The most comprehensive compilation of information on the status of
women in the world.

Latest items for ERBG-PRACTICE-3

Sept. 5, 2018, 10:07 a.m.
Countries: Japan
Variables: ERBG-PRACTICE-3

"There also continued to be cases of employers forcing pregnant women to leave their jobs. On September 4, MHLW announced the name of an employer who unfairly dismissed a female employee due to pregnancy and had repeatedly refused to follow the ministry’s corrective guidance. The ministry stated this was the first time it disclosed the name of an employer pursuant to the law. In a separate case, on November 17, the Hiroshima High Court ordered a Hiroshima hospital to pay 1.75 million yen ($16,500) in damages to a physical therapist who was demoted after seeking a lighter workload due to pregnancy" (26).
Sept. 5, 2018, 10:06 a.m.
Countries: Japan
Variables: ERBG-PRACTICE-3

"There also continued to be cases of employers forcing pregnant women to leave their jobs. On September 4, MHLW announced the name of an employer who unfairly dismissed a female employee due to pregnancy and had repeatedly refused to follow the ministry’s corrective guidance. The ministry stated this was the first time it disclosed the name of an employer pursuant to the law. In a separate case, on November 17, the Hiroshima High Court ordered a Hiroshima hospital to pay 1.75 million yen ($16,500) in damages to a physical therapist who was demoted after seeking a lighter workload due to pregnancy" (26).
Sept. 5, 2018, 9:44 a.m.
Countries: Vanuatu
Variables: ERBG-PRACTICE-3

"Discrimination against women was especially common in the attainment of management positions" (17).
Sept. 4, 2018, 10:30 a.m.
Countries: Switzerland
Variables: ERBG-PRACTICE-3

"Discrimination against women in the workplace is illegal, but a disproportionate share of women held jobs with lower levels of responsibility. Employers promoted women less frequently than they did men, and women were less likely to own or manage businesses (see section 7. d.)" (17).
Sept. 4, 2018, 10:28 a.m.
Countries: Solomon Islands
Variables: ERBG-PRACTICE-3

"Discrimination in employment and occupation occurred with respect to women, especially in the attainment of management positions" (16).
Sept. 4, 2018, 10:28 a.m.
Countries: Qatar
Variables: ERBG-PRACTICE-3, ERBG-DATA-2

"Women constituted 36 percent of the overall workforce but only 7 percent of senior officials and managers" (18).
Sept. 4, 2018, 10:27 a.m.
Countries: Papua New Guinea
Variables: ERBG-PRACTICE-3

"Widespread discrimination with respect to women occurred, especially in the attainment of management positions" (23).
Sept. 4, 2018, 10:26 a.m.
Countries: Nepal
Variables: ERBG-PRACTICE-3

"In the formal sector, labor discrimination generally took the form of upper-caste men without disabilities being favored in hiring, promotions, and transfers" (44).
Sept. 4, 2018, 10:22 a.m.
Countries: Mongolia
Variables: ERBG-PRACTICE-3

"The NHRC found that men were more likely than women to be promoted or to be given professional development opportunities" (28).
Sept. 4, 2018, 10:21 a.m.
Countries: Malawi
Variables: ERBG-PRACTICE-3

"Despite the law against discrimination based on gender or marital status, discrimination against women was pervasive, and women did not have opportunities equal to those available to men. Women had significantly lower levels of literacy, education, and formal and nontraditional employment opportunities. Few women participated in the limited formal labor market, and those that did represented only a very small portion of managerial and administrative staff" (26).
Sept. 4, 2018, 10:21 a.m.
Countries: Madagascar
Variables: ERBG-PRACTICE-3

"Labor organizations, however, reported a shift in recent years from paying hourly wages to a piece-rate payment system that negatively affected the conditions of laborers in the textile sector, who primarily were female. The practice, designed to increase productivity, reportedly led to an increase in work-related accidents and negatively affected the health of women. Observers declared many of them unsuitable to occupy these positions by age 40" (30).
Sept. 4, 2018, 10:19 a.m.
Countries: Lithuania
Variables: ERBG-PRACTICE-3

"In 2014 women occupied 31 percent of senior administrative positions at state institutions" (21).
Sept. 4, 2018, 10:15 a.m.
Countries: Greece
Variables: ERBG-PRACTICE-3

"Based on data from the European Commission in January, the average share of women in the boards of the largest listed companies registered in Greece was 8.9 percent" (21).
Aug. 31, 2018, 10:10 a.m.
Countries: United States
Variables: ERBG-PRACTICE-3

“Nationally, 28.8 percent of businesses are women-owned (IWPR 2015b); the large majority are owner-operated and have no other employees (88.3 percent), which is also true for men-owned businesses, although the share of men-owned firms with no other employees is lower” (138)
Aug. 31, 2018, 10:10 a.m.
Countries: United States
Variables: ERBG-PRACTICE-3, LO-PRACTICE-1

“the share of women-owned businesses increased from 26.0 to 28.8 percent [from 2004 to 2015]” (126)
Aug. 31, 2018, 10:10 a.m.
Countries: United States
Variables: ERBG-PRACTICE-3

“Between 1997 and 2007, the proportion and number of women-owned businesses in the United States increased from 26.0 percent (5.4 million businesses) to 28.8 percent (7.8 million businesses; U.S. Small Business7 Administration 2011). Many of these businesses are in industries that employ more women than men. For example, more than six in ten (61 percent) health care and education fi rms are women-owned. In traditionally male-dominated industries, the shares of businesses owned by women are much smaller. Women own only 35 percent of businesses in professional, scientifi c, and technical services; 32 percent in fi nance, insurance, and real estate; 25 percent in manufacturing; and 14 percent in transportation and...more
Aug. 31, 2018, 10:10 a.m.
Countries: United States
Variables: ERBG-PRACTICE-3

“Between 1992 and 2007, charges of pregnancy discrimination filed with the U.S. Equal Employment Opportunity Commission increased by 65 percent” (99)
Aug. 31, 2018, 10:10 a.m.
Countries: United States
Variables: ERBG-PRACTICE-3

“In 1997, women of color—who constitute approximately 35 percent of the female population aged 18 and older (IWPR 2015a)—owned 929,445 businesses in the United States, representing 17 percent of all women-owned firms. By 2014, this number had grown to an estimated 2,934,500, or 32 percent of women-owned firms (American Express Open 2014). Firms owned by black or African American women have experienced the most rapid growth; between 1997 and 2014, African American women-owned firms are estimated to have grown by 296 percent and their revenues to have increased by 265 percent, surpassing the growth among all women-owned firms (which are estimated to have increased in number by 68 percent and...more
Aug. 28, 2018, 10:03 a.m.
Countries: Mali
Variables: ERBG-PRACTICE-2, ERBG-PRACTICE-3

"The Committee is also concerned about the persistent gender wage gap and that women are exposed to high unemployment rates and persistent horizontal and vertical segregation in the labour market in both the public and private sectors" (page 10).
Aug. 15, 2018, 9:40 a.m.
Countries: Montenegro
Variables: ERBG-PRACTICE-3

"According to the Ministry of Education, in preschool institutions there are 3 men and 15 women directors, in primary schools there are 117 men directors and 44 women, in secondary schools there are 40 men and 8 women directors, in educational centres there are 1 man and 1 woman directors, in primary and secondary music schools there are 3 men and 7 women directors, and in 3 resources centres all 3 directors are men" (page 22-23).
Aug. 6, 2018, 2:45 p.m.
Countries: Montenegro
Variables: ERBG-PRACTICE-3

“[There is a] low representation of women in managerial positions and among business owners” (10)
June 28, 2018, 4:51 p.m.
Countries: Tanzania
Variables: ERBG-PRACTICE-3

"[The Committee] is, however, concerned about the low representation of women in decision-making positions at the local level and in management positions on supervisory boards of companies" (page 9).
June 26, 2018, 9:09 a.m.
Countries: New Zealand
Variables: ERBG-PRACTICE-3

"The number of women chief executives has increased in this reporting period. As at 30 June 2015, 41 per cent (12 of 29) of chief executives were women compared with 24.1 per cent in 2012. Women occupied 44.2 per cent of senior leadership positions in the public service (the top three tiers of management) as at 30 June 2015" (page 12). "Women comprise almost 60 per cent of employees in law firms, 47 per cent of lawyers, but only 26 per cent of partners or directors. The New Zealand Law Society has made the advancement of women one of its key priorities" (page 13). "Women made up 17 per cent...more
June 7, 2018, 8:49 a.m.
Countries: Brazil
Variables: ERBG-PRACTICE-3

"Yet these patients, most of whom were women, also told me that living without beauty in Brazil was to take an even bigger risk. Beauty is perceived as being so central for the job market, so crucial for finding a spouse and so essential for any chances at upward mobility that many can’t say no to these surgeries" (Para 5). This implies that women are held to a certain standard of beauty in order to move ahead in their career rather than being judged based on their qualifications (EJ-Coder Comment).
June 3, 2018, 5:28 p.m.
Countries: Russia
Variables: ERBG-PRACTICE-3

"Discrimination based on gender in compensation, professional training, hiring, and dismissal were characteristic of the labor market. Employers often preferred to hire men to save on maternity and child-care costs and avoid the perceived unreliability associated with women with small children," (70).
May 9, 2018, 4:01 p.m.
Countries: Haiti
Variables: ERBG-PRACTICE-1, ERBG-PRACTICE-3

"Women face…persistent horizontal and vertical segregation in the labor market" (11).
May 4, 2018, 10:52 a.m.
Countries: South Korea
Variables: ERBG-PRACTICE-3, ERBG-DATA-2

"Women made up 2.3 percent of corporate executives at 348 of the largest 500 companies in South Korea in 2015" (pp 11)
May 4, 2018, 10:03 a.m.
Countries: Australia
Variables: ERBG-PRACTICE-3

"In 2014, the percentage of women on Australian Securities Exchange (ASX) 200 boards was 19.3 per cent. In 2014 6.1 per cent of women held a CEO position in the ASX 200 companies. The percentage of women on ASX 200 boards increased significantly between 2010 and 2014 from 10.7 per cent to 19.3 per cent. Women comprised 30 per cent of new appointments to ASX 200 boards over 2013–14. Since 2011 the ASX has required listed companies to disclose the extent to which they have followed its gender diversity recommendations. Under the If not, why not policy, where companies have not followed all of the recommendations, they must explain why....more
April 20, 2018, 1:18 a.m.
Countries: Spain
Variables: ERBG-PRACTICE-3

“The Committee is concerned that the austerity measures introduced in response to the economic and financial crisis have had a severe and disproportionate impact on women, in particular women with disabilities, older women and women domestic workers. Women have faced unemployment, reductions in social security and dependent care payments, wage freezes and the transformation of full-time jobs into part-time jobs with overtime hours. It is particularly concerned about the following issues: (a) The persistent gender wage gap, which at 17.8 per cent is higher than the average in the European Union; vertical and horizontal segregation in the labour market; and the concentration of women in part-time work, which adversely affects...more
April 14, 2018, 3:43 p.m.
Countries: Switzerland
Variables: ERBG-PRACTICE-3, DMW-PRACTICE-1

"The persistence of horizontal and vertical occupational segregation; the concentration of women in the lower-paid service sectors and in temporary and part-time work, owing to their traditional role as caregivers for children; women’s underrepresentation in managerial positions in companies and the lack of part-time opportunities in high-level positions; and the significant discrimination against part-time employees in relation to invalidity insurance" (Pg 13).