The most comprehensive compilation of information on the status of
women in the world.

Latest items for ERBG-PRACTICE-1

April 20, 2018, 4:05 p.m.
Countries: Hungary
Variables: ERBG-PRACTICE-1

"The Committee also notes the increased gender pay gap although the new Labour Code includes numerous criteria to effectively guarantee equal remuneration for work of equal value" (7).
April 17, 2018, 4:54 p.m.
Countries: Tanzania
Variables: ERBG-PRACTICE-1

"Women age 15-49 are most commonly employed in agriculture (56%) and unskilled manual labour (22%). Men are most commonly employed in agriculture (59%) and skilled manual labour (18%) (Tables 3.7.1 and 3.7.2). Trends: The percentage of women working in agriculture has decreased over time, from 78% in 2004-05, to 69% in 2010, and to 56% in 2015-16. Similarly, the percentage of men engaged in agriculture has decreased from 71% in 2004-5, to 62% in 2010, and to 59% in 2015-16. The percentages of women engaged in unskilled manual labour and men in skilled manual labour have increased over this same time period. In rural areas, about eight in 10 people ...more
April 17, 2018, 8:23 a.m.
Countries: China
Variables: ERBG-PRACTICE-1

The mandatory retirement age for women in blue-collar jobs is 50. This article indicates that this regulation allows greater labor force participation by younger women, i.e., the daughters or daughters-in-law of these women who are retiring, because the retiring woman can take care of her grandchildren.
April 14, 2018, 3:43 p.m.
Countries: Switzerland
Variables: ERBG-PRACTICE-1

"The Committee notes as positive the measures taken to advance the achievement of substantive equality in the State party; however, it remains concerned about the underrepresentation of women in extraparliamentary commissions and other bodies, governing bodies of companies and institutions closely connected with the Federation, as well as their underrepresentation in high-level management and decision-making positions. It is also concerned about the low numbers of women professors in academic institutions and of women judges at all levels of the judiciary" (Pg 6). "That the prevailing gender wage gap in both the public and private sectors continues to have a negative impact on women’s career development and pension benefits, while the ...more
April 11, 2018, 9:04 p.m.
Countries: Albania
Variables: ERBG-PRACTICE-1

"The Committee notes that, according to the State party, all provisions of the Convention are directly applicable and do not require implementing legislation. It also notes further legislative improvements to promote and protect gender equality and non-discrimination in the State party, in particular with regard to prohibiting gender-based violence and sexual harassment. The Committee is concerned, however, about the lack of implementation of the legislation on gender equality and non-discrimination, as well as about the lack of monitoring of implementation of such laws and policies" (Pg 3). "The Committee commends the State party on introducing temporary special measures, including quotas for the representation of both sexes in the Electoral Code ...more
April 11, 2018, 9:23 a.m.
Countries: Burkina Faso
Variables: ERBG-PRACTICE-1

"The Government has set put a special job-creation programme, 2011-2014, for young persons and women. It aims, inter alia, to build women’s technical and financial capacities in all areas of economic life" (15). "The obligatory age of retirement depends on category, regardless of gender, as follows: 1) Category A: age 60-65; 2) Category 1 (State contract workers): age 60; 3) Category B: age 58; 4) Categories C, D and E: age 55; 5) Category 2 (State contract workers): age 58; 6) Categories 3, 4 and 5 (State contract workers): age 55. As they are more numerous in the lower categories, women tend to go into retirement earlier" (21). "The number ...more
April 10, 2018, 10:42 p.m.
Countries: United Arab Emirates
Variables: ERBG-PRACTICE-1

"The Committee welcomes the measures taken to encourage the participation of women in the workforce, which have led to significant achievements, especially the creation of the Gender Balance Council for promoting the role of Emirati women in all spheres of employment. It also notes as positive the statement by the delegation of the State party that employers no longer request the authorization of the husband in order to recruit a woman" (pg 9).
April 10, 2018, 4:23 p.m.
Countries: Mongolia
Variables: ERBG-PRACTICE-1

"The Committee remains concerned at the persistence in the media and in society of deep-rooted patriarchal attitudes and discriminatory stereotypes concerning the roles and responsibilities of women and men in the family, which perpetuate women’s subordination within the family and society and which are reflected, inter alia, in women’s educational and professional choices, their limited participation in political and public life, their unequal participation in the labour market and their unequal status in family relations. The Committee recalls that such discriminatory stereotypes are also root causes of violence against women and expresses concern that, to date, the State party has not taken sustained measures to modify or eliminate discriminatory stereotypes ...more
April 7, 2018, 11:16 a.m.
Countries: Brunei
Variables: ERBG-PRACTICE-1

"The Committee is concerned at the persistence of deep-rooted patriarchal attitudes and stereotypes concerning women’s roles and responsibilities that discriminate against women and perpetuate their subordination within the family and society and that, among other things, are reflected in women’s academic and professional choices, their limited participation in political and public life and their unequal position in the labour market and in marriage and family relations. The Committee recalls that such stereotypes are also root causes of violence against women and is deeply concerned at the high prevalence of harmful practices that discriminate against women, such as child marriage and polygamy and female genital mutilation and circumcision" (Pg 5). "The ...more
April 7, 2018, 11:12 a.m.
Countries: Afghanistan
Variables: ERBG-PRACTICE-1

"NAPWA has a target of 30% women in governmental positions until the end of 2013. To reach this goal, the government will take steps towards positive CEDAW/C/AFG/1-2 34 11-64682 discrimination in employment, increasing number of female teachers, increasing capacity-building programs for women, emphasizing women's education, providing educational scholarships for women and organizing awareness programs on the role of women in their communities" (Pg 15-16). "Many families think that government and NGOs are not suitable environments for women to work. Many women working in the governmental sector work as teachers. Teachers usually teach for half a day then the other half of the day is spent doing household chores and taking ...more
April 5, 2018, 9:17 p.m.
Countries: Lebanon
Variables: ERBG-PRACTICE-1

"The Committee is also concerned about women’s limited access to the formal labour market and about the absence of legislation criminalizing sexual harassment in the work place. The Committee is further concerned about gender pay gaps, occupational segregation and the high percentage of women in low-paid jobs, such as service sector workers and salespersons, administrative staff and mid-level professionals" (pg 9).
April 4, 2018, 11:54 p.m.
Countries: Portugal
Variables: ERBG-PRACTICE-1

"The Committee is, however, concerned about the sex segregation of fields of study and the underrepresentation of girls in technology and vocational courses and apprenticeships at the secondary level, as well as in engineering, manufacturing and construction courses in higher education, which results in similar sex segregation of occupations in the labour market and higher unemployment rates for young women in spite of their higher rate of certification compared with employed males" (page 8). "The Committee welcomes Council of Ministers resolutions No. 19/2012, aimed at increasing the representation of women in decision-making positions in State-owned companies, and No. 18/2014, on equal pay for work of equal value. It also welcomes ...more
April 4, 2018, 4:40 p.m.
Countries: Vietnam
Variables: ERBG-PRACTICE-1

"[The Committee] is concerned about: (a) The high prevalence of violence against women and girls, including dating violence, violence in public spaces and workplace sexual harassment, as well as against older women and women in prostitution" (5). "[The Committee] is concerned about: (a)The persistent gender wage gap; (b) The lower retirement age for women and the extensive list of occupations prohibited for women; (c) The concentration of women in low-paid jobs in the informal sector without access to social protection and outside the scope of the Labour Code; (d) Discriminatory practices against women by employers based on maternity and pregnancy" (8-9).
April 3, 2018, 10:42 p.m.
Countries: Madagascar
Variables: ERBG-PRACTICE-1

"The Committee welcomes the detailed legal framework for workers employed in the formal sector, but notes with concern the discriminatory practices of employers against pregnant women, the high rate of unemployment among women and the strong vertical and horizontal segregation in the labour market, as well as the absence of implemented laws, including on equal pay, in this field, as evidenced by the persistence of wage gaps between women and men in both the public and private sectors. The Committee reiterates its concern about the high proportion of women in the informal sector, where they face persistent poverty and are not covered by social protection. The Committee is also concerned ...more
April 2, 2018, 8:19 a.m.
Countries: Bolivia

"The Committee is concerned about a persistent gender gap in employment, including: (a) Women’s limited access to formal employment, in particular managerial positions, in almost all sectors of the economy" (9).
March 30, 2018, 5:08 p.m.
Countries: Liberia
Variables: ERBG-PRACTICE-1

"The Committee notes that the employment sector was heavily affected by the Ebola outbreak and that many women in both the formal and informal sectors of employment have lost economic opportunities and earnings as a result of the pandemic. The Committee notes that the State party’s efforts to recover from Ebola are also focused on revamping the employment sector" (12).
March 28, 2018, 10:04 a.m.
Countries: Uzbekistan
Variables: ERBG-PRACTICE-1

"The Committee is concerned, however, at: ...The list of occupations that are prohibited for women, which appears to be overly protective, overemphasizes women’s role as mothers and places excessive restrictions on working time, overtime work and night work for women, thereby limiting their economic opportunities in several areas" (7). "The Committee notes with concern the disadvantaged status of women in rural areas, in particular that only 9 per cent of all farms are headed by women and that rural women occupy only 4.2 per cent of managerial positions in agriculture" (9).
March 23, 2018, 1:50 p.m.
Countries: Burundi
Variables: ERBG-PRACTICE-1

"Burundi depends heavily on agriculture, which accounts for 43% of gross domestic product (GDP) and is mainly in the hands of women, who are still using archaic methods" (8). "Women make up the majority of the agricultural workforce" (24).
March 21, 2018, 5:20 p.m.
Countries: Namibia
Variables: ERBG-PRACTICE-1

"The Committee recalls its previous concluding observations (CEDAW/C/NAM/CO/3, para. 14) and reiterates its concern that, notwithstanding the existence of the Affirmative Action (Employment) Act (No. 29 of 1998) and the general provisions on affirmative action under article 23 of the Constitution, temporary special measures are not consistently applied across the various areas covered by the Convention, such as the participation of women in public life, education and employment, in order to accelerate the achievement of substantive equality of women and men. The Committee calls upon the State party to adopt and fully enforce legislative provisions on temporary special measures to increase the participation of women in public life, education and ...more
March 20, 2018, 1:29 p.m.
Countries: Gambia
Variables: ERBG-PRACTICE-1

"The Committee is concerned about reports that women human rights defenders, in particular those working on sexual and reproductive health and rights, face harassment, attacks, threats and intimidation. The Committee recommends that the State party create an enabling environment for the participation in public life of women human rights defenders, including those working on sexual and reproductive health and rights, in accordance with international standards, and protect them from harassment, intimidation and violence" (page 7). "While noting that the Women’s Act prohibits discrimination against women in employment, the Committee is concerned about: (a) The low participation of women in the formal sector, vertical and horizontal segregation in the labour market ...more
March 19, 2018, 8:20 a.m.
Countries: Colombia

"The inadequate access to health-care services, education and employment opportunities of indigenous and Afro-Colombian women in urban and rural contexts" (Pg 12).
March 17, 2018, 1:48 p.m.
Countries: El Salvador
Variables: ERBG-PRACTICE-1

"Among the programmes is the Temporary Income Support Programme which has established a participation rate by women of 60 per cent, promoting training for women in non-traditional jobs" (18). "Some social programmes coordinated by the Technical Secretariat of the Office of the President in the framework of the Universal Social Protection System include strategies aimed at transforming sexist stereotypes. One of these is the Public Works Job Creation Programme, which promotes small-scale road building enterprises the majority of which are made up of women engaged in maintenance work on the highway network, which has traditionally been a male occupation" (18). "The government reports that a trend persists for women to ...more
March 16, 2018, 8:51 a.m.
Countries: Turkey

"Under Erdogan, Turkey has lifted bans on Islamic-style headscarves that barred devout women from attending university, entering the civil service and serving in the military" (para 19).
March 14, 2018, 6:54 p.m.
Countries: Senegal

"The Committee welcomes the adoption of the 2009-2015 plan for the implementation of the National Gender Equality and Equity Strategy, which includes measures for economic empowerment and autonomy of women. It remains concerned, however, about: (a) The persistent gender wage gap and occupational segregation of women and men; (b) The high unemployment rate among women and the concentration of women in the informal sector; (c) The absence of legal provisions explicitly criminalizing sexual harassment in the workplace; (d) The existence of discriminatory legal provisions allocating child benefits only to the father (art. 21 of the Code of Social Security), excluding the children of a deceased employed woman from her pension ...more
March 14, 2018, 3:42 p.m.
Countries: Guinea
Variables: ERBG-PRACTICE-1

"The Committee is concerned, however, about...The limited access of programmes for the empowerment of women, such as programmes for the reconciliation of family and work responsibilities for women, and the difficulties in fully implementing a microcredit network that covers all parts of the country" (12).
March 14, 2018, 12:08 p.m.
Countries: Swaziland
Variables: ERBG-PRACTICE-1

"The Committee is concerned about the continued occupational segregation between women and men in the labour market and the fact that women are concentrated in low-paid jobs in the informal economy. The Committee is also concerned about the non-compliance by the private sector with the provisions of the Employment Act that provide for 12 weeks of maternity leave. The Committee is further concerned at the lack of provisions in the law of the State party explicitly prohibiting sexual harassment in the workplace and that the bill on employment, which contains such a provision, is yet to be enacted into law. The Committee calls upon the State party: (a) To intensify ...more
March 13, 2018, 10:57 p.m.
Countries: Norway
Variables: ERBG-PRACTICE-1

"The Official Norwegian Report (NOU 2012: 15) Policy for Equality highlights traditionally gender-skewed educational choices as a key challenge to equality goals. Traditional gender patterns in education contribute to perpetuating a gender-divided labour market and differences in wage level, working hours and workload. The labour market in Norway is sharply divided by gender, with women and men pursuing different professions and participating in different industries and sectors. A gender-divided labour market serves as a partial curb on individual choice. Fixed patterns in the labour market lead to inflexibility, resulting in poor utilisation of human capital. Gender division in the labour market also leads to disparity in career opportunities for women ...more
March 13, 2018, 8:04 p.m.
Countries: Saudi Arabia
Variables: ERBG-PRACTICE-1

"Prince Mohammed is widely seen as the chief architect behind Saudi Arabia's 'Vision 2030' reform programme, which seeks to elevate the percentage of women in the work force from 22 percent to nearly one-third" (para 8). "Saudi Arabia is pushing to expand the country's private sector, including an expansion of female employment under a reform plan for a post-oil era. While women still face a host of restrictions in the ultraconservative Muslim kingdom, Saudi Arabia's public prosecutor's office this month said it would begin recruiting women investigators for the first time. The kingdom has also opened 140 positions for women at airports and border crossings, a historic first that the ...more
March 9, 2018, 8:49 a.m.
Countries: Saudi Arabia
Variables: ERBG-PRACTICE-1

“Cabinet Decision No. 129 of 12/5/1425 A.H. (30/6/2004), which provides for: (1) Government agencies that license engagement in economic activity to receive the applications of women to obtain the necessary licenses to engage in economic activities…(3) Allocation and preparation by the relevant agencies of land or areas within cities and for the construction of industrial enterprises that employee women. (4) Formation by the Council of Saudi Chambers of Commerce and Industry of a women’s committee comprising persons with expertise and competence” (11-12). "Royal Order No. A/121 of 2/7/1432 A.H. (4/6/2011). This order covers programmes, procedures and directives designed to open up employment opportunities for Saudi women in the industrial, economic ...more
March 7, 2018, 9:50 p.m.
Countries: Mexico
Variables: ERBG-PRACTICE-1

"In 2014, City of Women centers were established, as a model of empowerment with four facets: gender, human rights, interculturality and youth; this model integrates services provided by the federal, state and municipal governments so that women can have access to: justice, health, sexual and reproductive health, education, occupation/employment, etc. Two are in operation: Tlapa de Comonfort, and Tepeji del Río; and four more are under development: Querétaro, Estado de México, and Michoacán" (page 7). "From 2014 to 2015, the SEP implemented actions intended to prevent workplace violence" (page 23). "Numerous public policies are being implemented to economically empower women, as well as ventures and productive projects for the entry ...more