The most comprehensive compilation of information on the status of
women in the world.

Latest items for ERBG-PRACTICE-3

July 31, 2019, 6:50 p.m.
Countries: Saudi Arabia
Variables: ERBG-PRACTICE-3

"Women were routinely excluded from formal decision-making positions in both government and the private sector, although some women attained leadership positions in business and served in senior advisory positions within government ministries" (36-37).
July 20, 2019, 10:39 p.m.
Countries: Armenia
Variables: ERBG-PRACTICE-3

"The Committee notes with concern the low representation of women in management positions and the persistent gender wage gap" (9).
July 18, 2019, 10:36 p.m.
Countries: Slovakia
Variables: ERBG-PRACTICE-3

"That significant horizontal and vertical gender segregation exists in the labour market, including the persistently low representation of women compared with men in economic decision-making positions, such as on the supervisory board of companies and in executive positions, and that the size of the gender pay gap remains large, women’s high levels of education notwithstanding" (8).
July 12, 2019, 8:51 a.m.
Countries: Cambodia
Variables: ERBG-PRACTICE-3

"As of mid-2016, women made up 12 per cent of Provincial/Capital managerial positions and 22 per cent of District/Municipal/Khan level managerial positions. In 2017, the first female provincial governor, one female chair of a provincial council and six female chairs of District/Khan councils were appointed. The proportion of women in the civil service increased to 40 per cent in 2016, up from 38 per cent in 2014. However, the proportion of women’s representation in the decision-making levels is lower at 22 per cent. There are still challenges in recruiting women for positions in fields of engineering and Information Technology (IT) at the national level, as well as for leadership and...more
July 9, 2019, 4:36 p.m.
Countries: Serbia
Variables: ERBG-PRACTICE-3

"A study by the Center for Free Elections and Democracy found discrimination was most frequent in hiring and employment, with the state and its institutions as the major discriminators. The law provides for equal pay, but employers frequently did not observe these provisions. Women earned on average 20 percent less per month than their male counterparts, their career advancement was slower, and they were underrepresented in most professions" (page 33).
July 9, 2019, 10:16 a.m.
Countries: Romania
Variables: ERBG-PRACTICE-3

"The low participation of women in the private sector, especially in senior management positions and on the boards of private companies" (10).
July 8, 2019, 1:19 p.m.
Countries: Uganda
Variables: ERBG-PRACTICE-3, ERBG-PRACTICE-4

"Women experienced discrimination in access to employment, credit, and income, and were underrepresented in business ownership and senior or managerial positions (see section 7.d.). According to the International Labor Organization’s (ILO’s) 2015 report on “Women in Business and Management,” women held 20 percent of management positions. The World Bank 2014 Enterprise Survey indicated 15 percent of firms were headed by women" (Pg 29-30).
July 3, 2019, 11:11 a.m.
Countries: Albania
Variables: ERBG-PRACTICE-3

"Women were underrepresented in many fields at the highest levels" (page 18).
July 2, 2019, 12:52 p.m.
Countries: Sudan
Variables: ERBG-PRACTICE-1, ERBG-PRACTICE-3, LO-PRACTICE-1, EWCMS-DATA-1

"In addition to housing and education discrimination, women experienced economic discrimination in access to employment, equal pay for substantially similar work, credit, and owning or managing businesses" (Pg 66).
June 26, 2019, 11:12 a.m.
Countries: Somalia
Variables: ERBG-PRACTICE-3, ERBG-PRACTICE-4, ERBG-LAW-1

"The law requires equal pay for equal work. Women formed a negligible part of those employed in both the formal public and private sectors because of girls’ low education level. Women were not subject to discrimination in owning or managing businesses, except in al-Shabaab-controlled areas. Al-Shabaab claimed women’s participation in economic activities was anti-Islamic" (Pg 35).
June 24, 2019, 11:18 a.m.
Countries: Cyprus
Variables: ERBG-PRACTICE-3, ERBG-PRACTICE-4, LO-PRACTICE-1, LO-LAW-1

"Women generally have the same legal status and rights as men under family law, property law, employment/labor law, and inheritance laws. The law requires equal pay for equal work or work of equal value. Women experienced discrimination in such areas as employment, credit, pay, owning or managing businesses, education, and housing" (Pg 19-20).
June 17, 2019, 3:53 p.m.
Countries: Iceland
Variables: ERBG-PRACTICE-3, ERBG-DATA-1

"The persistent gender wage gap that over the past years has remained at between 7 and 18 per cent and the limited scope of application of article 19 of the Act on Equal Status and Equal Rights of Women and Men, which provides that the equal pay principle applies only to women and men working for “the same employer”". (para 29).
June 14, 2019, 2:55 p.m.
Countries: Nigeria
Variables: ERBG-PRACTICE-3

"Although the constitution provides the same legal status and rights for women as for men, women experienced considerable economic discrimination. The law does not mandate equal remuneration for work of equal value, and the law does not mandate nondiscrimination based on gender in hiring. No laws bar women from particular fields of employment, but women reportedly could not work in heavy manufacturing and construction in the same way as men. Women often experienced discrimination under traditional and religious practices (see section 7.d.)" (Pg 35). "Gender-based discrimination in employment and occupation occurred (see section 6, Women). No laws bar women from particular fields of employment, but women often experienced discrimination under...more
June 11, 2019, 12:13 p.m.
Countries: China
Variables: ERBG-PRACTICE-3

"Women also continued to be underrepresented in leadership positions, despite their high rate of participation in the labor force" (56)
June 11, 2019, 11:54 a.m.
Countries: Namibia
Variables: ERBG-PRACTICE-3, LO-PRACTICE-1, AFE-PRACTICE-1

"The law prohibits gender-based discrimination, including employment discrimination. Women nonetheless experienced discrimination in such areas as obtaining credit, salary level, owning and managing businesses, education, and housing (see section 7.d.)" (Pg 15).
June 11, 2019, 9:13 a.m.
Countries: Montenegro
Variables: ERBG-PRACTICE-3

Widespread discriminatory cultural norms prevented women from participating equally in all areas of social development and generally discouraged them from seeking work outside the home. Employers at times violated women’s entitlement to a 40-hour workweek, overtime, paid leave, and maternity leave. Societal expectations regarding women’s obligations toward the family adversely affected their opportunities to obtain jobs and advance in the workplace (also see section 7.d.) (Pg 26). "Women were at times subject to discrimination based on their marital status, pregnancy, and physical appearance. Employers did not respect all of their legal obligations toward pregnant women, and sometimes reduced their responsibilities or fired them after they returned from maternity leave. A...more
June 8, 2019, 1:59 p.m.
Countries: Jordan
Variables: ERBG-PRACTICE-3

"Many women also reported traditional social pressures discouraged some from pursuing professional careers, especially after marriage" (42).
June 7, 2019, 2:07 p.m.
Countries: Cape Verde
Variables: ERBG-PRACTICE-3

"Data from the most recent employment survey (INE, 2016) indicate that the proportion of women in the category legislative and executive representatives, directors and executive managers is 43.3 per cent" (17). "Resolution 80/2014 (7 October), establishes the core principles for public enterprise management, aimed at improved transparency and efficiency, for the 2014–2016 term: among others, managers are to develop and implement equality plans to promote equality of opportunities and treatment between men and women, the elimination of discrimination, and the conciliation of work and family life" (39).
June 4, 2019, 4:55 p.m.
Countries: Austria
Variables: ERBG-PRACTICE-3

"According to an annual study of the top 200 enterprises conducted by the Chamber of Labour, the representation of women in leadership and decision-making positions in the private sector is slowly increasing. In 2011, 4.4 per cent of CEOs and 10.3 per cent of supervisory board members were women. These numbers increased to 7.2 per cent and 17.7 per cent respectively by January 2016. There is no legal requirement for gender parity in leadership and decision-making positions in the private sector" (8). "The leadership programme Future.women prepares women who are potential candidates for leadership positions in their company for management and supervisory board positions. A publicly accessible database for female...more
May 28, 2019, 9:33 p.m.
Countries: Sweden
Variables: ERBG-PRACTICE-3

"It also notes that the State party plans to propose legislation on quotas, if the objective of achieving a level of women’s representation on the management boards of private companies of at least 40 per cent has not been achieved by 2016. Nevertheless, the Committee remains concerned at the low number of women in leadership positions in academia, in top management positions and on the boards of private companies" (6).
May 28, 2019, 8:37 p.m.
Countries: Norway
Variables: ERBG-PRACTICE-3

"The law mandates that 40 percent of the members of boards of directors of publicly listed companies be women, and virtually all public companies complied with the law" (p. 10).
May 27, 2019, 1:48 p.m.
Countries: Netherlands
Variables: ERBG-PRACTICE-3

"The Committee commends the State party for the adoption of amendments to book 2 of the Civil Code in 2013, which set out a minimum target of 30 per cent representation of women on the management and supervisory boards of large companies. Nevertheless, the Committee notes with concern that temporary special measures have not been adopted to accelerate de facto equality between women and men in other areas covered by the Convention, in particular with regard to education and the participation of women in political and public life" (4).
May 24, 2019, 2:09 a.m.
Countries: Japan
Variables: ERBG-PRACTICE-3

"Hiroko Miyashita, president of Yokohama-based Maternity Harassment Prevention Network, said: 'If a woman in Japan becomes pregnant, they are almost seen as damaged goods in their workplaces. They are seen to no longer be as productive as those without children' (para 29).
May 15, 2019, 7:58 p.m.
Countries: Cambodia
Variables: ERBG-PRACTICE-3

"BFC reported that in the garment and footwear sector, factory management discriminated heavily against men with respect to hiring and benefits, generally without legal consequence" (36).
May 13, 2019, 2:21 p.m.
Countries: Germany
Variables: ERBG-PRACTICE-3

"Women continue to be underrepresented in decision-making and senior management positions at all levels of the education system, notwithstanding the welcome measures that have been adopted at the university level" (12).
May 12, 2019, 5:42 p.m.
Countries: Ireland
Variables: ERBG-PRACTICE-3, ERBG-DATA-1

"Inequalities in pay and promotions persisted in both the public and private sectors" (12).
May 9, 2019, 3:13 p.m.
Countries: Guyana
Variables: ERBG-PRACTICE-3

"Consistent with this view, the World Bank’s Enterprise Survey (2010) also found that women are underrepresented in private sector firms’ top management with a mere 17 percent as managers. However female participation in ownership of private firms is significantly higher with 58 percent" (29).
April 27, 2019, 9:12 p.m.
Countries: Switzerland
Variables: ERBG-PRACTICE-3

"The Committee notes as positive the measures taken to advance the achievement of substantive equality in the State party; however, it remains concerned about the underrepresentation of women in extraparliamentary commissions and other bodies, governing bodies of companies and institutions closely connected with the Federation, as well as their underrepresentation in high-level management and decision-making positions" (6). "The Committee notes as positive the measures taken by the State party to reconcile family and work life, but notes with concern: (...) (b) The persistence of horizontal and vertical occupational segregation; the concentration of women in the lower-paid service sectors and in temporary and part-time work, owing to their traditional role as...more
April 25, 2019, 8:30 a.m.
Countries: Zimbabwe
Variables: ERBG-PRACTICE-3

"There was a relative lack of women in decision-making positions, despite a constitutional requirement that both genders be equally represented in all institutions and agencies of government at every level" (50).
April 19, 2019, 9:51 a.m.
Countries: Bosnia-Herzegovina
Variables: ERBG-PRACTICE-3

"However, in BiH AF, the percentage of women’s participation in management positions is still very low (2.5 per cent), as is the case in security sector and police structures at all levels of government. Women are mostly represented at middle management levels, while the minimum representation is at the top management positions" (24-25). "Period of women’s waiting for the first job is significantly longer than in case of men, there are prolonged interruptions of periods of employment due to maternity leave and care for elderly or sick, and inability to find work at a mature age due to changes in needs of the labour market. In comparison to other countries...more