The most comprehensive compilation of information on the status of
women in the world.

Latest items for ERBG-PRACTICE-1

July 11, 2018, 8 p.m.
Countries: Uruguay
Variables: ERBG-PRACTICE-1

". . . de facto, intersecting discrimination against Uruguayan women of African descent persists and can be seen in the disproportionate level of educational exclusion, early pregnancies, lower salaries, more disadvantageous incorporation into the workforce and lower levels of public and political participation" (page 3). "The persistence of patriarchal attitudes and discriminatory stereotypes about the roles and responsibilities of women and men in the family and in society, which perpetuate violence and discrimination against women in areas such as education, employment and health" (page 6). ". . . there are twice as many women than men in science . . . The overrepresentation of Uruguayan women of African descent in...more
July 6, 2018, 6:49 p.m.
Countries: Uruguay
Variables: ERBG-PRACTICE-1

"Special measures for women were incorporated into two programmes under the 2007 equity plan, calling for protected employment for vulnerable populations: the 'Uruguay Works' programme (Act No. 18240), and its update under Act No. 19149, which set out special measures for groups with employability problems: young people, women, persons of African descent, transsexuals and persons with disabilities. Women’s participation has been around 70 per cent each year. (Tables 4 and 5). Another programme that favoured hiring of women through special measures is the 'Objective Employment' programme, which was presented in the 2012 follow-up report. The Youth Employment Act, No. 19133, promotes and expands hiring opportunities for socially vulnerable persons: young...more
June 28, 2018, 4:51 p.m.
Countries: Tanzania
Variables: ERBG-PRACTICE-1

"[The Committee] is nevertheless concerned that temporary special measures remain underutilized by the State party to accelerate the full and equal participation of women in areas such as education and employment" (page 5). "The Committee remains concerned at persistent discrimination against women in the labour market, in particular: (a) The high rate of unemployed young women and their marginalization from formal labour markets; (b) The continuing horizontal and vertical occupational segregation and the concentration of women in low-paid jobs; (c) The lack of implementation of the principle of equal pay for work of equal value and the persistent gender wage gap; (d) The lack of information on labour inspections of...more
June 26, 2018, 8:46 p.m.
Countries: Jamaica
Variables: ERBG-PRACTICE-1

"Women sought jobs and served in almost every occupation in both the public and private sectors...The government repealed legislation that had restricted night work for women" (13).
June 26, 2018, 8:45 p.m.
Countries: Lithuania
Variables: ERBG-PRACTICE-1

"As of September 1, the ombudsman had conducted 258 employment discrimination investigations, including...67 on gender" (21).
June 26, 2018, 9:09 a.m.
Countries: New Zealand
Variables: ERBG-PRACTICE-1

"In 2013 the labour force participation rate of disabled women in the 15 to 64 age group (46 per cent) was lower than for disabled men (54 per cent) and non disabled women (71 per cent) in the same age group. The unemployment rate for disabled women is 10 per cent. This is higher than that of disabled men (8 per cent) and non-disabled women (6 per cent). The labour force participation rate is significantly lower than the last report due to a combination of New Zealand’s ageing population, people’s willingness to report disability as public perception changes, and improved methodology. In 2006 it was 57.8 per cent for disabled...more
June 25, 2018, 8:56 p.m.
Countries: South Africa
Variables: ERBG-PRACTICE-1, ASR-PRACTICE-1

"Traditional gender stereotypes, such as 'mining is a man’s job' and 'women should be nurses' persisted" (51).
June 25, 2018, 10:56 a.m.
Countries: Turkmenistan
Variables: ERBG-PRACTICE-1

"Under article 6 of the Act, discrimination on the grounds of sex does not include the following: the protection of maternity and paternity; distinctions, exclusions, preferences and limitations at work motivated by the characteristics of the type of work concerned or by special State concerns for certain persons in need of social or legal protection, as established by the legislation of Turkmenistan; the establishment of professional qualification requirements based on the ability of only one sex to perform the duties in question; and others" (31). "Under with the labour legislation of Turkmenistan, it is permitted to recruit women with children under the age of fourteen (disabled child — up to...more
June 21, 2018, 3:52 p.m.
Countries: Thailand
Variables: ERBG-PRACTICE-1

"[The committee] remains concerned aboutt: ...The persistence of discrimination on the basis of gender in the workplace, including with regard to recruitment, promotion and retirement age, which, in many factories, is reportedly set at 55 years of age for women compared with 60 years of age for men" (11).
June 12, 2018, 8:43 a.m.
Countries: Israel
Variables: ERBG-PRACTICE-1

"One of the biggest bones of contention in the program is that women are not allowed to teach male-only classes. Opponents have also said that the separation is harmful to the pluralistic and egalitarian character of academic life. In the past, the Council for Higher Education denied that female lecturers were barred from teaching on ultra-Orthodox campuses, but now it has become the norm in the programs and it seems the council has accepted it" (Para 10-11).
June 9, 2018, 4:42 p.m.
Countries: Kenya
Variables: ERBG-PRACTICE-1

"[There are] Poor working conditions faced by women domestic workers, including low pay, long hours, exploitation, physical and sexual abuse, and their unawareness of complaint mechanisms" (11)
June 9, 2018, 4:42 p.m.
Countries: Kenya
Variables: ERBG-PRACTICE-1

"[The Committee is concerned about] The situation of women working in agriculture, including on flower farms, and, in particular, their exposure to chemicals and the adverse effects that the latter have on their fertility and reproductive functions, as well as reports of abuse and longer working hours than for men with no additional remuneration; The high level of unpaid and unrecognized work done by women; The fact that legislation prohibiting sexual harassment applies only to employers who hold public office and persons in positions of authority" (11)
June 8, 2018, 1:24 p.m.
Countries: Turkey
Variables: ERBG-PRACTICE-1

"The Committee remains concerned about the high dropout rate and underrepresentation among girls and women in vocational training" (page 13). "The Committee recommends that the State party: . . . Adopt policies and specific legislative measures to eliminate employment discrimination against women and work towards ensuring equal opportunities at all levels for women in the labour market, in the formal sector and elsewhere" (page 14-15). "The Committee is concerned about the precarious situation of women in rural areas, who are disproportionately affected by poverty and have limited access to education, employment, social security and health care" (page 16).
June 7, 2018, 5:24 p.m.
Countries: Taiwan
Variables: ERBG-PRACTICE-1

"Women were promoted less frequently, occupied fewer management positions, and worked for lower pay than their male counterparts" (19). "Women’s groups reported that judicial authorities were sometimes dismissive of sexual harassment complaints. According to the Ministry of Labor’s latest survey on this subject in 2013, an estimated 4.2 percent of women encountered sexual harassment in the workplace, with most victims ages 15 to 34. A poll conducted by the Awakening Foundation in May found that 50 percent of the women surveyed faced censure when they informed their employers of their pregnancy, 49 percent were assigned to a different job or department, and 15 percent were asked to resign" (19).more
June 7, 2018, 8:49 a.m.
Countries: Brazil
Variables: ERBG-PRACTICE-1

"Yet these patients, most of whom were women, also told me that living without beauty in Brazil was to take an even bigger risk. Beauty is perceived as being so central for the job market, so crucial for finding a spouse and so essential for any chances at upward mobility that many can’t say no to these surgeries" (Para 5). This implies that women are held to a certain standard of beauty in order to obtain employment rather than being judged based on their qualifications (EJ-Coder Comment).
June 5, 2018, 6:03 p.m.
Countries: Greece
Variables: ERBG-PRACTICE-1

"The ombudsman noted the absence of a policy against sexual harassment in most businesses and workplaces, private and public, underlining that employers were often ignorant of their obligations under the law when employees file sexual harassment complaints" (21). "In March the ombudsman reported an overall increase in reported cases of gender discrimination in public sector employment in 2014. Most reported cases involved illegal dismissal from employment and changes in work terms imposed by the employer due to pregnancy" (34).
June 3, 2018, 5:28 p.m.
Countries: Russia
Variables: ERBG-PRACTICE-1

"The law does not specifically prohibit sexual harassment in the workplace, which remained a widespread problem. Instead, the criminal code contains a general provision against compelling a person to perform actions of a sexual character by means of blackmail, threats, or by taking advantage of the victim’s economic or other dependence on the perpetrator. As of April there had been no successful prosecutions for “compulsion to perform sexual actions," (54). "Discrimination based on gender in compensation, professional training, hiring, and dismissal were characteristic of the labor market. Employers often preferred to hire men to save on maternity and child-care costs and avoid the perceived unreliability associated with women with small...more
June 1, 2018, 5:56 p.m.
Countries: France
Variables: ERBG-PRACTICE-1

"The Ministry of Justice estimated that 300,000 cases of sexual harassment occurred in the country each year but that only approximately 1,000 victims filed complaints. Of those, approximately 80 resulted in convictions, with an average penalty of 1,000 euros ($1,100). In 2014 the defender of rights published a French Institute of Public Opinion survey which indicated that one in five women reported facing sexual harassment in her professional life and that 5 percent of those cases were brought to trial" (17). "There was discrimination against women with respect to employment and occupation (see section 7.d.) and were underrepresented in most levels of government leadership" (18). "There were no government estimates...more
May 30, 2018, 7:55 a.m.
Countries: Zimbabwe
Variables: ERBG-PRACTICE-1

"Machingauta, who is the founder and director of Women’s Farming Syndicate, an organization that supports women smallholder farmers in Domboshaw), explains how the lack of skills to make use of technology and limited time for training for women – compounded by climate change – has worsened the plight of women in the area. According to the Ministry of Women’s Affairs, Gender and Community Development (MWAGCD), in Zimbabwe, women make up 70 percent of the rural population and 86 percent of women are involved in farming. Of the smallholder farmers who benefited from the government’s land reform program, only 18 percent are female; for commercial land, women constitute just 12 percent"...more
May 29, 2018, 7:52 p.m.
Countries: Solomon Islands
Variables: ERBG-PRACTICE-1

"While the law accords women equal legal rights, including the right to own property, most women were limited to customary family roles that prevented them from taking more active responsibility in economic and political life" (11). "Employed women were predominantly engaged in low paying and low-skilled jobs" (11).
May 29, 2018, 7:51 p.m.
Countries: Laos
Variables: ERBG-PRACTICE-1

"The law provides equal rights for women as for men, but in some areas and at lower socioeconomic levels, traditional attitudes and gender-role stereotyping kept women and girls in subordinate positions and prevented them from equally accessing education, employment, and business opportunities" (20).
May 15, 2018, 10:03 a.m.
Countries: Nigeria
Variables: ERBG-PRACTICE-1

"Recalling its previous concluding observations (CEDAW/C/NGA/CO/6, paras. 13 and 29), the Committee remains concerned about discriminatory provisions in the Labour Act of 1990, the Factories Act of 1987 and the Police Regulations of 1968, which, among other things, prohibit the employment of women in night work and the recruitment of married women to the police and require women police officers to make a written request for permission to marry" (11-12).
May 11, 2018, 12:35 p.m.
Countries: Belarus
Variables: ERBG-PRACTICE-1

"The Committee takes note of the high rate of female participation in the labour force. It is concerned, however, about persistent discrimination against women in employment, including the significant gender wage gap in many fields of employment, and about horizontal and vertical segregation in employment. Furthermore, it is concerned about: The failure of employers to create sufficiently safe conditions, in line with exemptions to the above-mentioned list provided for by law" (pg 9). "The Committee reiterates its previous concerns that article 170 of the Criminal Code may not provide adequate protection against sexual harassment in the workplace, given that the burden of proof is very heavy in criminal cases, and...more
May 10, 2018, 7:17 p.m.
Countries: Argentina
Variables: ERBG-PRACTICE-1

"The National Women’s Council is running a series of workshops to introduce the gender equality approach in the different governmental and non-governmental organizations. This approach encourages organizations to commit to building relations of gender equality in both the public and private spheres. The workshops are structured according to the issues raised and the goals proposed. The intended beneficiaries are men and women working in civil society and governmental organizations. In accordance with the issues raised and the intended beneficiaries, workshops covering the following areas have been organized to date: women’s rights; sexual and reproductive health; humanized childbirth; new forms of masculinity; training for trainers; strategic planning days; the gender perspective;...more
May 9, 2018, 4:01 p.m.
Countries: Haiti
Variables: ERBG-PRACTICE-1, ERBG-PRACTICE-3

"Women face…persistent horizontal and vertical segregation in the labor market" (11).
May 5, 2018, 3:12 p.m.
Countries: Slovenia
Variables: ERBG-PRACTICE-1

"The Committee is, however, concerned about...The occupational segregation in the labour market, in particular in human sciences, health, social work and education, where women are overrepresented, and in the mining, quarrying and construction industries, where they are underrepresented" (10).
May 4, 2018, 10:03 a.m.
Countries: Australia
Variables: ERBG-PRACTICE-1

"Boosting women’s workforce participation is an economic and social priority for Australia. Under Australia’s G20 Presidency in 2014, G20 leaders agreed to work to reduce the gap in participation rates between men and women in G20 countries by 25 per cent by 2025. Australia is working hard making meaningful progress towards this ambitious goal, and creating the conditions to enable more women to get and keep jobs, work more hours, balance work and caring responsibilities and get into leadership roles" (Pg 2). "Australia engages on gender equality issues through a range of international forums, including the United Nations, the Asia–Pacific Economic Cooperation and the Commonwealth of Nations. Australia also upholds...more
May 1, 2018, 12:39 p.m.
Countries: Egypt
Variables: ERBG-PRACTICE-1

"For example, qualified candidate Omnia Gadallah applied for a judicial position at Egypt's State Council. Though Article 11 of the 2014 constitution guarantees equality between men and women, her application was not accepted for consideration. On Nov. 11, 2017, the Board of Commissioners of the Second Chamber of the Supreme Administrative Court refused to hear a case brought for the appointment of women judges to the council" (para 9).
April 26, 2018, 3:28 p.m.
Countries: Norway
Variables: ERBG-PRACTICE-1

"Women were subject to discrimination in employment" (1). "The law mandates that 40 percent of the members of boards of directors of publicly listed companies be women, and virtually all public companies complied with the law" (11). "The ombudsman for equality and antidiscrimination expressed concern that many women were in part-time positions involuntarily because of a tendency in certain industries, such as health and services, to divide work into a large number of parttime positions with no meaningful opportunity for full-time employment" (17).
April 25, 2018, 3:38 p.m.
Countries: Norway
Variables: ERBG-PRACTICE-1

"Women were subject to discrimination in employment" (1). "The law mandates that 40 percent of the members of boards of directors of publicly listed companies be women, and virtually all public companies complied with the law" (11). "The ombudsman for equality and antidiscrimination expressed concern that many women were in part-time positions involuntarily because of a tendency in certain industries, such as health and services, to divide work into a large number of parttime positions with no meaningful opportunity for full-time employment" (17).