary office, the privilege of clerics since the early 20th century" (para 6). "The connect-the-dots of intrigue eventually lead to the Rouhani government itself. Hard-liners angrily cite his administration’s attempts to suspend Ahmadinejad-era gender policies, such as a ban on women’s studying certain subjects in universities, a reduction in their permissible work hours, and a stricter dress code" (para 14).
Nov. 14, 2019, 1:30 p.m.
Countries: Poland
Variables: ERBG-PRACTICE-1

"According to the Women’s Rights Center, sexual harassment continued to be a serious and underreported problem" (18).
Nov. 7, 2019, 6:16 p.m.
Countries: Egypt
Variables: ERBG-PRACTICE-1

"Labor laws provide for equal rates of pay for equal work for men and women in the public but not the private sector. Educated women had employment opportunities, but social pressure against women pursuing a career was strong. Large sectors of the economy controlled by the military excluded women from high-level positions." (44). "The government did not effectively enforce prohibitions against such discrimination. Discrimination in employment and occupation occurred with respect to women and persons with disabilities..." (54).
Nov. 4, 2019, 4:01 p.m.
Countries: Israel
Variables: ERBG-PRACTICE-1, ERBG-LAW-1

"Over the past few months, the chief of staff has conducted many long and heated meetings with people on either extreme of this intense debate. He met with a large delegation composed of the rabbinic leadership of the religious Zionist movement, which included Deputy Minister of Defense Rabbi Eli Ben Dahan, a member of the religious Zionist HaBayit HaYehudi party. He also sat down with a group of five women serving in the Knesset who are on the front lines in the fight for equality for women. These included Meirav Michaeli and Ayelet Nahmias-Verbin (Zionist Camp), Rachel Azaria (Kulanu) and others. After deliberating and examining the issue at length, he...more
Oct. 25, 2019, 9:36 p.m.
Countries: Haiti
Variables: ERBG-PRACTICE-1

"Observers indicated that sexual harassment occurred frequently" (19).
Oct. 22, 2019, 6:25 p.m.
Countries: Sudan
Variables: ERBG-PRACTICE-1

"More than 10,000 women in the informal sector depended on selling tea on the streets of Khartoum State for their livelihoods after having fled conflict in Darfur and the Two Areas. Despite the collective activism of many tea sellers in Khartoum, harassment of tea sellers and confiscation of their belongings continued as in previous years." (52).
Oct. 22, 2019, 1:55 p.m.
Countries: Equatorial Guinea
Variables: ERBG-PRACTICE-1

"The country continued to have a large gender gap in terms of access to education and employment opportunities. Rooted stereotypes and ethnic traditions impeded women’s rights. Men had more employment opportunities than did women" (26).
Oct. 1, 2019, 2:44 p.m.
Countries: Philippines
Variables: ERBG-PRACTICE-1

"Sexual harassment remained widespread and underreported, including in the workplace, due to victims’ fear of losing their jobs" (26). "Transgender women were told by recruitment officers that they would be hired only if they presented themselves as males by cutting their hair short, dressing in men’s clothes, and acting in stereotypically masculine ways... Some labor unions claimed female employees suffered punitive action when they became pregnant" (38).
Sept. 17, 2019, 10:05 p.m.
Countries: China
Variables: ERBG-PRACTICE-1

"In a stark turnaround from the early decades of Communist rule, officials now look the other way when employers, reluctant to cover costs related to maternity leave, openly pick men over women for hiring and promotions. At home, women are increasingly disadvantaged in divorce and losing out on gains in the country’s property boom." (para 9). "As a result, Chinese women are being squeezed out of the workplace by employers who penalize them if they have children, and by party officials urging them to focus on domestic life. At the same time, those who have managed to keep working are increasingly earning less relative to men." (para 10). "At work,...more
Sept. 5, 2019, 1:56 p.m.
Countries: Congo
Variables: ERBG-PRACTICE-1

"The constitution and law prohibit discrimination based on family background, ethnicity, social condition, age, political or philosophical beliefs, gender, religion, region of origin within the country, place of residence in the country, language, HIV-positive status, or disability. The constitution and law do not specifically prohibit discrimination against persons based on national origin or citizenship, sexual orientation or gender identity, or having communicable diseases other than HIV. The government did not effectively enforce these prohibitions. Labor law does not specifically reiterate these antidiscrimination provisions" (30). "Discrimination in employment and occupation sometimes occurred with respect to women, refugees, and indigenous people. While the law prohibits discrimination based on gender and stipulates women...more
Aug. 9, 2019, 1 p.m.
Countries: D R Congo
Variables: ERBG-PRACTICE-1, ERBG-DATA-1

"Gender-based discrimination in employment and occupation occurred (see section 6). Although the labor code stipulates men and women must receive equal pay for equivalent work, the government did not enforce this provision effectively. According to the International Labor Organization, women often received less pay in the private sector than did men doing the same job and rarely occupied positions of authority or high responsibility" (page 52).
Aug. 6, 2019, 8:14 a.m.
Countries: Comoros
Variables: ERBG-PRACTICE-1

"Sexual harassment is illegal, and conviction is punishable by fines and imprisonment. It is defined in the labor code as any verbal, nonverbal, or bodily behavior of a sexual nature that has the effect of creating an intimidating, hostile, or humiliating work environment for a person. Although rarely reported due to societal pressure, such harassment was nevertheless a common problem, and authorities did not effectively enforce the law" (page 9). "Societal discrimination against women was most apparent in rural areas, where women were mostly limited to farming and child-rearing duties, with fewer opportunities for education and wage employment" (page 9-10).
July 31, 2019, 6:50 p.m.
Countries: Saudi Arabia
Variables: ERBG-PRACTICE-1

"Authorities respected the right of citizens to change residence or workplace, provided they held a national identification card (NIC). The law requires all male citizens who are 15 or older to possess a NIC. In 2012 the Ministry of Interior announced it would start issuing NICs to all female citizens at the age of 15, phasing in the requirement over a seven-year period. In September 2016 local media reported more than three million girls and women over the age of 15 still did not possess a NIC. The population during the year of girls and women who were 15 or older was approximately seven million, according to the General Authority...more
July 25, 2019, 3:22 p.m.
Countries: Bangladesh
Variables: ERBG-PRACTICE-1, CWC-DATA-3, IIP-PRACTICE-1, AFE-PRACTICE-1

"However, the government continued to deny Rohingya access to formal schooling, prevent them from working legally, restrict their movement, and suspend birth registration for nearly one year, all of which increased vulnerability to trafficking" (97).
July 24, 2019, 6:29 p.m.
Countries: Chad
Variables: ERBG-PRACTICE-1, IIP-PRACTICE-2

"The law does not prohibit sexual harassment, which occurred" (page 16).
July 21, 2019, 6:15 p.m.
Countries: Yemen
Variables: ERBG-PRACTICE-1

"The implications of the war for men are immense, from death at the battlefront to unemployment and the psychological stress of failing to provide for their families. More women are entering the labor market, especially in rural areas where most of the men are day laborers, and becoming the breadwinners of their families" (para 5). "While the increasing representation of women in public spaces can be considered a positive development, should their increasing participation in the labor market in such atrocious circumstances and conditions be applauded as a milestone on the road toward gender equality, or is war-torn Yemen simply heading for equality in misery?" (para 6).
July 20, 2019, 10:39 p.m.
Countries: Armenia
Variables: ERBG-PRACTICE-1

"The Committee welcomes the implementation by the State party of several programmes to promote women’s access to employment, entrepreneurship and financial credit. Nevertheless, it is concerned about persistent vertical and horizontal gender segregation in the labour market, the high unemployment rate among women and the concentration of women in part-time work and low-paid jobs in the informal sector (...) Moreover, the absence of legislation on sexual harassment and therefore of disaggregated data on sexual harassment in the workplace is also an important source of concern" (9).
July 20, 2019, 8:20 a.m.
Countries: Syria
Variables: ERBG-PRACTICE-1, CWC-DATA-2, LO-PRACTICE-1, LO-LAW-1

"Women participated in public life and in most professions, including the armed forces, although violence in many regions reduced women’s access to the public sphere. Women and men have equal legal rights in owning or managing land or other property, although cultural and religious norms impeded women’s rights, especially in rural areas. Various sources observed that women constituted a minority of lawyers, university professors, and other professions" (Pg 46).