The most comprehensive compilation of information on the status of
women in the world.

Latest items for ERBG-PRACTICE-1

June 17, 2019, 3:53 p.m.
Countries: Iceland
Variables: ERBG-PRACTICE-1

"The Committee commends the State party on the development of an equal pay management standard and on the extension of the mandate of the Action Group on Equal Pay until the end of 2016, as well as on its efforts to reduce the gender pay gap and the introduction of quotas for women’s equal representation on governmental committees and on the boards of public and private limited companies." (para 29). "The Committee nevertheless remains concerned about...The persistent gender wage gap that over the past years has remained at between 7 and 18 per cent and the limited scope of application of article 19 of the Act on Equal Status and...more
June 17, 2019, 1:34 p.m.
Countries: South Africa
Variables: ERBG-PRACTICE-1

"Domestic work is dominated by women while elementary occupations are held predominantly by men" (6). It is referring to informal employment (CCS-CODER COMMENT). "Compared with formal workers, informal workers are more likely to be women and to have never been married. They are also more likely to live in larger households with children, and particularly children under the age of seven. Significantly lower levels of educational attainment are also reported among informal workers when compared with formal workers" (7). "2007. Employment growth was concentrated between 2005 and 2006, where employment increased among both men and women. From 2006 to 2007, however, employment increases were only exhibited among women while employment...more
June 17, 2019, 12:20 p.m.
Countries: Oman
Variables: ERBG-PRACTICE-1

"The country does not have a law against sexual harassment. Sexual harassment has been effectively prosecuted using statutes prohibiting offensive language and behavior. Nonetheless, a 2010 Freedom House report on women’s rights in the Middle East indicated that female employees were discouraged from reporting sexual harassment for fear of losing their jobs and because social pressure places responsibility on them for 'proper moral behavior'" (Pg 14). "Although some educated women held positions of authority in government, business, and the media, many women faced job discrimination based on cultural norms. The law entitles women to paid maternity leave and equal pay for equal work. The government, the largest employer of women,...more
June 14, 2019, 4:05 p.m.
Countries: India
Variables: ERBG-PRACTICE-1

"The most significant human rights issues included... lack of criminal investigations or accountability for cases related to rape, domestic violence, dowry-related deaths, honor killings, sexual harassment; and discrimination against women and girls remained serious problems" (1). "Sexual harassment remains a serious problem. Authorities required all state departments and institutions with more than 50 employees to operate committees to prevent and address sexual harassment, often referred to as 'eve teasing'" (40).
June 14, 2019, 2:55 p.m.
Countries: Nigeria
Variables: ERBG-PRACTICE-1

"The practice of demanding sexual favors in exchange for employment or university grades remained common" (Pg 35). "Although the constitution provides the same legal status and rights for women as for men, women experienced considerable economic discrimination. The law does not mandate equal remuneration for work of equal value, and the law does not mandate nondiscrimination based on gender in hiring. No laws bar women from particular fields of employment, but women reportedly could not work in heavy manufacturing and construction in the same way as men. Women often experienced discrimination under traditional and religious practices (see section 7.d.)" (Pg 35). "Gender-based discrimination in employment and occupation occurred (see section...more
June 12, 2019, 1:03 p.m.
Countries: Niger
Variables: ERBG-PRACTICE-1

"Although the constitution provides for equal legal status and rights regardless of gender, women do not have the same rights as men under family law, which customary courts usually adjudicate. In customary law legal rights as head of household typically apply only to men. Customary law does not consider a divorced or widowed woman, even with children, to be a head of household. Traditional and religious beliefs resulted in discrimination in education, employment (see section 7.d.), owning or managing a business, credit, and property rights. Discrimination was worse in rural areas, where women helped with subsistence farming and did most of the childrearing, cooking, water- and wood-gathering, and other work....more
June 11, 2019, 12:13 p.m.
Countries: China
Variables: ERBG-PRACTICE-1

"It remained difficult for victims to file a sexual harassment complaint and for judges to reach a ruling on such cases. Many women remained unwilling to report incidents of sexual harassment, believing that the justice system was ineffectual, according to official media. Several prominent media reports of sexual harassment went viral on social media, helping to raise awareness of the problem, particularly in the workplace" (53). "However, women reported that discrimination, unfair dismissal, demotion, and wage discrepancies were significant problems" (56). "Authorities often did not enforce laws protecting the rights of women; according to legal experts, it was difficult to litigate sex discrimination suits because of vague legal definitions. Some...more
June 11, 2019, 11:54 a.m.
Countries: Namibia
Variables: ERBG-PRACTICE-1

"The law explicitly prohibits sexual harassment in the workplace. Employees who leave their jobs due to sexual harassment may be entitled to legal “remedies available to an employee who has been unfairly dismissed.” The law against sexual harassment was not frequently enforced, but there were few public complaints about lack of enforcement" (Pg 14). "Discrimination in employment and occupation occurred with respect to gender (see section 6) and race, most frequently in the mining and construction industries. Men continued to dominate positions of upper management in both the private and public sectors" (Pg 23).
June 11, 2019, 10:04 a.m.
Countries: Bahamas
Variables: ERBG-PRACTICE-1

"Women were generally free of economic discrimination, and the law provides for equal pay for equal work" (12). "The law prohibits discrimination in employment based on race, color, national origin, creed, sex, marital status, political opinion, age, HIV status, or disability, but not based on language, sexual orientation and/or gender identity, religion, or social status. The government did not effectively enforce the law, and while the law allows victims to sue for damages, many citizens were unable to avail themselves of this remedy due to poor availability of legal representation and the ability of wealthy defendants to drag out the process in courts" (17).
June 11, 2019, 9:13 a.m.
Countries: Montenegro
Variables: ERBG-PRACTICE-1

"Widespread discriminatory cultural norms prevented women from participating equally in all areas of social development and generally discouraged them from seeking work outside the home. Employers at times violated women’s entitlement to a 40-hour workweek, overtime, paid leave, and maternity leave. Societal expectations regarding women’s obligations toward the family adversely affected their opportunities to obtain jobs and advance in the workplace (also see section 7.d.)" (Pg 26). "Women were at times subject to discrimination based on their marital status, pregnancy, and physical appearance. Employers did not respect all of their legal obligations toward pregnant women, and sometimes reduced their responsibilities or fired them after they returned from maternity leave. A...more
June 10, 2019, 4:14 p.m.
Countries: Mozambique
Variables: ERBG-PRACTICE-1

"Despite the guarantee of a 25% quota of women in the road construction, rehabilitation and maintenance, there are still challenges related to the increment of the perception over the advantages to levie part of their income into the social providence, the expansion and reinforcement of Employment and Professional Training Centres, a greater participation of women on the offered opportunities and elimination of discrimination of women to access jobs and remuneration" (21).
June 8, 2019, 1:59 p.m.
Countries: Jordan
Variables: ERBG-PRACTICE-1

"Women experienced discrimination in a number of areas, including inheritance, divorce, child custody, citizenship, the workplace, and, in certain circumstances, the value of their testimony in a sharia court" (32). "Discrimination in employment and occupation occurred with respect to gender, disability, national origin, and sexual orientation" (42). "Union officials reported that sectors employing predominantly women, such as secretarial work, offered wages below the official minimum wage. Many women also reported traditional social pressures discouraged some from pursuing professional careers, especially after marriage" (42).
June 7, 2019, 2:07 p.m.
Countries: Cape Verde
Variables: ERBG-PRACTICE-1

"The Association to combat GBV organized in March 2017 a Forum on sexual harassment in the work place: participants included justice professionals (judges, attorneys and lawyers), unions, Labour General Directorate. Recommendations were issued for more effective action in respect to this form of violence" (9). "The CCD presents key indicators on employment, unemployment and informal sector (paragraphs 42 to 45) and, although there has been considerable progress, women continue to be more inactive than men and, when they are active, their insertion in the labour market is less favourable. In 2015 most of the working population was working in elementary professions (56.6 per cent women and 43.4 per cent men),...more
June 5, 2019, 1:02 p.m.
Countries: Georgia
Variables: ERBG-PRACTICE-1

"Sexual harassment in the workplace was a problem. The law provides a general definition of harassment, but it does not provide a legal sanction for it. The Public Defender’s Office reported it received three sexual harassment complaints in 2016 and in each case the victim did not want to go to court. The government initiated a sexual harassment training course for all civil servants to raise awareness of the problem" (33-34). "Although some observers noted continuing improvement in women’s access to the labor market, women were largely confined to low-paying, low-skilled positions, regardless of their professional and academic qualifications, and salaries for women lagged behind those for men" (44).more
June 4, 2019, 4:55 p.m.
Countries: Austria
Variables: ERBG-PRACTICE-1

"According to Paragraph 8 of the GlBG, private enterprises can implement measures to promote equality between men and women. The GAW has invited companies since 2015 to use the GAW’s expertise to promote equal treatment and equality within their corporate culture" (9). " The National Action Plan on Gender Equality in the Labour Market was a comprehensive set of measures for the period 2010-2013. The 55 different measures showed, on the one hand, the wide range of challenges related to achieving gender equality in the labour market. On the other hand, this consolidated package of measures allowed strategic and coordinated implementation. Out of all measures, 38 (69 per cent) were...more
June 2, 2019, 7:22 p.m.
Countries: Taiwan
Variables: ERBG-PRACTICE-1

"The Ministry of Labor published a survey in March 2016, which showed 3.5 percent of women have been sexually harassed at work, yet 80 percent of these cases went unreported" (p. 20).
May 30, 2019, 11:13 p.m.
Countries: Uzbekistan
Variables: ERBG-PRACTICE-1

"The law does not explicitly prohibit sexual harassment, but it is illegal for a male supervisor to coerce a woman who has a business or financial dependency into a sexual relationship. Social norms, lack of reporting, and lack of legal recourse made it difficult to assess the scope of the problem" (26).
May 28, 2019, 9:34 p.m.
Countries: Russia
Variables: ERBG-PRACTICE-1

"Federal law on employment, which prohibits job advertisements containing requirements of gender, age and marital status, in 2013, and the adoption of a number of measures aimed at assisting pregnant women and women on maternity leave" (1-2). "It is further concerned about the overprotective list of more than 450 occupations and almost 40 branches in which women are precluded from access to the labour market, although procedures have been introduced that, under certain conditions, exceptionally can provide access for women to those occupations. It is also concerned about the persistent horizontal and vertical segregation in the labour market and that women are concentrated in low-paid jobs. The Committee is also...more
May 28, 2019, 9:33 p.m.
Countries: Sweden
Variables: ERBG-PRACTICE-1

"Moreover, the Committee is concerned that a high number of girls suffer from discrimination and sexual harassment in schools" (9). While this is not employment related it gives an idea of how sexual harassment may permeate society (CCS-CODER COMMENT). "The Committee is concerned, however, at continued horizontal and vertical occupational segregation, with women concentrated in part-time work, predominantly for family reasons, and the persistent gender pay gap, which adversely affects women’s career development and pension benefits. It further regrets that 75 per cent of parental leave is still taken by women and that migrant women, women belonging to minority groups, refugee women and women with disabilities have limited access to...more
May 28, 2019, 9:31 p.m.
Countries: Czech Republic
Variables: ERBG-PRACTICE-1

"The Committee remains concerned at the persistence of patriarchal attitudes and discriminatory stereotypes regarding the roles and responsibilities of women and men in the family and in society, as reflected by the low rate of fathers taking paternity leave and the high number of women employed on a part-time basis or availing themselves of flexible working arrangements, which limits their career prospects and pension benefits" (4). "The Committee is concerned about the slow progress made during the reporting period. It notes the reduction in the very wide gender pay gap in the State party, but remains concerned about: (a) The low employment rate of women, horizontal and vertical segregation in...more
May 28, 2019, 5:40 p.m.
Countries: Yemen
Variables: ERBG-PRACTICE-1

"No laws specifically prohibit sexual harassment, although the penal code criminalizes 'shameful' or 'immoral' acts. Authorities, however, rarely enforced the law...The extent of sexual harassment was difficult to determine, although anecdotal reports, direct observation, and infrequent media reports suggested it also occurred in the workplace. There were anecdotal reports of employers transferring men accused of sexual harassment to other offices to prevent further abuse, although no further information was available" (36-37). "They experienced discrimination in areas such as employment, credit, pay, owning or managing businesses, education, and housing" (38). "Within the country’s limited professional sphere, women have low rates of representation in a range of fields, including the security sector"...more
May 27, 2019, 1:48 p.m.
Countries: Netherlands
Variables: ERBG-PRACTICE-1

"The Committee welcomes the adoption of the Flexible Working Arrangements Act, which entered into force in January 2016, and the Action Plan on Discrimination in the Labour Market. Nevertheless, the Committee is concerned by the continued existence of horizontal and vertical occupational segregation, with women being concentrated in part-time work, predominantly because of childcare responsibilities, which adversely affects their career development and pension benefits. The Committee is particularly concerned by: (a) The persistent gender wage gap, which is partly due to the relatively high number of women who work part-time; (...) (e) The high number of women who have experienced pregnancy-related discrimination, according to a study conducted by the Netherlands...more
May 24, 2019, 9:54 a.m.
Countries: China
Variables: ERBG-PRACTICE-1

"Cambodian women have especially limited educational and job prospects4 whilst at the same time facing high pressures to contribute financially to their families. Given restrictive labor migration policies especially in low-skill sectors in the region, marriage migration to improve economic conditions has become a viable alternative" (Pg 1).
May 21, 2019, 9:35 p.m.
Countries: Montenegro
Variables: ERBG-PRACTICE-1

Women in montenegro cannot work the same night hours as men. Women cannot work in jobs deemed hazardous, arduous, or morally inappropriate. Women are not able to perform the same tasks at work as men (115). The ages at which women and men can retire with full pension benefits are equal. The mandatory retirement ages for men and women are equal (115).
May 21, 2019, 8:59 p.m.
Countries: Mongolia
Variables: ERBG-PRACTICE-1

Women in Mongolia can work the same night hours as men. Women can work in jobs deemed hazardous, arduous, or morally inappropriate. Women are not able to perform the same tasks at work as men (115). The ages at which women and men can retire with full pension benefits are equal. the mandatory retirement ages for men and women are equal (115).
May 21, 2019, 7:31 p.m.
Countries: Croatia
Variables: ERBG-PRACTICE-1

"The ombudsman for gender equality reported that women, regardless of education level, were more likely than men to lose their jobs. According to the ombudsman, government inspections were ineffective in uncovering and sanctioning employer violations" (p. 19).
May 21, 2019, 3:24 p.m.
Countries: Mozambique
Variables: ERBG-PRACTICE-1

Women in Mozambique can work the same night hours as men. Women cannot work in jobs deemed hazardous, arduous, or morally inappropriate. Women are able to perform the same tasks at work as men (116). The ages at which women and men can retire with full pension benefits are not equal. The mandatory retirement ages for men and women are not the same (116).
May 21, 2019, 2:47 p.m.
Countries: Morocco
Variables: ERBG-PRACTICE-1

Women in Morocco can work the same night hours as men. Women cannot work in jobs deemed hazardous, arduous, or morally inappropriate. Women are not able to perform the same tasks at work as men (116). The ages at which women and men can retire with full pension benefits are equal. The mandatory retirement ages for men and women are the same (116).
May 21, 2019, 10:09 a.m.
Countries: Burma/Myanmar
Variables: ERBG-PRACTICE-1

Women in Myanmar can work the same night hours as men. Women can work in jobs deemed hazardous, arduous, or morally inappropriate. Women are able to perform the same tasks at work as men (117).
May 20, 2019, 2:23 p.m.
Countries: Namibia
Variables: ERBG-PRACTICE-1

Women in Namibia can work the same night hours as men. Women can work in jobs deemed hazardous, arduous, or morally inappropriate. Women are able to perform the same tasks at work as men (117). The ages at which women and men can retire with full pension benefits are equal (117).