The most comprehensive compilation of information on the status of
women in the world.

Latest items for ERBG-PRACTICE-1

Sept. 26, 2020, 4:35 p.m.
Countries: Belgium
Variables: LRW-PRACTICE-1, ERBG-PRACTICE-1

“B.V. v. Belgium (no. 61030/08) (2 May 2017): The applicant complained in particular that a full and comprehensive investigation had not been carried out and that she had not had an effective remedy by which to raise complaints of rape and indecent assault by a work colleague. The Court held that there had been a procedural violation of Article 3 (prohibition of inhuman or degrading treatment) of the Convention. It found in particular that the applicant’s allegations were arguable and could therefore be regarded as complaints of treatment breaching Article 3 of the Convention. Accordingly, in view of the State’s obligation to carry out an effective investigation, the authorities should,...more
Sept. 14, 2020, 6:34 p.m.
Countries: Bahrain
Variables: ERBG-PRACTICE-1

"under the provisions of Article 56-b, women’s work without their husbands approval is considered Nushose (non-obedience) and provides grounds for outlay for the wife's maintenance This violates women’s rights to work, movement, equality and human dignity. It is contrary to the state's declaration on closing the gender gap in the labor market and economic participation; what is given by one hand is wiped by laws that reinforce the stereotypical image of women and male domination" (2).
Aug. 30, 2020, 9:08 p.m.
Countries: Armenia
Variables: ERBG-PRACTICE-1, ERBG-PRACTICE-4, LO-PRACTICE-1

"The 2011 survey conducted by the National Statistical Service of Armenia and the UNFPA also highlights such ways of violence against women as economic disempowerment, including economic deprivation (e.g. witholding of money, confiscation of earnings and savings, forbidding a woman to work)" (para 11).
Aug. 26, 2020, 2:54 p.m.
Countries: United Kingdom
Variables: ERBG-PRACTICE-1, LBHO-PRACTICE-3

“In my time working, campaigning, and blogging about UK politics I meet all sorts of talented and idealistic young women, but few of them stay in [politics]…for long. The issue has long been the lifestyle associated with politics” (para 1-2). “Over the years senior female politicians, role models that those younger could grab hold of and look up to, have been few and far between. Christine Quigley, Chair of London Young Labour, told me that she often felt frustrated growing up as someone interested in politics, because she didn’t ‘see many elected politicians that I could identify with as a young woman’…It’s fair to say though that the sisterhood hasn’t...more
Aug. 26, 2020, 2:49 p.m.
Countries: New Zealand
Variables: ERBG-PRACTICE-1

“Girls in New Zealand high schools will no longer have to pay for sanitary products after the government announced it would foot the bill in an attempt to stamp out widespread period poverty… Fifteen Waikato schools – identified as those most in need – will have access to free products from term three of this year, with the programme going nationwide on an opt-in basis by 2021…Otago University found girls who experience period poverty face lifelong implications ‘for their…education and career prospects’” (para 1, 4, 14).
Aug. 24, 2020, 11:37 a.m.
Countries: Angola
Variables: ERBG-PRACTICE-1

"Lesbian and bisexual women in Angola face multiple forms of discriminations. According to various testimonies, the main challenges are family issues, access to health and access to employment. LB women still face stigma and discrimination due to the perception that they brake gender boundaries with their gender expression and sexual orientation" (3). "Access to employment is still a very huge struggle for LB women in Angola. While formally everyone is protected by the Labor Law, there are still situations of discrimination against LB women in work environment" (4).
Aug. 13, 2020, 9:03 p.m.
Countries: Japan
Variables: ERBG-PRACTICE-1

"Between the disproportionate amount of unpaid labor women in Japan do — four times more than their male counterparts — and negative attitudes about women in leadership, progress to address the country’s gender imbalance has been slow" (para. 6). "Japan’s Prime Minister Shinzo Abe pledged to ensure women make up 30% of leadership roles by 2020 in 2013 through a 'womenomics strategy,' but has not yet reached his goal. The country still lacks equal political representation and has struggled to narrow its economic gender gap" (para. 7).
Aug. 10, 2020, 5:10 p.m.
Countries: Azerbaijan
Variables: ERBG-PRACTICE-1

"Although there are no formal prohibitions for widows to have access to jobs, family relations often represent an obstacle. For example, due to moral reasons, they are often limited in their freedom of movement because they are required to be accompanied by male relatives, and this limit their ability to work, especially in rural areas. Lack of access to the labour market implies lack of access to the pension system, and consequently an extreme dependence on husbands and husbands’ families" (4).
Aug. 10, 2020, 3:09 p.m.
Countries: Saudi Arabia
Variables: ERBG-PRACTICE-1, ERBG-PRACTICE-2, ASR-PRACTICE-2, ASR-LAW-2

“Simple tasks like buying a cell phone, registering children for school, applying for a job, getting a bank account, are all hugely complicated and require asking men for permission, time, money and help. Forget any sports in public” (para 1).
Aug. 9, 2020, 3:04 p.m.
Countries: New Zealand
Variables: ERBG-PRACTICE-1, ERBG-LAW-2

"New Zealand’s parliament has unanimously passed an Equal Pay Amendment Bill that ensures workers are not paid less because of their gender. The equal pay legislation goes beyond ensuring men and women are paid the same for the same work — which has been enshrined in New Zealand law since 1972. The amendment bill focuses on pay equity by ensuring women in historically underpaid female-dominated industries receive the same remuneration as men in different but equal-value work. The new bill makes it easier for workers to lodge pay equity claims because it sets clear guidelines for comparing pay between women in female-dominated professions and men with “substantially similar skills, responsibility,...more
Aug. 2, 2020, 5:17 p.m.
Countries: Saudi Arabia
Variables: ERBG-PRACTICE-1, ERBG-LAW-2

"Finally, changes to the Labor Law clarified that a 'worker' can be female as well as male and introduced a new protection against discrimination in employment on the basis of sex, disability or age. This major advance should make it illegal for private employers to demand that potential female employees obtain approval of their male guardian to work" (para 22).
July 26, 2020, 9:25 p.m.
Countries: Japan
Variables: ERBG-PRACTICE-1

"Womenomics is a theory that advocates the empowerment of women, arguing that enabling women to have access to equal participation in an economy and society will result in economic benefits and social progress. The need for Japan to implement womenomics was first advocated by Kathy Matsui in 1999, and since 2013 Prime Minister Abe's government has pledged to promote womenomics as policy ... Prime Minister of Japan Abe Shinzō has pledged to create a society in which "all women can shine" (subete no josei ga kagayaku nihon e). Writing in the Wall Street Journal in September 2013, Abe acknowledged that womenomics was not a new concept, but that his government's...more
July 19, 2020, 1:45 p.m.
Countries: Nepal
Variables: ERBG-PRACTICE-1, ERBG-DATA-5

"Women are far more likely to be employed in agriculture than men (70% versus 33%). Trends: Involvement in agricultural work has decreased among both women and men over the past 5 years, from 75% and 35% in 2011 to 70% and 33% in 2016, respectively. In contrast, involvement in professional/technical/managerial work has increased, from 4% to 6% among women and from 8% to 10% among men. Women are less likely than men to be employed in professional/technical/managerial occupations (6% versus 10%), as well as clerical services (2% versus 6%), sales and services (13% versus 23%), skilled manual labor (6% versus 15%), and unskilled manual labor (3% versus 13%). Women who...more
July 14, 2020, 5:40 p.m.
Countries: India
Variables: ERBG-PRACTICE-1, AFE-PRACTICE-1

"She tried to get a job but was always rejected because of her looks. 'When I got rejected by employers I decided to go to college for higher studies,' she said. 'I went to three or four colleges but again got rejected. They told me that my presence could affect their college's reputation'" (22-24). Her face was disfigured after she suffered an acid attack (CCS-CODER COMMENT).
July 14, 2020, 4:36 p.m.
Countries: China
Variables: ERBG-PRACTICE-1

"One of the most prominent voices in China’s #MeToo movement is 25-year-old Zhou Xiaoxuan, known by the nickname 'Xianzi', a former intern at China’s state-run television agency, who has accused a famous TV host, Zhu Jun, of forcibly groping her. Rather than backing down when Zhu sued her for defamation, Zhou Xiaoxuan decided to file a counter lawsuit, charging the TV host of hurting her right to personal dignity" (para 14).
July 13, 2020, 11:31 a.m.
Countries: Bangladesh
Variables: ERBG-PRACTICE-1

"When it comes to the position of women, however, this country has made progress that would be unthinkable in many other Muslim societies. Bangladeshi women have served in United Nations peacekeeping missions. There are women ambassadors, doctors, engineers and pilots ... 'This is a country where women are active in every field,' Dipu Moni, the minister of foreign affairs, said at her office in Dhaka, the capital. Ms. Moni, the daughter of a prominent politician and a Western-educated lawyer and physician, has campaigned for years for women’s rights and improved health provisions in the country" (para. 2-3). "Microlending, which took off in the 1980s, has allowed many women to start...more
July 10, 2020, 6:14 p.m.
Countries: Iran
Variables: ERBG-PRACTICE-1

"Iranian women work as lawyers, doctors, pilots, film directors and truck drivers. They…constitute 50 percent of the work force" (para 12).
July 3, 2020, 4:25 p.m.
Countries: Zambia
Variables: ERBG-PRACTICE-1

"Roughly one in three women (34%) and men (31%) age 15-49 work in the agriculture sector. Among men, 20% work in skilled manual occupations and another 20% work in unskilled manual occupations. Thirty-five percent of women are engaged in sales and services, while 8% work in professional/technical/managerial jobs. Nineteen percent of employed women in Zambia are not paid for the work they do. Women engaged in agricultural work are more likely (37%) than women not working in agriculture (9%) to not be paid for their work. Sixty-three percent of women who worked in the past year are self-employed. Among men, 16% are not paid for their work. Similar to women,...more
July 2, 2020, 10:03 p.m.
Countries: United Arab Emirates
Variables: ERBG-PRACTICE-1, AFE-PRACTICE-1

"Emirati women today are much better off, she adds, because many of them are now able to go to school and work, which enables financial independence" (para 4).
June 28, 2020, 5:16 p.m.
Countries: United States
Variables: ERBG-PRACTICE-1

"About one-in-five employed women in the U.S. (22%) say they have been sexually harassed at work. In a survey conducted in July and August--before the spate of recent misconduct allegations and the rapid spread of the #metoo social media campaign-- 22% of employed women said they have experienced sexual harassment on the job, compared with 7% of employed men. Some more recent surveys by other organizations (using somewhat different question wording) have placed the figure higher: In an NPR/PBS NewsHour/Marist Poll conducted Nov. 13 to 15, for example, 35% of women said they have personally experienced sexual harassment or abuse from someone in the workplace" (para 3). The table titled...more
June 23, 2020, 6 p.m.
Countries: Tajikistan
Variables: ERBG-PRACTICE-1

"The Labour Code guarantees that at the time of recruitment, promotion, vocational training, establishment of terms of employment and also dismissal of workers, including civil servants, the requirements of the legislation concerning the rights and guarantees of persons of both genders must be taken into account. As required by the Code, pay or other remuneration is a basic condition of a labour contract. Pay constitutes remuneration for work. Discrimination in pay is prohibited. An employer must grant workers the same pay for work of equal value" (20-21). "Guided by the provisions of the act on State guarantees of equal rights for men and women and equal opportunities in the exercise...more
June 23, 2020, 5:54 p.m.
Countries: Estonia
Variables: ERBG-PRACTICE-1

"However, it notes with concern that the persistence of discriminatory stereotypes regarding the roles and responsibilities of women and men in the family and in society constitutes a barrier to women’s active participation in economic life, in particular when they have children under school age, thereby limiting their career perspectives and access to leading positions" (5). "The Committee welcomes the amendments to the Gender Equality Act and Equal Treatment Act, which further defined discrimination in labour disputes and sexual harassment in the workplace and introduced a shared burden of proof in civil and administrative proceedings in such cases. However, the Committee regrets the absence of statistical data from the labour...more
June 23, 2020, 5:49 p.m.
Countries: Serbia
Variables: ERBG-PRACTICE-1

"The share of Roma women in the total number of Roma included in active employment policy measures between 1 July and 31 December 2013 was 45.90 per cent; in 2014 it was 48.09 per cent, in 2015 it was 44.31 per cent and in 2016 it was 42.98 per cent" (13). "In accordance with the Bylaw on the Content and Manner of submitting Plans of Measures to Eliminate or Mitigate Gender Imbalance and Annual Reports on their Implementation, the Ministry of Labour received 428 plans and reports from economic operators in 2016 and 409 such plans by 31 March 2017. In 2015, labour inspectors conducted 3,157 inspections of compliance with...more
June 19, 2020, 9:38 p.m.
Countries: South Africa
Variables: ERBG-PRACTICE-1

"Although the law prohibits sexual harassment, it remained a widespread problem. With criminal prosecution a rare secondary step that the complainant must request, the government left enforcement primarily to employers. The Department of Labor issued guidelines to employers on how to handle workplace complaints that allow for remuneration of the victim’s lost compensation plus interest, additional damages, legal fees, and dismissal of the perpetrator in some circumstances" (25). "Women experienced economic discrimination in wages (see section 7.d.), extension of credit, and ownership of land" (25). "Traditional gender stereotypes, such as 'mining is a man’s job' and 'women should be nurses' persisted" (39). "Investigations by the Department of Labor and SAPS...more
June 5, 2020, 1:19 p.m.
Countries: Papua New Guinea
Variables: ERBG-PRACTICE-1

"Tables 3.7.1 and 3.7.2, respectively, show that 43% of employed women and 48% of men age 15-49 are engaged in agricultural occupations. Almost one-third of working women (32%) are engaged in sales or services, while 14% are engaged in professional, technical, or managerial jobs. Among working men, 16% are employed in skilled manual jobs, 15% in professional, technical, or managerial jobs, and 12% in sales and services" (38). "Patterns by background characteristics: 1) As expected, the proportion of respondents working in agriculture is much lower in urban areas than in rural areas, whereas the proportion working in sales and services and in professional, technical, or managerial jobs is higher in...more
May 31, 2020, 11:11 p.m.
Countries: Turkey
Variables: ERBG-PRACTICE-1

"In May, 120 workers in Flormar, majority of whom are women, were fired because they became members of trade union. In spite of the resistance, which has become one of the greatest resistance in the country and continued during 2018 with the motto of #FlormarDeğilDirenişGüzelleştirir (Resistance makes you beautiful, not Flormar), the number of workers dismissed throughout the year has reached 132. Women who defend their labor rights and trade union rights both at home and outside put up resistance" (30). "In February, 52-year-old F.K, a civil servant in the Grand National Assembly, was seen by another employee while harassing a young female trainee who was a high school student....more
May 31, 2020, 6:36 p.m.
Countries: India
Variables: ERBG-PRACTICE-1

"Women and men are most commonly employed as agricultural workers (48% of women and 32% of men), followed by production workers (21% and 32%, respectively) (Tables 3.8). A slightly higher percentage of employed women (10%) than employed men (8%) are employed in professional, technical, administrative, or managerial occupations" (56).
May 31, 2020, 4:27 p.m.
Countries: North Korea
Variables: ERBG-PRACTICE-1

"Several Cabinet directives were issued during the reporting period to stimulate women to take an active part in public life. Of these, the directive issued in December, 2009 brought about a turning point in significantly raising the proportion of women in the workforce in different sectors. In accordance with this directive, the Ministry of Labour mandated the minimum proportion of women for each category of occupation, with due consideration given to whether they belong to productive sectors like enterprises, factories and farms or non-productive sectors like education, culture, health care and commerce" (9). "State institutions were required to ensure the proportion of women officials at or above 20-25 per cent...more
May 21, 2020, 8:43 p.m.
Countries: Guatemala
Variables: ERBG-PRACTICE-1

"In 2013, in other social institutions, women numbered as follows: one on the Board of the Chamber of Commerce; one on the Advisory Council of the Guatemalan General Confederation of Workers; one in the Guatemalan-American Chamber of Commerce; two on the Board on the Association of Economists, Certified Public Accountants, and Business Administrators; one on the Board of the Association of Engineers; two in the Coordinating Office for NGOs and Cooperatives in Guatemala. The Political and Technical Commission for Women, Children and Adolescents was mostly comprised of women" (24). "In 2012, the State of Guatemala produced its national employment policy entitled ‘Generating safe, decent and high-quality jobs 2012-2021’, based on...more
May 15, 2020, 7:15 p.m.
Countries: Nigeria
Variables: ERBG-PRACTICE-1

"More men than women were employed in professional/technical/managerial occupations in the 12 months before the survey (13% and 9%, respectively). Women dominate employment in sales and services (62% versus 26% among men), while a higher percentage of men than women are engaged in agricultural work (41% and 22%, respectively)" (48). "Women and men with more than a secondary education are more likely than those at other educational levels to be engaged in professional/technical/managerial work (40% and 39%, respectively). Women with no education are mostly engaged in sales and services (67%), while men with no education are primarily engaged in agricultural work (72%)" (48).