The most comprehensive compilation of information on the status of
women in the world.

Latest items for ERBG-PRACTICE-1

Sept. 14, 2018, 10:13 a.m.
Countries: Maldives
Variables: ERBG-PRACTICE-1

"There were allegations of sexual harassment in government ministries and the private sector. In June authorities dismissed a female employee at the Housing Development Corporation after she filed a complaint against the human resources manager on accusations of sexual harassment. After a formal investigation by a government committee, the manager was found guilty but was not prosecuted and was dismissed with a warning. The MPS reported nine filed cases of sexual harassment from January to September under the Sexual Harassment Act" (19). "The absence of childcare facilities made it difficult for women to remain employed after they had children, and societal disapproval discouraged women from working at tourist resorts for...more
Sept. 14, 2018, 9:01 a.m.
Countries: Romania
Variables: ERBG-PRACTICE-1

"The government did not enforce these provisions, and authorities did not devote significant attention or resources to challenges facing women. There were reports of discrimination in employment (see section 7.d.)" (25). "While the law provides female employees re-entering the workforce after maternity leave the right to return to their previous or a similar job, pregnant women and other women of childbearing age could still suffer unacknowledged discrimination in the labor market" (40).
Sept. 10, 2018, 5:07 a.m.
Countries: Spain
Variables: ERBG-PRACTICE-1

"The law prohibits sexual harassment in the workplace, but harassment reportedly continued to be a problem, although few cases came to trial" (12). "While the government enforced these laws and regulations, discrimination in employment and occupation occurred with respect to race and ethnicity, gender, and sexual orientation (see section 6)" (21).
Sept. 5, 2018, 10:38 a.m.
Countries: Nicaragua
Variables: ERBG-PRACTICE-1

"The government did not effectively enforce these laws and regulations. Discrimination in employment and occupation occurred with respect to women, persons with disabilities, sexual orientation, and gender identity (see section 6)" (31).
Sept. 5, 2018, 10:25 a.m.
Countries: Australia
Variables: ERBG-PRACTICE-1

"Employment discrimination against women occurred, and there was a much-publicized 'gender pay gap' (see section 7.d.). The HRC received 474 complaints under the Sex Discrimination Act from July 2013 to June 2014, including 382 from women. Of the 451 finalized complaints, 251 were resolved through conciliation, 88 were discontinued or withdrawn, 82 were terminated, and 30 were administratively closed. Of the 499 complaints received by area (some complaints had multiple areas), 80 percent related to employment and 15 percent to goods, services, and facilities" (15). "Employment discrimination against women occurred, particularly with regard to pay. According to the government’s Workplace Gender Equality Agency, the fulltime gender pay gap was 17.9...more
Sept. 5, 2018, 10:24 a.m.
Countries: Chile
Variables: ERBG-PRACTICE-1

"While noting the State party’s efforts to provide training to women in traditionally male-dominated areas, the Committee remains concerned at the low female participation in the labour market" (8).
Sept. 5, 2018, 10:23 a.m.
Countries: Costa Rica
Variables: ERBG-PRACTICE-1

"An example is promotion of women’s access to jobs traditionally held by men, and their training for that purpose, such as courses given by the INA in areas such as metal mechanics, vehicle mechanics, electrical mechanics or materials technology, in which women’s enrolment has increased by roughly 5 per cent between 2010 and 2013 (annex 1, table 12)" (18). "Following the passing of Law 8901 in 2010, which reformed several laws concerning membership of the leadership bodies of associations, labour unions and solidarity organizations, women’s participation in the boards of directors of development associations has increased" (21). "Nonetheless, despite affirmative actions taken by this entity’s Gender Unit to promote the...more
Sept. 5, 2018, 10:07 a.m.
Countries: Japan
Variables: ERBG-PRACTICE-1

"Other persistent human rights problems included detention of asylum seekers; domestic violence, sexual harassment, and workplace discrimination against women" (1). "The law does not criminalize sexual harassment but includes measures to identify companies that fail to prevent it, and prefectural labor offices and the Ministry of Health, Labor, and Welfare (MHLW) provided these companies with advice, guidance, and recommendations. Companies that fail to comply with government guidance may be publicly identified, but according to officials, this has never been necessary. Sexual harassment in the workplace remained widespread" (15). "Government hotlines in prefectural labor bureau equal employment departments handled consultations concerning sexual harassment and mediated disputes when possible" (25). "Sexual harassment...more
Sept. 5, 2018, 10:06 a.m.
Countries: Japan
Variables: ERBG-PRACTICE-1

"Other persistent human rights problems included detention of asylum seekers; domestic violence, sexual harassment, and workplace discrimination against women" (1). "The law does not criminalize sexual harassment but includes measures to identify companies that fail to prevent it, and prefectural labor offices and the Ministry of Health, Labor, and Welfare (MHLW) provided these companies with advice, guidance, and recommendations. Companies that fail to comply with government guidance may be publicly identified, but according to officials, this has never been necessary. Sexual harassment in the workplace remained widespread" (15). "Government hotlines in prefectural labor bureau equal employment departments handled consultations concerning sexual harassment and mediated disputes when possible" (25). "Sexual harassment...more
Sept. 5, 2018, 10:04 a.m.
Countries: New Zealand
Variables: ERBG-PRACTICE-1

"The HRC has an equal opportunity employment team that focused on workplace gender-related problems. This team regularly surveyed pay scales, conducted a census of women in leadership roles, and engaged public and private employers to promote compensation equality" (15).
Sept. 5, 2018, 10:02 a.m.
Countries: Norway
Variables: ERBG-PRACTICE-1

"Women were subject to discrimination in employment" (1). "The law mandates that 40 percent of the members of boards of directors of publicly listed companies be women, and virtually all public companies complied with the law" (11). "The ombudsman for equality and antidiscrimination expressed concern that many women were in part-time positions involuntarily because of a tendency in certain industries, such as health and services, to divide work into a large number of parttime positions with no meaningful opportunity for full-time employment" (17).
Sept. 5, 2018, 10 a.m.
Countries: Philippines
Variables: ERBG-PRACTICE-1

"Sexual harassment remained widespread and under-reported, including in the workplace due to victims’ fear of losing their jobs. For example, women in the retail industry worked on three- to six-month contracts and were often reluctant to report sexual harassment for fear their contracts would not be renewed" (25). "On September 3, the anti-graft court Sandiganbayan convicted Senior Superintendent Cesario Darantinao, former director of the PNP in Davao del Sur, in connection with a sexual harassment case filed by a female subordinate five years ago. Darantinao was ordered to pay the complainant 20,000 pesos ($446)" (26). "Nonetheless, women continued to face such discrimination on the job as well as in hiring"...more
Sept. 5, 2018, 9:59 a.m.
Countries: Taiwan
Variables: ERBG-PRACTICE-1

"Women were promoted less frequently, occupied fewer management positions, and worked for lower pay than their male counterparts" (19). "Women’s groups reported that judicial authorities were sometimes dismissive of sexual harassment complaints. According to the Ministry of Labor’s latest survey on this subject in 2013, an estimated 4.2 percent of women encountered sexual harassment in the workplace, with most victims ages 15 to 34. A poll conducted by the Awakening Foundation in May found that 50 percent of the women surveyed faced censure when they informed their employers of their pregnancy, 49 percent were assigned to a different job or department, and 15 percent were asked to resign" (19).more
Sept. 5, 2018, 9:59 a.m.
Countries: Tanzania
Variables: ERBG-PRACTICE-1

"There were reports women were asked for sexual favors in return for promotions. According to the Women’s Legal Aid Center, many women did not report sexual harassment since cultural norms often placed blame on victims of sexual harassment, and police rarely investigated cases" (22). "A 2014 study by the Legal and Human Rights Center found that in the mattress manufacturing and fisheries industries in Mwanza, pregnant women faced particular discrimination due to claims their production levels were lower than other workers" (34). "Under most circumstances it is illegal to schedule women for work between 10 p.m. and 6 a.m., although employers frequently ignored this restriction" (35).
Sept. 5, 2018, 9:58 a.m.
Countries: Thailand
Variables: ERBG-PRACTICE-1, ERBG-DATA-1

"Government regulations require employers to pay equal wages and benefits for equal work, regardless of gender. Nonetheless, women received lower pay for equal work in many sectors of the economy. Employers did not allow women to work in all industries available to men, and women tended to be concentrated in lower-paying jobs" (54).
Sept. 5, 2018, 9:58 a.m.
Countries: Thailand
Variables: ERBG-PRACTICE-1

"[The committee] remains concerned aboutt: ...The persistence of discrimination on the basis of gender in the workplace, including with regard to recruitment, promotion and retirement age, which, in many factories, is reportedly set at 55 years of age for women compared with 60 years of age for men" (11).
Sept. 5, 2018, 9:55 a.m.
Countries: Trinidad/Tobago
Variables: ERBG-PRACTICE-1

"Although related statutes could be used to prosecute perpetrators of sexual harassment, and some trade unions incorporated antiharassment provisions in their contracts, both the government and NGOs continued to suspect that many incidents of sexual harassment went unreported" (13-14).
Sept. 5, 2018, 9:54 a.m.
Countries: United Arab Emirates
Variables: ERBG-PRACTICE-1

"Women who worked in the private sector regularly did not receive equal benefits and reportedly faced discrimination in promotions and equality of wages...While foreign men working in the country could obtain residency permits for their families for three years, a foreign woman could obtain permits for her family only if she was working in a job deemed rare or with a specialty such as health care, engineering, or teaching. Such a permit was renewable for one-year" (23).
Sept. 5, 2018, 9:45 a.m.
Countries: Ukraine
Variables: ERBG-PRACTICE-1

"They reported continuing and widespread sexual harassment, including coerced sex, in the workplace" (40).
Sept. 5, 2018, 9:44 a.m.
Countries: United Kingdom
Variables: ERBG-PRACTICE-1

"Other problems included...discrimination against women in employment" (1). "Women were subject to some discrimination in employment" (16). "Discrimination in employment and occupation occurred with respect to race, gender, and sexual orientation and gender identity" (26).
Sept. 5, 2018, 9:44 a.m.
Countries: Vanuatu
Variables: ERBG-PRACTICE-1

"Women experienced discrimination in access to employment, credit, and pay equity for substantially similar work" (12). "The government did not effectively enforce prohibitions on employment discrimination against women, and the law did not specify penalties for such violations" (17).
Sept. 5, 2018, 9:42 a.m.
Countries: Vietnam
Variables: ERBG-PRACTICE-1

"[The Committee] is concerned about: (a) The high prevalence of violence against women and girls, including dating violence, violence in public spaces and workplace sexual harassment, as well as against older women and women in prostitution" (5). "[The Committee] is concerned about: (a)The persistent gender wage gap; (b) The lower retirement age for women and the extensive list of occupations prohibited for women; (c) The concentration of women in low-paid jobs in the informal sector without access to social protection and outside the scope of the Labour Code; (d) Discriminatory practices against women by employers based on maternity and pregnancy" (8-9).
Sept. 5, 2018, 9:39 a.m.
Countries: Vietnam
Variables: ERBG-PRACTICE-1

"Victims of sexual harassment may contact social associations such as the Women’s Union to request their involvement. Victims with access to a labor union representative may file complaints with union officers. In serious cases victims may sue offenders under a provision that deals with 'humiliating other persons' and specifies punishments that include a warning, noncustodial reform for up to two years, or a prison term ranging from three months to two years. Nevertheless, there were no known prosecutions or sexual harassment lawsuits during the year, and most victims were unwilling to denounce offenders publicly" (40).
Sept. 4, 2018, 11:28 a.m.
Countries: Zimbabwe
Variables: ERBG-PRACTICE-1

"Media reported that sexual harassment was prevalent in universities, workplaces, and parliament. In October, Patrick Ndhlovu, a Zimbabwe Power Company supervisor, appeared before a Mbare magistrate’s court on charges of indecent assault after allegations that he used his position to threaten and sexually harass female subordinates. On December 5, Mbare Magistrate Zihove ruled the prosecution had failed to prove its case and acquitted Zdhlovu" (34). "Women commonly faced sexual harassment in the workplace. Government enforcement was not effective, and there were no reports of any prosecutions during the year" (49).
Sept. 4, 2018, 10:29 a.m.
Countries: South Africa
Variables: ERBG-PRACTICE-1, ASR-PRACTICE-1

"Traditional gender stereotypes, such as 'mining is a man’s job' and 'women should be nurses' persisted" (51).
Sept. 4, 2018, 10:28 a.m.
Countries: Solomon Islands
Variables: ERBG-PRACTICE-1

"While the law accords women equal legal rights, including the right to own property, most women were limited to customary family roles that prevented them from taking more active responsibility in economic and political life" (11). "Employed women were predominantly engaged in low paying and low-skilled jobs" (11).
Sept. 4, 2018, 10:28 a.m.
Countries: Qatar
Variables: ERBG-PRACTICE-1

"Local custom, however, outweighed government enforcement of nondiscrimination laws, and legal, cultural, and institutional discrimination existed against women, noncitizens, and foreign workers" (24).
Sept. 4, 2018, 10:27 a.m.
Countries: Peru
Variables: ERBG-PRACTICE-1

"Sexual harassment was a serious problem...The law defines sexual harassment poorly, and government enforcement was minimally effective. The undue burden on the victims to prove their cases and the fear of retribution hampered the ability of women to report sexual harassment. There were no available statistics on sexual harassers prosecuted, convicted, or punished" (18). "While the law prohibits discrimination in employment and educational opportunities based on sex, the arbitrary dismissal of pregnant women, and discrimination remained common (see section 7.d.). The law stipulates that women should receive equal pay for equal work, but women often were paid less than men for equal work" (18-19). "Discrimination in employment and occupation occurred...more
Sept. 4, 2018, 10:26 a.m.
Countries: Nepal
Variables: ERBG-PRACTICE-1

"Lack of awareness about what constitutes sexual harassment led victims not to report many incidents" (30).
Sept. 4, 2018, 10:25 a.m.
Countries: Mozambique
Variables: ERBG-PRACTICE-1

"Sexual harassment is illegal; however, it was pervasive in business, government, and schools, and remained a societal problem" (15).