The most comprehensive compilation of information on the status of
women in the world.

Latest items for ERBG-PRACTICE-1

Oct. 22, 2019, 1:55 p.m.
Countries: Equatorial Guinea
Variables: ERBG-PRACTICE-1

"The country continued to have a large gender gap in terms of access to education and employment opportunities. Rooted stereotypes and ethnic traditions impeded women’s rights. Men had more employment opportunities than did women" (26).
Oct. 1, 2019, 2:44 p.m.
Countries: Philippines
Variables: ERBG-PRACTICE-1

"Sexual harassment remained widespread and underreported, including in the workplace, due to victims’ fear of losing their jobs" (26). "Transgender women were told by recruitment officers that they would be hired only if they presented themselves as males by cutting their hair short, dressing in men’s clothes, and acting in stereotypically masculine ways... Some labor unions claimed female employees suffered punitive action when they became pregnant" (38).
Sept. 17, 2019, 10:05 p.m.
Countries: China
Variables: ERBG-PRACTICE-1

"In a stark turnaround from the early decades of Communist rule, officials now look the other way when employers, reluctant to cover costs related to maternity leave, openly pick men over women for hiring and promotions. At home, women are increasingly disadvantaged in divorce and losing out on gains in the country’s property boom." (para 9). "As a result, Chinese women are being squeezed out of the workplace by employers who penalize them if they have children, and by party officials urging them to focus on domestic life. At the same time, those who have managed to keep working are increasingly earning less relative to men." (para 10). "At work,...more
Sept. 5, 2019, 1:56 p.m.
Countries: Congo
Variables: ERBG-PRACTICE-1

"The constitution and law prohibit discrimination based on family background, ethnicity, social condition, age, political or philosophical beliefs, gender, religion, region of origin within the country, place of residence in the country, language, HIV-positive status, or disability. The constitution and law do not specifically prohibit discrimination against persons based on national origin or citizenship, sexual orientation or gender identity, or having communicable diseases other than HIV. The government did not effectively enforce these prohibitions. Labor law does not specifically reiterate these antidiscrimination provisions" (30). "Discrimination in employment and occupation sometimes occurred with respect to women, refugees, and indigenous people. While the law prohibits discrimination based on gender and stipulates women...more
Aug. 9, 2019, 1 p.m.
Countries: D R Congo

"Gender-based discrimination in employment and occupation occurred (see section 6). Although the labor code stipulates men and women must receive equal pay for equivalent work, the government did not enforce this provision effectively. According to the International Labor Organization, women often received less pay in the private sector than did men doing the same job and rarely occupied positions of authority or high responsibility" (page 52).
Aug. 6, 2019, 8:14 a.m.
Countries: Comoros
Variables: ERBG-PRACTICE-1

"Sexual harassment is illegal, and conviction is punishable by fines and imprisonment. It is defined in the labor code as any verbal, nonverbal, or bodily behavior of a sexual nature that has the effect of creating an intimidating, hostile, or humiliating work environment for a person. Although rarely reported due to societal pressure, such harassment was nevertheless a common problem, and authorities did not effectively enforce the law" (page 9). "Societal discrimination against women was most apparent in rural areas, where women were mostly limited to farming and child-rearing duties, with fewer opportunities for education and wage employment" (page 9-10).
July 31, 2019, 6:50 p.m.
Countries: Saudi Arabia
Variables: ERBG-PRACTICE-1

"Authorities respected the right of citizens to change residence or workplace, provided they held a national identification card (NIC). The law requires all male citizens who are 15 or older to possess a NIC. In 2012 the Ministry of Interior announced it would start issuing NICs to all female citizens at the age of 15, phasing in the requirement over a seven-year period. In September 2016 local media reported more than three million girls and women over the age of 15 still did not possess a NIC. The population during the year of girls and women who were 15 or older was approximately seven million, according to the General Authority...more
July 25, 2019, 3:22 p.m.
Countries: Bangladesh

"However, the government continued to deny Rohingya access to formal schooling, prevent them from working legally, restrict their movement, and suspend birth registration for nearly one year, all of which increased vulnerability to trafficking" (97).
July 24, 2019, 6:29 p.m.
Countries: Chad

"The law does not prohibit sexual harassment, which occurred" (page 16).
July 21, 2019, 6:15 p.m.
Countries: Yemen
Variables: ERBG-PRACTICE-1

"The implications of the war for men are immense, from death at the battlefront to unemployment and the psychological stress of failing to provide for their families. More women are entering the labor market, especially in rural areas where most of the men are day laborers, and becoming the breadwinners of their families" (para 5). "While the increasing representation of women in public spaces can be considered a positive development, should their increasing participation in the labor market in such atrocious circumstances and conditions be applauded as a milestone on the road toward gender equality, or is war-torn Yemen simply heading for equality in misery?" (para 6).
July 20, 2019, 10:39 p.m.
Countries: Armenia
Variables: ERBG-PRACTICE-1

"The Committee welcomes the implementation by the State party of several programmes to promote women’s access to employment, entrepreneurship and financial credit. Nevertheless, it is concerned about persistent vertical and horizontal gender segregation in the labour market, the high unemployment rate among women and the concentration of women in part-time work and low-paid jobs in the informal sector (...) Moreover, the absence of legislation on sexual harassment and therefore of disaggregated data on sexual harassment in the workplace is also an important source of concern" (9).
July 20, 2019, 8:20 a.m.
Countries: Syria

"Women participated in public life and in most professions, including the armed forces, although violence in many regions reduced women’s access to the public sphere. Women and men have equal legal rights in owning or managing land or other property, although cultural and religious norms impeded women’s rights, especially in rural areas. Various sources observed that women constituted a minority of lawyers, university professors, and other professions" (Pg 46).
July 19, 2019, 4:56 p.m.
Countries: Niger
Variables: ERBG-PRACTICE-1

"The prohibition of sexual harassment in the workplace in the Labour Code is limited to individuals exercising authority and does not include co-workers and that there is limited knowledge about the remedies available to victims. Article 109 of the Labour Code, on the protection of maternity, may be interpreted in an overly broad manner in order to prohibit women from exercising certain professions based on discriminatory stereotypes" (11).
July 19, 2019, 12:46 p.m.
Countries: Turkey
Variables: ERBG-PRACTICE-1

"While women enjoy the same rights as men by law, societal and official discrimination were widespread. Women faced discrimination in employment (see section 7.d.). The constitution permits measures, including positive discrimination, to advance gender equality. To encourage the hiring of women, the state paid social services insurance premiums on behalf of employers for several months for any female employee above age 18" (page 51). "Discrimination in employment or occupation occurred with regard to sex, ethnicity, religion, sexual orientation, HIV-positive status, and presence of a disability. Sources also reported frequent discrimination based on political affiliation/views. Penalties, generally monetary fines, were insufficient to prevent violations. Women to faced discrimination in employment and...more
July 19, 2019, 12:22 p.m.
Countries: Nepal
Variables: ERBG-PRACTICE-1

"The law allows the top administrative official in a district to impose up to six months’ imprisonment, a maximum fine of NRs 50,000 ($500), or both, against a perpetrator, once a series of internal workplace processes to address a complaint have been exhausted. According to women’s rights activists, the law provides adequate protective measures and compensation for victims, but the penalties are insufficiently severe and the law does not cover the informal sector, where sexual harassment is most common" (Pg 27). "Although the law provides protection, women faced systemic discrimination, including in employment (see section 7.d.). Discrimination was most common in rural areas where religious and cultural traditions, lack of...more
July 19, 2019, 9:48 a.m.
Countries: Indonesia
Variables: ERBG-PRACTICE-1

"Women faced discrimination in the workplace, both in hiring and in gaining fair compensation" (Pg 28). "The law prohibits discrimination in employment based on sex, race, ethnicity, social origin, disability, religion, and political opinion. The law states that persons are entitled to 'employment befitting for human beings according to their disabilities, their education, and their abilities.' According to NGOs, these protections were not always guaranteed by employers or the government. No laws prohibit discrimination based on sexual orientation or gender identity, national origin or citizenship, age, language, HIV-positive status, or having other communicable diseases...The Ministry of Labor, Women’s Empowerment and Child Protection Agency, Ministry of Home Affairs, and National Development...more
July 18, 2019, 10:36 p.m.
Countries: Slovakia
Variables: ERBG-PRACTICE-1

"The Committee notes that the amendment to the Anti-Discrimination Act enabled not only public institutions but all legal entities, including private companies, to take affirmative action and expanded the scope of affirmative action to address disadvantages resulting from gender discrimination. The Committee is, nevertheless, concerned that the affirmative action taken under the Act reflects a limited understanding and application of the concept of temporary special measures in the State party" (4). "The Committee notes the amendment to the Labour Code in 2011 to provide for the equal treatment of women and men in employment and an increase in the representation of women on corporate boards, but is concerned: (a) That...more
July 18, 2019, 8:56 p.m.
Countries: Bangladesh
Variables: ERBG-PRACTICE-1

"There are serious loopholes in some policies too; the Agriculture Policy recognizes only the post-harvest role of the women which effectively means that women are not recognized as farmers and the door for them to access government agriculture support services and credit facilities remain shut" (12). "The gender gap for Bangladesh in economic sphere is one of the highest in the world, as reported in the recent Gender Gap Report by World Economic Forum (2015), place the country at 130th place, barely above countries such as Saudi Arabia and Pakistan" (14).
July 18, 2019, 3:05 p.m.
Countries: Hungary
Variables: ERBG-PRACTICE-1

"The constitution and laws prohibit discrimination based on race, sex, gender, disability, language, sexual orientation and gender identity, infection with HIV or other communicable diseases, or social status. The labor code provides for the principles of equal treatment. The government failed to enforce these regulations effectively. Penalties took the form of fines but were generally inadequate to deter violations. Discrimination in employment and occupation occurred with respect to Roma, women, and persons with disabilities. According to NGOs, there was economic discrimination against women in the workplace, particularly against job seekers older than 50 and those who were pregnant or had returned from maternity leave. A government decree requires companies with...more
July 18, 2019, 12:24 p.m.
Countries: Central African Rep

"Discrimination against women in employment and occupation occurred in all sectors of the economy and in rural areas, where traditional practices that favor men remained widespread" (Pg 26).
July 17, 2019, 3:48 p.m.
Countries: Singapore
Variables: ERBG-PRACTICE-1

"Women still remain underrepresented in traditionally male dominated fields of study, such as engineering, electronics and information technology, at the tertiary level" (7). "The Committee welcomes the initiatives introduced by the State party to reconcile the private and professional lives of women, such as the WorkPro scheme, which provides financial incentives to employers to implement flexible work arrangements, leave schemes to support parents, the establishment of more childcare facilities and the extension of maternity leave to unmarried women" (8). "The Committee remains concerned about reports of the low number of applications for protection orders under the Act owing to costly and burdensome procedures and about the lack of effective implementation...more
July 17, 2019, 2:14 p.m.
Countries: Cameroon
Variables: ERBG-PRACTICE-1

"Discrimination in employment and occupation allegedly occurred with respect to ethnicity, HIV status, disability, gender, and sexual orientation, especially in the private sector" (Pg 38).
July 15, 2019, 3:24 p.m.
Countries: Thailand
Variables: ERBG-PRACTICE-1

"Women generally enjoy the same legal status and rights as men, but sometimes experienced discrimination particularly in employment" (page 30).
July 12, 2019, 8:51 a.m.
Countries: Cambodia
Variables: ERBG-PRACTICE-1

"The Rectangular Strategy for Growth, Employment, Equity and Efficiency Phase III (2013) recognizes gender equity as a key component of national development, capacity building, and human resources development, and highlights the need to ‘further improve the status of women, who are the backbone of Cambodian society and economy’" (7). "The government is providing employment services at the national and sub national levels through the National Employment Agency (NEA), technical and vocational training programs, and registered private recruitment agencies. In 2016, 116,583 women (55.03% of the total) were provided jobs through the NEA while more than 1.15 million Cambodians were provided with employment services to work overseas" (25). "Teachers and Education...more
July 11, 2019, 5:35 p.m.
Countries: Bangladesh
Variables: ERBG-PRACTICE-1

"The Committee is also concerned at...The unsafe working conditions for women... The legal barriers to forming unions, especially in industries with a high concentration of women, including agriculture, although there has been an increase in the number of unions registered since 2013... "Women domestic workers in the State party are subjected to violence, abuse, food deprivation and murder... such crimes go unreported and that the victims have limited access to justice and redress" (10)." (9-10). "The lack of access to... employment... of Rohingya women... especially those who are unregistered" (12).
July 9, 2019, 4:36 p.m.
Countries: Serbia
Variables: ERBG-PRACTICE-1

"Discrimination in employment and occupation occurred with respect to race, sex, disability, language, sexual orientation, gender identity, ethnicity, and HIVpositive status. In 2016 labor inspectors issued 25 decisions regarding discrimination and two decisions related to gender equality. The commissioner for the protection of equality’s 2016 annual report showed that 12.9 percent of employment discrimination complaints were based on disability, 12.9 percent on gender . . . NGO experts reported that women, Roma women in particular, were subject to the most discrimination of any group in the country. A study by the Center for Free Elections and Democracy found discrimination was most frequent in hiring and employment, with the state and...more
July 9, 2019, 2:45 p.m.
Countries: Zambia

"In contrast to customary law, the constitution and statutory law provide for the same legal status and rights for women as for men, including under family, labor, property, and nationality laws. Nevertheless, the government did not adequately enforce the law, and women experienced discrimination in employment (see section 7.d.), education, inheritance, and ownership of land and other property" (Pg 23).
July 9, 2019, 10:16 a.m.
Countries: Romania
Variables: ERBG-PRACTICE-1

"The high unemployment rate among women, especially in rural areas and among Roma women, the unequal division of family responsibilities between women and men, the closure of kindergartens, especially in rural areas, and the disproportionate burden of unpaid care work for women, further restricting their access to formal employment and resulting in lower pension benefits for women compared with men or the exclusion of women from the pension system" (10). "The persistent gender pay gap, despite the existence of legislation on equal pay for work of equal value" (10). "The insufficient investigation and lack of prosecution of sexual harassment and sex-based discrimination in the workplace" (10).
July 8, 2019, 1:19 p.m.
Countries: Uganda
Variables: ERBG-PRACTICE-1

"The law criminalizes sexual harassment and provides for penalties of up to 14 years’ imprisonment, but authorities did not effectively enforce the law. Sexual harassment was a serious and widespread problem in homes, schools, universities, and workplaces. In 2013 local NGO Uganda Human Rights Defenders Association reported 90 percent of women had faced sexual harassment at work and that their prospective male employers routinely asked female job seekers for sex. The Ministry of Gender, Labor, and Social Development (MGLSD) reported that fears of retaliation made many victims unwilling to report harassment" (Pg 28). "Women experienced discrimination in access to employment, credit, and income, and were underrepresented in business ownership and...more
July 8, 2019, 12:38 p.m.
Countries: Burundi
Variables: ERBG-PRACTICE-1

"The Committee welcomes the revision of the Labour Code to strengthen women’s rights at work and eliminate the persistent wage gap. It notes the existence of an advanced bill protecting the right to work for persons with disabilities. Nevertheless, the Committee remains concerned (CEDAW/C/BDI/CO/4, para. 33) that women are concentrated in the informal sector in unskilled and low-paid jobs without social protection. It is also concerned about the lack of the protection of domestic workers from exploitation and sexual abuse and that child labour has not yet been banned, with girls continuing to be exploited, especially in domestic work" (11).