The most comprehensive compilation of information on the status of
women in the world.

Latest items for ERBG-PRACTICE-3

Aug. 13, 2020, 5:50 p.m.
Countries: South Korea
Variables: ERBG-PRACTICE-3

"A relatively small proportion of women occupy decision-making positions in the business, political, and public sectors, and there is a 35 percent wage gap between men and women. The Economist magazine’s 'Glass Ceiling Index,' which evaluates women’s higher education, women in managerial positions, and number of female members in parliament, gives South Korea the lowest rank among countries that belong to the Organization for Economic Co-operation and Development (OECD)" (para. 3).
July 26, 2020, 9:25 p.m.
Countries: Japan
Variables: ERBG-PRACTICE-3

"A key focus of Abe's womenomics policy has been the so-called 30% targets, which aim to increase the presence of women in leadership positions to 30% by 2020. It is important to note that the 30% targets are not new policy initiatives. Rather, they have been a key strategy of the Gender Equality Bureau, a division of the Japanese Cabinet Office, since its establishment in 2001 during a shake-up of government ministries. In 2005, the Gender Equality Bureau announced its Second Basic Plan for Gender Equality with the aim: "to expand women's participation in every field so that women will have at least 30% of the leadership positions in all...more
June 28, 2020, 5:16 p.m.
Countries: United States
Variables: ERBG-PRACTICE-3

The figure titled "Roughly four-in-ten working women say they've experienced gender discrimination at work" shows the percentage of adults who have experienced workplace discrimination because of their gender. The figure shows that 5% of men and 10% of women had been passed over for the most important assignments, 5% of men and 7% of women had been denied a promotion because of their gender, and 4% of men and 7% of women had been turned down for a job because of their gender (para 4).
June 23, 2020, 5:54 p.m.
Countries: Estonia
Variables: ERBG-PRACTICE-3

"The significant underrepresentation of women in management positions in private companies" (9).
June 23, 2020, 5:49 p.m.
Countries: Serbia
Variables: ERBG-PRACTICE-3

"Out of the 2,050 employees in the Administration of the City of Belgrade, 1,241 are women (60 per cent). The gender structure of middle and higher management is biased towards women, with 268 women (63.8 per cent) compared with 171 men (36.2 per cent). Out of this number of women in managerial positions, 259 have higher education qualifications" (27).
May 31, 2020, 4:27 p.m.
Countries: North Korea
Variables: ERBG-PRACTICE-3

"The proportion of women leaders of institutions, enterprises and organizations remarkably increased. For instance the newly organized units in the sectors of education and foodstuff and daily necessaries during the reporting period are mostly headed by women. Organizations like the Korea Education Fund, the Korea Association for Supporting the Children and the Fund for Children with Disabilities and Orphans are staffed mainly by women" (15).
Feb. 21, 2020, 3:29 p.m.
Countries: Guyana
Variables: ERBG-PRACTICE-3

Table 7 shows the number of women on boards and state bodies. In th Bank of Guyana, 2 out of 7 members are women (28%), on the bureau of statistics 3 out of 5 members are women (60%), on the Central Board of Health 9 out of 15 members are women (60%), on the Custom Tariff Tribunal 1 out of 7 members are women (14%), on the Dependent's Pension Fund 2 out of 7 members are women (28%), on the Guyana Fisheries 1 out of 9 members are women (11%), on the Guyana Gold Board of Directors 4 out of 8 members are women (50%), on the Guyana Gold Board...more
Feb. 15, 2020, 9:16 p.m.
Countries: Italy
Variables: ERBG-PRACTICE-3

"Relevant development cooperation initiatives have been also carried out in various priority countries. The commitment to recognise VAW as a human rights issue, to challenge de jure and de facto discrimination against women and to end impunity for the widespread use of sexual violence in war and armed conflict has been strengthened after 2009 when Italy launched the first G8 initiative against VAW. Since then, the support against THB, FGM, CEFM and GBV has been strengthened both at the political and financial levels." (para 62).
Jan. 2, 2020, 4:16 p.m.
Countries: United Kingdom
Variables: ERBG-PRACTICE-3

"It said ‘women are progressively delaying childbearing to older ages’ and are now most likely to have children in their 30s. This is because women are more likely to go to university and delay marriage while they pursue their careers” (para 5-6). Women delaying marriage and childbearing to pursue their careers signals to us that women who are married and have kids are disadvantaged in hiring and promotion (CEM - CODER COMMENT). "It listed reasons for postponing having a family as ‘greater participation in higher education’, ‘delaying marriage and partnership formation’, ‘wanting to have a longer working career before starting a family’ and ‘labour market uncertainty and the threat of...more
Dec. 8, 2019, 8:28 p.m.
Countries: China
Variables: ERBG-PRACTICE-3

"The latest survey of the social status of Chinese women shows that women in secondary and tertiary industries grew by 25 percentage points in comparison with 10 years ago, and that female heads of various departments, professional and technical personnel, and clerical and related personnel increased by 13 percentage points. In 2013, the number of middle-ranking and senior female professional and technical personnel reached 6.61 million, or 44.1 percent of the total in this category, an increase of 9 percentage points from that of 2000" (para. 14).
Oct. 1, 2019, 2:44 p.m.
Countries: Philippines
Variables: ERBG-PRACTICE-3

"Women continued to face discrimination on the job as well as in hiring" (27). "Women faced discrimination both in hiring and on the job" (38). "Although women faced workplace discrimination, they continued to occupy positions at all levels of the workforce" (39).
Sept. 17, 2019, 10:05 p.m.
Countries: China
Variables: ERBG-PRACTICE-3

"As a married woman without children, she would have to sign a “special agreement” promising not to get pregnant for two years. If she broke that promise, the company said, she could be fired, without compensation." (para 3). "As a result, opportunities for women to advance to company leadership roles have stagnated in recent years. Only 21 percent of Chinese companies had women in top manager roles last year, according to the World Economic Forum’s gender gap report." (para 32).
July 31, 2019, 6:50 p.m.
Countries: Saudi Arabia
Variables: ERBG-PRACTICE-3

"Women were routinely excluded from formal decision-making positions in both government and the private sector, although some women attained leadership positions in business and served in senior advisory positions within government ministries" (36-37).
July 20, 2019, 10:39 p.m.
Countries: Armenia
Variables: ERBG-PRACTICE-3

"The Committee notes with concern the low representation of women in management positions and the persistent gender wage gap" (9).
July 18, 2019, 10:36 p.m.
Countries: Slovakia
Variables: ERBG-PRACTICE-3

"That significant horizontal and vertical gender segregation exists in the labour market, including the persistently low representation of women compared with men in economic decision-making positions, such as on the supervisory board of companies and in executive positions, and that the size of the gender pay gap remains large, women’s high levels of education notwithstanding" (8).
July 12, 2019, 8:51 a.m.
Countries: Cambodia
Variables: ERBG-PRACTICE-3

"As of mid-2016, women made up 12 per cent of Provincial/Capital managerial positions and 22 per cent of District/Municipal/Khan level managerial positions. In 2017, the first female provincial governor, one female chair of a provincial council and six female chairs of District/Khan councils were appointed. The proportion of women in the civil service increased to 40 per cent in 2016, up from 38 per cent in 2014. However, the proportion of women’s representation in the decision-making levels is lower at 22 per cent. There are still challenges in recruiting women for positions in fields of engineering and Information Technology (IT) at the national level, as well as for leadership and...more
July 9, 2019, 4:36 p.m.
Countries: Serbia
Variables: ERBG-PRACTICE-3

"A study by the Center for Free Elections and Democracy found discrimination was most frequent in hiring and employment, with the state and its institutions as the major discriminators. The law provides for equal pay, but employers frequently did not observe these provisions. Women earned on average 20 percent less per month than their male counterparts, their career advancement was slower, and they were underrepresented in most professions" (page 33).
July 9, 2019, 10:16 a.m.
Countries: Romania
Variables: ERBG-PRACTICE-3

"The low participation of women in the private sector, especially in senior management positions and on the boards of private companies" (10).
July 8, 2019, 1:19 p.m.
Countries: Uganda
Variables: ERBG-PRACTICE-3, ERBG-PRACTICE-4

"Women experienced discrimination in access to employment, credit, and income, and were underrepresented in business ownership and senior or managerial positions (see section 7.d.). According to the International Labor Organization’s (ILO’s) 2015 report on “Women in Business and Management,” women held 20 percent of management positions. The World Bank 2014 Enterprise Survey indicated 15 percent of firms were headed by women" (Pg 29-30).
July 3, 2019, 11:11 a.m.
Countries: Albania
Variables: ERBG-PRACTICE-3

"Women were underrepresented in many fields at the highest levels" (page 18).
July 2, 2019, 12:52 p.m.
Countries: Sudan
Variables: ERBG-PRACTICE-1, ERBG-PRACTICE-3, LO-PRACTICE-1, EWCMS-DATA-1

"In addition to housing and education discrimination, women experienced economic discrimination in access to employment, equal pay for substantially similar work, credit, and owning or managing businesses" (Pg 66).
June 26, 2019, 11:12 a.m.
Countries: Somalia
Variables: ERBG-PRACTICE-3, ERBG-PRACTICE-4, ERBG-LAW-1

"The law requires equal pay for equal work. Women formed a negligible part of those employed in both the formal public and private sectors because of girls’ low education level. Women were not subject to discrimination in owning or managing businesses, except in al-Shabaab-controlled areas. Al-Shabaab claimed women’s participation in economic activities was anti-Islamic" (Pg 35).
June 24, 2019, 11:18 a.m.
Countries: Cyprus
Variables: ERBG-PRACTICE-3, ERBG-PRACTICE-4, LO-PRACTICE-1, LO-LAW-1

"Women generally have the same legal status and rights as men under family law, property law, employment/labor law, and inheritance laws. The law requires equal pay for equal work or work of equal value. Women experienced discrimination in such areas as employment, credit, pay, owning or managing businesses, education, and housing" (Pg 19-20).
June 17, 2019, 3:53 p.m.
Countries: Iceland
Variables: ERBG-PRACTICE-3, ERBG-DATA-1

"The persistent gender wage gap that over the past years has remained at between 7 and 18 per cent and the limited scope of application of article 19 of the Act on Equal Status and Equal Rights of Women and Men, which provides that the equal pay principle applies only to women and men working for “the same employer”". (para 29).
June 14, 2019, 2:55 p.m.
Countries: Nigeria
Variables: ERBG-PRACTICE-3

"Although the constitution provides the same legal status and rights for women as for men, women experienced considerable economic discrimination. The law does not mandate equal remuneration for work of equal value, and the law does not mandate nondiscrimination based on gender in hiring. No laws bar women from particular fields of employment, but women reportedly could not work in heavy manufacturing and construction in the same way as men. Women often experienced discrimination under traditional and religious practices (see section 7.d.)" (Pg 35). "Gender-based discrimination in employment and occupation occurred (see section 6, Women). No laws bar women from particular fields of employment, but women often experienced discrimination under...more
June 11, 2019, 12:13 p.m.
Countries: China
Variables: ERBG-PRACTICE-3

"Women also continued to be underrepresented in leadership positions, despite their high rate of participation in the labor force" (56)
June 11, 2019, 11:54 a.m.
Countries: Namibia
Variables: ERBG-PRACTICE-3, LO-PRACTICE-1, AFE-PRACTICE-1

"The law prohibits gender-based discrimination, including employment discrimination. Women nonetheless experienced discrimination in such areas as obtaining credit, salary level, owning and managing businesses, education, and housing (see section 7.d.)" (Pg 15).
June 11, 2019, 9:13 a.m.
Countries: Montenegro
Variables: ERBG-PRACTICE-3

Widespread discriminatory cultural norms prevented women from participating equally in all areas of social development and generally discouraged them from seeking work outside the home. Employers at times violated women’s entitlement to a 40-hour workweek, overtime, paid leave, and maternity leave. Societal expectations regarding women’s obligations toward the family adversely affected their opportunities to obtain jobs and advance in the workplace (also see section 7.d.) (Pg 26). "Women were at times subject to discrimination based on their marital status, pregnancy, and physical appearance. Employers did not respect all of their legal obligations toward pregnant women, and sometimes reduced their responsibilities or fired them after they returned from maternity leave. A...more
June 8, 2019, 1:59 p.m.
Countries: Jordan
Variables: ERBG-PRACTICE-3

"Many women also reported traditional social pressures discouraged some from pursuing professional careers, especially after marriage" (42).
June 7, 2019, 2:07 p.m.
Countries: Cape Verde
Variables: ERBG-PRACTICE-3

"Data from the most recent employment survey (INE, 2016) indicate that the proportion of women in the category legislative and executive representatives, directors and executive managers is 43.3 per cent" (17). "Resolution 80/2014 (7 October), establishes the core principles for public enterprise management, aimed at improved transparency and efficiency, for the 2014–2016 term: among others, managers are to develop and implement equality plans to promote equality of opportunities and treatment between men and women, the elimination of discrimination, and the conciliation of work and family life" (39).