The most comprehensive compilation of information on the status of
women in the world.

Latest items for ERBG-PRACTICE-1

July 3, 2020, 4:25 p.m.
Countries: Zambia
Variables: ERBG-PRACTICE-1

"Roughly one in three women (34%) and men (31%) age 15-49 work in the agriculture sector. Among men, 20% work in skilled manual occupations and another 20% work in unskilled manual occupations. Thirty-five percent of women are engaged in sales and services, while 8% work in professional/technical/managerial jobs. Nineteen percent of employed women in Zambia are not paid for the work they do. Women engaged in agricultural work are more likely (37%) than women not working in agriculture (9%) to not be paid for their work. Sixty-three percent of women who worked in the past year are self-employed. Among men, 16% are not paid for their work. Similar to women,...more
July 2, 2020, 10:03 p.m.
Countries: United Arab Emirates
Variables: ERBG-PRACTICE-1, AFE-PRACTICE-1

"Emirati women today are much better off, she adds, because many of them are now able to go to school and work, which enables financial independence" (para 4).
June 28, 2020, 5:16 p.m.
Countries: United States
Variables: ERBG-PRACTICE-1

"About one-in-five employed women in the U.S. (22%) say they have been sexually harassed at work. In a survey conducted in July and August--before the spate of recent misconduct allegations and the rapid spread of the #metoo social media campaign-- 22% of employed women said they have experienced sexual harassment on the job, compared with 7% of employed men. Some more recent surveys by other organizations (using somewhat different question wording) have placed the figure higher: In an NPR/PBS NewsHour/Marist Poll conducted Nov. 13 to 15, for example, 35% of women said they have personally experienced sexual harassment or abuse from someone in the workplace" (para 3). The table titled...more
June 23, 2020, 6 p.m.
Countries: Tajikistan
Variables: ERBG-PRACTICE-1

"The Labour Code guarantees that at the time of recruitment, promotion, vocational training, establishment of terms of employment and also dismissal of workers, including civil servants, the requirements of the legislation concerning the rights and guarantees of persons of both genders must be taken into account. As required by the Code, pay or other remuneration is a basic condition of a labour contract. Pay constitutes remuneration for work. Discrimination in pay is prohibited. An employer must grant workers the same pay for work of equal value" (20-21). "Guided by the provisions of the act on State guarantees of equal rights for men and women and equal opportunities in the exercise...more
June 23, 2020, 5:54 p.m.
Countries: Estonia
Variables: ERBG-PRACTICE-1

"However, it notes with concern that the persistence of discriminatory stereotypes regarding the roles and responsibilities of women and men in the family and in society constitutes a barrier to women’s active participation in economic life, in particular when they have children under school age, thereby limiting their career perspectives and access to leading positions" (5). "The Committee welcomes the amendments to the Gender Equality Act and Equal Treatment Act, which further defined discrimination in labour disputes and sexual harassment in the workplace and introduced a shared burden of proof in civil and administrative proceedings in such cases. However, the Committee regrets the absence of statistical data from the labour...more
June 23, 2020, 5:49 p.m.
Countries: Serbia
Variables: ERBG-PRACTICE-1

"The share of Roma women in the total number of Roma included in active employment policy measures between 1 July and 31 December 2013 was 45.90 per cent; in 2014 it was 48.09 per cent, in 2015 it was 44.31 per cent and in 2016 it was 42.98 per cent" (13). "In accordance with the Bylaw on the Content and Manner of submitting Plans of Measures to Eliminate or Mitigate Gender Imbalance and Annual Reports on their Implementation, the Ministry of Labour received 428 plans and reports from economic operators in 2016 and 409 such plans by 31 March 2017. In 2015, labour inspectors conducted 3,157 inspections of compliance with...more
June 19, 2020, 9:38 p.m.
Countries: South Africa
Variables: ERBG-PRACTICE-1

"Although the law prohibits sexual harassment, it remained a widespread problem. With criminal prosecution a rare secondary step that the complainant must request, the government left enforcement primarily to employers. The Department of Labor issued guidelines to employers on how to handle workplace complaints that allow for remuneration of the victim’s lost compensation plus interest, additional damages, legal fees, and dismissal of the perpetrator in some circumstances" (25). "Women experienced economic discrimination in wages (see section 7.d.), extension of credit, and ownership of land" (25). "Traditional gender stereotypes, such as 'mining is a man’s job' and 'women should be nurses' persisted" (39). "Investigations by the Department of Labor and SAPS...more
June 5, 2020, 1:19 p.m.
Countries: Papua New Guinea
Variables: ERBG-PRACTICE-1

"Tables 3.7.1 and 3.7.2, respectively, show that 43% of employed women and 48% of men age 15-49 are engaged in agricultural occupations. Almost one-third of working women (32%) are engaged in sales or services, while 14% are engaged in professional, technical, or managerial jobs. Among working men, 16% are employed in skilled manual jobs, 15% in professional, technical, or managerial jobs, and 12% in sales and services" (38). "Patterns by background characteristics: 1) As expected, the proportion of respondents working in agriculture is much lower in urban areas than in rural areas, whereas the proportion working in sales and services and in professional, technical, or managerial jobs is higher in...more
May 31, 2020, 11:11 p.m.
Countries: Turkey
Variables: ERBG-PRACTICE-1

"In May, 120 workers in Flormar, majority of whom are women, were fired because they became members of trade union. In spite of the resistance, which has become one of the greatest resistance in the country and continued during 2018 with the motto of #FlormarDeğilDirenişGüzelleştirir (Resistance makes you beautiful, not Flormar), the number of workers dismissed throughout the year has reached 132. Women who defend their labor rights and trade union rights both at home and outside put up resistance" (30). "In February, 52-year-old F.K, a civil servant in the Grand National Assembly, was seen by another employee while harassing a young female trainee who was a high school student....more
May 31, 2020, 6:36 p.m.
Countries: India
Variables: ERBG-PRACTICE-1

"Women and men are most commonly employed as agricultural workers (48% of women and 32% of men), followed by production workers (21% and 32%, respectively) (Tables 3.8). A slightly higher percentage of employed women (10%) than employed men (8%) are employed in professional, technical, administrative, or managerial occupations" (56).
May 31, 2020, 4:27 p.m.
Countries: North Korea
Variables: ERBG-PRACTICE-1

"Several Cabinet directives were issued during the reporting period to stimulate women to take an active part in public life. Of these, the directive issued in December, 2009 brought about a turning point in significantly raising the proportion of women in the workforce in different sectors. In accordance with this directive, the Ministry of Labour mandated the minimum proportion of women for each category of occupation, with due consideration given to whether they belong to productive sectors like enterprises, factories and farms or non-productive sectors like education, culture, health care and commerce" (9). "State institutions were required to ensure the proportion of women officials at or above 20-25 per cent...more
May 21, 2020, 8:43 p.m.
Countries: Guatemala
Variables: ERBG-PRACTICE-1

"In 2013, in other social institutions, women numbered as follows: one on the Board of the Chamber of Commerce; one on the Advisory Council of the Guatemalan General Confederation of Workers; one in the Guatemalan-American Chamber of Commerce; two on the Board on the Association of Economists, Certified Public Accountants, and Business Administrators; one on the Board of the Association of Engineers; two in the Coordinating Office for NGOs and Cooperatives in Guatemala. The Political and Technical Commission for Women, Children and Adolescents was mostly comprised of women" (24). "In 2012, the State of Guatemala produced its national employment policy entitled ‘Generating safe, decent and high-quality jobs 2012-2021’, based on...more
May 15, 2020, 7:15 p.m.
Countries: Nigeria
Variables: ERBG-PRACTICE-1

"More men than women were employed in professional/technical/managerial occupations in the 12 months before the survey (13% and 9%, respectively). Women dominate employment in sales and services (62% versus 26% among men), while a higher percentage of men than women are engaged in agricultural work (41% and 22%, respectively)" (48). "Women and men with more than a secondary education are more likely than those at other educational levels to be engaged in professional/technical/managerial work (40% and 39%, respectively). Women with no education are mostly engaged in sales and services (67%), while men with no education are primarily engaged in agricultural work (72%)" (48).
May 15, 2020, 6:53 p.m.
Countries: France
Variables: ERBG-PRACTICE-1

"Women are still concentrated in traditionally female-dominated fields of study and career paths and are underrepresented in vocational training and in certain fields of higher education, such as mathematics, information technology and science" (12). "[There is] continued horizontal segregation with respect to participation by women in natural science and technology-related research" (12). "The continuing horizontal and vertical occupational segregation and the concentration of women in part-time and low-paid jobs" (13). "[There is a] possibility for employers, according to the El Khomri Law, to introduce the principle of neutrality in the internal regulation of an enterprise by a unilateral decision, which may affect Muslim women disproportionately and further increase their vulnerability...more
May 12, 2020, 10:21 a.m.
Countries: Jordan
Variables: ERBG-PRACTICE-1

"Among women who were employed in the 7 days before the survey, 64% worked in professional, technical, or managerial positions, and 11% worked in domestic service. One in 10 women were employed in sales and services. Smaller percentages were engaged in clerical (6%), skilled manual (4%), unskilled manual (1%), and agricultural (1%) occupations (Table 3.7.1 and Figure 3.6)" (pg 38). "The majority of women who were employed in the past 7 days were paid employees (93%), and 4% were employers (Figure 3.7)" (pg 38).
May 6, 2020, 8:40 p.m.
Countries: Rwanda
Variables: ERBG-PRACTICE-1

"After the 1994 genocide that left many women as heads of households, women assumed a larger role in the formal sector, and many operated their own businesses. Nevertheless, men owned the major assets of most households, particularly those at the lower end of the economic spectrum, making bank credit inaccessible to many women and rendering it difficult to start or expand a business." (36).
April 28, 2020, 8:53 p.m.
Countries: Ukraine
Variables: ERBG-PRACTICE-1

"The law provides that women enjoy the same rights as men and are entitled to receive equal pay for equal work. In practice, women received lower salaries than men and were prohibited from working in nearly 500 occupations." (38). "The labor code prohibits workplace discrimination on the basis of sexual orientation and gender identity. No law, however, prohibits such discrimination in other areas, and discrimination was reportedly widespread in employment, housing, education, and other sectors." (43). "Women received lower salaries due to limited opportunities for advancement and the types of industries that employed them." (49).
April 24, 2020, 9:25 p.m.
Countries: Nigeria
Variables: ERBG-PRACTICE-1

"Although the constitution provides the same legal status and rights for women as for men, women experienced considerable economic discrimination. The law does not mandate equal remuneration for work of equal value, nor does it mandate nondiscrimination based on gender in hiring." (34). "Gender-based discrimination in employment and occupation occurred (see section 6, Women). No laws bar women from particular fields of employment, but women often experienced discrimination due to traditional and religious practices. Police regulations provide for special recruitment requirements and conditions of service applying to women, particularly the criteria and provisions relating to pregnancy and marital status." (47).
April 19, 2020, 11:08 a.m.
Countries: Pakistan
Variables: ERBG-PRACTICE-1

"Women are far more likely to be employed in agriculture than men (32% versus 21%). Women are slightly less likely than men to be employed in professional/technical/ managerial occupations (12% versus 13%), as well as clerical services (less than 1% versus 3%), sales and services (14% versus 22%), and unskilled manual labour (7% versus 22%). Women are more likely to be involved in skilled manual labour than men (35% versus 20%). Twenty-four percent of women who were employed in agriculture in the past 12 months did not receive any payment for their work" (36).
April 14, 2020, 5:17 p.m.
Countries: Indonesia
Variables: ERBG-PRACTICE-1

"Figure 3.11 shows that women were most likely to be employed in sales in the 12 months before the survey. One in three women (32%) was employed in sales. In contrast, men are most likely to be employed as industrial (72%) or agricultural workers (26%). Only 7% of men and 5% of women work in clerical jobs" (30). "The percentage of women who work in sales is the highest percentage among occupations in every age group. More women age 15-19 are employed in sales (41%) than in any other profession. Most men work in industry and agriculture. The distribution of percentages for the occupation is wide. Men age 50-54 are...more
April 4, 2020, 8:45 a.m.
Countries: Rwanda
Variables: ERBG-PRACTICE-1

"Furthermore, the Committee is concerned about the lack of information about any temporary special measures in place to increase women’s participation in the diplomatic service and in trade unions, and women’s participation in all sectors of the economy, including agriculture, the horticultural industry, fisheries and cross-border trade" (5). "However, the Committee is concerned about: (a) Women’s occupational segregation, in particular their overrepresentation in the low-paid agricultural and informal sectors, and the relatively higher unemployment rate among women, no matter their level of education; (b) Violence against and the mistreatment of women street vendors by private security personnel, as well as their arrest and detention by the police; (c) The persistence...more
April 1, 2020, 6:28 p.m.
Countries: Pakistan
Variables: ERBG-PRACTICE-1, WAM-PRACTICE-1

"Female journalists in particular faced threats of sexual violence and harassment, including via social media" (23).
March 29, 2020, 6:41 p.m.
Countries: Maldives
Variables: ERBG-PRACTICE-1

"Tables 3.7.1 and 3.7.2, respectively, show that 46% of working women and 35% of working men age 15-49 are engaged in professional, technical, or managerial occupations, while 20% of women and 10% of men are employed in skilled manual labour and 7% of women and 14% of men are engaged in unskilled manual labour. While almost no working women are employed in agriculture (<1%), 12% of working men are engaged in agriculture (including fishing). Men are also more likely than women to be employed in domestic service jobs (9% versus 2%) (Figure 3.5)" (37).
March 24, 2020, 3:57 p.m.
Countries: United Kingdom
Variables: ERBG-PRACTICE-1

"'On my last day at work a colleague told me that his biggest regret was that he didn’t get the chance to have sex with me in the store room before I left. For months I had been scared to go into that room on my own because he always said things like, ‘I’m coming to get you’, and ‘Don’t go in there alone, I’ll jump on you’.' 'The most senior person in the organisation made a series of jokes over the course of six months about how I might want to give my boss a ‘rub down’ or a ‘massage’. Another director tried to grab my breasts at a...more
March 16, 2020, 4:12 p.m.
Countries: Afghanistan
Variables: ERBG-PRACTICE-1

"A hindering factor is the prevailing cultural prohibitions and male domination which prevents women from working outside the home and thus making recruitment and retention difficult." (6). "With agriculture as the backbone of the rural economy, women play a critical role, accounting for nearly 43% of the sector’s labour force. However, despite playing a vital role in agriculture, they are engaged in the lower levels of the value chain and labour-intensive activities such as performing irrigation, weeding, harvesting, and minimal processing. Men, on the other hand, are engaged in the upper level of the value chain. Further, women working on the farm are either paid a very low wage or...more
March 4, 2020, 8:43 p.m.
Countries: Afghanistan
Variables: ERBG-PRACTICE-1

"...Women are largely restricted to low-paid, unregulated employment…" (6). "In addition, Articles 43 and 44 of the constitution guarantee women’s right to education, and article 48 codifies their right to work. The Afghan government established the Ministry of Women’s Affairs (MoWA) and the Afghanistan Independent Human Rights Commission (AIHRC) to fulfil the constitution’s commitment to women’s rights. The government has also launched a 10-year National Action Plan for Women (NAPWA)." (6-7).
Feb. 15, 2020, 9:16 p.m.
Countries: Italy
Variables: ERBG-PRACTICE-1

"In addition to Article 3 of the Italian Constitution, Art. 1 of the Code on Equal Opportunities Between Women and Men (Legislative Decree 198/2006) sets forth: “Relevant provisions envisage measures, aimed at eliminating whatsoever distinction, exclusion or limitation based on sex, which might affect or hinder the enjoyment and exercise of human rights and fundamental freedoms (...)” in all spheres of life. Thus, there is no legal discrimination with regard to civil, political, social, economic or cultural rights between women and men." (para 11). "Act 228/2012 introducing the obligation for national bodies dealing with gender equality to exchange information with corresponding European bodies and extending the prohibition of gender-based discrimination...more
Feb. 14, 2020, 12:34 p.m.
Countries: Lebanon
Variables: ERBG-PRACTICE-1

"The law does not distinguish between women and men in employment and provides for equal pay for men and women. On wage equality for similar work, the report indicated a considerable difference between wages for women and men in the workplace" (29). "Most reports of abuse came from transgender women. An AFE and Marsa project highlighted employment discrimination faced by transgender women due to the inconsistency between official documentation and gender self-presentation" (33). "Although the government generally respected these provisions, they were not enforced in some areas, especially in economic matters, and aspects of the law and traditional beliefs discriminated against women. Discrimination in employment and occupation occurred with respect...more
Feb. 8, 2020, 7:27 p.m.
Countries: South Africa
Variables: ERBG-PRACTICE-1

"Women and men who are in a union (married or living together with a partner as though married) or divorced/separated/widowed women and men are more likely to be employed than those who have never been married or lived with a partner as though married" (38). "Among those who are employed, 20% of women work in professional, technical, or managerial occupations; 19% work in unskilled manual occupations; 18% are engaged in sales and services; and 16% do clerical work. One-third (33%) of men who are employed are engaged in skilled manual occupations; 14% work in professional, technical, or managerial occupations; 14% work in sales and services; and 13% are engaged in...more
Feb. 5, 2020, 5:50 p.m.
Countries: East Timor
Variables: ERBG-PRACTICE-1

"Among those who are employed, 32% of women are in agriculture; domestic service, and sales and service are other dominant occupational fields for women (Table 3.7.1 and Figure 3.6) . . . Women and men are equally likely to be employed in professional, technical, or managerial occupations (11% and 12% respectively)" (pg 33). "Ninety percent of women who are employed are either self-employed or employed by a family member (Table 3.8)" (pg 33).