The most comprehensive compilation of information on the status of
women in the world.

Latest items for ERBG-PRACTICE-3

Nov. 30, 2018, 9:44 a.m.
Countries: Cape Verde
Variables: ERBG-PRACTICE-3

"Women generally had lower economic status and less access to management positions in public- and private-sector organizations" (17).
Nov. 26, 2018, 4:14 p.m.
Countries: Turkey
Variables: ERBG-PRACTICE-3

"According to January data from the State Personnel Department, 36.5 percent of individuals employed by state institutions and agencies were women. In the upper levels of the state bureaucracy, 9.8 percent of bureaucrats were women. According to the ILO, women occupied only 12.2 percent of executive positions. According to the EU progress report, women’s access to employment was limited by general promotion of the traditional role of women and inadequate child-care services or services for older persons. Women also were underrepresented in business management and in trade unions" (page 72).
Nov. 12, 2018, 8:37 p.m.
Countries: Kosovo
Variables: ERBG-PRACTICE-3

"Relatively few women occupied upper-level management positions in business, police, or government" (para 122)
Nov. 9, 2018, 11:06 a.m.
Countries: North Korea
Variables: ERBG-PRACTICE-3

"The continued sex-segregation of the workforce, with labour laws and directives assigning specific jobs to women while impeding their access to others, based on perceived characteristics of women as a group and not taking into consideration the individual potential of each woman and impeding the achievement of gender equality at work... Women’s continued limited access to senior positions" (10).
Oct. 31, 2018, 1:23 p.m.
Countries: Japan
Variables: ERBG-PRACTICE-3

"Abe’s government has taken many helpful steps: approving more day-care centers (though nearly 20,000 toddlers are still on waiting lists), passing a law limiting overtime to 100 hours a month, expanding parental leave for women and men alike (though barely 5 percent of new fathers take any leave at all)" (para. 10).
Oct. 28, 2018, 9:21 p.m.
Countries: Ethiopia
Variables: ERBG-PRACTICE-3

"Recent efforts have been made to show women in more prominent posts. Ethiopian Airlines, which calls itself Africa’s largest carrier, has publicized all-female flight crews" (para 10).
Oct. 19, 2018, 7:59 p.m.
Countries: Indonesia
Variables: ERBG-PRACTICE-3

"Women faced discrimination in the workplace, both in hiring and in gaining fair compensation (see section 7.d.)" (para 157). "Women, migrant workers, and persons with disabilities commonly faced discrimination in employment, including often only being offered lower-status jobs" (222). "According to the 2014 World Economic Forum Gender Gap Index, women made 31 percent less than men did for similar work, and approximately 57 percent less overall. Some activists said that in manufacturing, employers relegated women to lower-paying, lower-level jobs" (para 223)
Oct. 3, 2018, 1:31 p.m.
Countries: Honduras
Variables: ERBG-PRACTICE-3

"Female workers in the textile export industries continued to report that they were required to take pregnancy tests as a condition for employment" (para 162)
Sept. 5, 2018, 10:07 a.m.
Countries: Japan
Variables: ERBG-PRACTICE-3

"There also continued to be cases of employers forcing pregnant women to leave their jobs. On September 4, MHLW announced the name of an employer who unfairly dismissed a female employee due to pregnancy and had repeatedly refused to follow the ministry’s corrective guidance. The ministry stated this was the first time it disclosed the name of an employer pursuant to the law. In a separate case, on November 17, the Hiroshima High Court ordered a Hiroshima hospital to pay 1.75 million yen ($16,500) in damages to a physical therapist who was demoted after seeking a lighter workload due to pregnancy" (26).
Sept. 5, 2018, 10:06 a.m.
Countries: Japan
Variables: ERBG-PRACTICE-3

"There also continued to be cases of employers forcing pregnant women to leave their jobs. On September 4, MHLW announced the name of an employer who unfairly dismissed a female employee due to pregnancy and had repeatedly refused to follow the ministry’s corrective guidance. The ministry stated this was the first time it disclosed the name of an employer pursuant to the law. In a separate case, on November 17, the Hiroshima High Court ordered a Hiroshima hospital to pay 1.75 million yen ($16,500) in damages to a physical therapist who was demoted after seeking a lighter workload due to pregnancy" (26).
Sept. 5, 2018, 9:44 a.m.
Countries: Vanuatu
Variables: ERBG-PRACTICE-3

"Discrimination against women was especially common in the attainment of management positions" (17).
Sept. 4, 2018, 10:30 a.m.
Countries: Switzerland
Variables: ERBG-PRACTICE-3

"Discrimination against women in the workplace is illegal, but a disproportionate share of women held jobs with lower levels of responsibility. Employers promoted women less frequently than they did men, and women were less likely to own or manage businesses (see section 7. d.)" (17).
Sept. 4, 2018, 10:28 a.m.
Countries: Solomon Islands
Variables: ERBG-PRACTICE-3

"Discrimination in employment and occupation occurred with respect to women, especially in the attainment of management positions" (16).
Sept. 4, 2018, 10:28 a.m.
Countries: Qatar
Variables: ERBG-PRACTICE-3, ERBG-DATA-2

"Women constituted 36 percent of the overall workforce but only 7 percent of senior officials and managers" (18).
Sept. 4, 2018, 10:27 a.m.
Countries: Papua New Guinea
Variables: ERBG-PRACTICE-3

"Widespread discrimination with respect to women occurred, especially in the attainment of management positions" (23).
Sept. 4, 2018, 10:26 a.m.
Countries: Nepal
Variables: ERBG-PRACTICE-3

"In the formal sector, labor discrimination generally took the form of upper-caste men without disabilities being favored in hiring, promotions, and transfers" (44).
Sept. 4, 2018, 10:22 a.m.
Countries: Mongolia
Variables: ERBG-PRACTICE-3

"The NHRC found that men were more likely than women to be promoted or to be given professional development opportunities" (28).
Sept. 4, 2018, 10:21 a.m.
Countries: Malawi
Variables: ERBG-PRACTICE-3

"Despite the law against discrimination based on gender or marital status, discrimination against women was pervasive, and women did not have opportunities equal to those available to men. Women had significantly lower levels of literacy, education, and formal and nontraditional employment opportunities. Few women participated in the limited formal labor market, and those that did represented only a very small portion of managerial and administrative staff" (26).
Sept. 4, 2018, 10:21 a.m.
Countries: Madagascar
Variables: ERBG-PRACTICE-3

"Labor organizations, however, reported a shift in recent years from paying hourly wages to a piece-rate payment system that negatively affected the conditions of laborers in the textile sector, who primarily were female. The practice, designed to increase productivity, reportedly led to an increase in work-related accidents and negatively affected the health of women. Observers declared many of them unsuitable to occupy these positions by age 40" (30).
Sept. 4, 2018, 10:19 a.m.
Countries: Lithuania
Variables: ERBG-PRACTICE-3

"In 2014 women occupied 31 percent of senior administrative positions at state institutions" (21).
Sept. 4, 2018, 10:15 a.m.
Countries: Greece
Variables: ERBG-PRACTICE-3

"Based on data from the European Commission in January, the average share of women in the boards of the largest listed companies registered in Greece was 8.9 percent" (21).
Aug. 31, 2018, 10:10 a.m.
Countries: United States
Variables: ERBG-PRACTICE-3

“Nationally, 28.8 percent of businesses are women-owned (IWPR 2015b); the large majority are owner-operated and have no other employees (88.3 percent), which is also true for men-owned businesses, although the share of men-owned firms with no other employees is lower” (138)
Aug. 31, 2018, 10:10 a.m.
Countries: United States
Variables: ERBG-PRACTICE-3, LO-PRACTICE-1

“the share of women-owned businesses increased from 26.0 to 28.8 percent [from 2004 to 2015]” (126)
Aug. 31, 2018, 10:10 a.m.
Countries: United States
Variables: ERBG-PRACTICE-3

“Between 1997 and 2007, the proportion and number of women-owned businesses in the United States increased from 26.0 percent (5.4 million businesses) to 28.8 percent (7.8 million businesses; U.S. Small Business7 Administration 2011). Many of these businesses are in industries that employ more women than men. For example, more than six in ten (61 percent) health care and education fi rms are women-owned. In traditionally male-dominated industries, the shares of businesses owned by women are much smaller. Women own only 35 percent of businesses in professional, scientifi c, and technical services; 32 percent in fi nance, insurance, and real estate; 25 percent in manufacturing; and 14 percent in transportation and...more
Aug. 31, 2018, 10:10 a.m.
Countries: United States
Variables: ERBG-PRACTICE-3

“Between 1992 and 2007, charges of pregnancy discrimination filed with the U.S. Equal Employment Opportunity Commission increased by 65 percent” (99)
Aug. 31, 2018, 10:10 a.m.
Countries: United States
Variables: ERBG-PRACTICE-3

“In 1997, women of color—who constitute approximately 35 percent of the female population aged 18 and older (IWPR 2015a)—owned 929,445 businesses in the United States, representing 17 percent of all women-owned firms. By 2014, this number had grown to an estimated 2,934,500, or 32 percent of women-owned firms (American Express Open 2014). Firms owned by black or African American women have experienced the most rapid growth; between 1997 and 2014, African American women-owned firms are estimated to have grown by 296 percent and their revenues to have increased by 265 percent, surpassing the growth among all women-owned firms (which are estimated to have increased in number by 68 percent and...more
Aug. 28, 2018, 10:03 a.m.
Countries: Mali
Variables: ERBG-PRACTICE-2, ERBG-PRACTICE-3

"The Committee is also concerned about the persistent gender wage gap and that women are exposed to high unemployment rates and persistent horizontal and vertical segregation in the labour market in both the public and private sectors" (page 10).
Aug. 15, 2018, 9:40 a.m.
Countries: Montenegro
Variables: ERBG-PRACTICE-3

"According to the Ministry of Education, in preschool institutions there are 3 men and 15 women directors, in primary schools there are 117 men directors and 44 women, in secondary schools there are 40 men and 8 women directors, in educational centres there are 1 man and 1 woman directors, in primary and secondary music schools there are 3 men and 7 women directors, and in 3 resources centres all 3 directors are men" (page 22-23).
Aug. 6, 2018, 2:45 p.m.
Countries: Montenegro
Variables: ERBG-PRACTICE-3

“[There is a] low representation of women in managerial positions and among business owners” (10)
June 28, 2018, 4:51 p.m.
Countries: Tanzania
Variables: ERBG-PRACTICE-3

"[The Committee] is, however, concerned about the low representation of women in decision-making positions at the local level and in management positions on supervisory boards of companies" (page 9).