The most comprehensive compilation of information on the status of
women in the world.

Latest items for EWCMS-LAW-1

Oct. 19, 2018, 7:59 p.m.
Countries: Indonesia
Variables: EWCMS-LAW-1, EWCMS-LAW-4

"Female police and military recruits were subject to invasive virginity testing as a condition of employment, including digital pelvic probes that many activists claimed were painful, degrading, and discriminatory (and also not medically accurate). Despite widespread public outcry, police and military officials defended the practice" (para 224)
Oct. 12, 2018, 12:31 p.m.
Countries: Saudi Arabia
Variables: EWCMS-LAW-1

"Women are to be allowed to serve in Saudi Arabia’s armed forces for the first time after King Salman issued a raft of royal decrees to radically shake up the country’s military" (para 1). "The Interior Ministry’s General Security division is to start accepting applications from women interested in serving in the army and police. Necessary requirements include a high school degree and the permission of a woman’s male guardian, who must live and work in the same region she has applied" (para 4-5).
Sept. 12, 2018, 9:50 p.m.
Countries: Eritrea
Variables: EWCMS-LAW-1

"In practice national service impacted the choices of men and women to marry freely and have children. For example, some girls and women reportedly married and had children to avoid national service or being mobilized" (para 51). "The government requires all students who reach the final year of secondary school to attend grade 12 at the Sawa National Education and Training Center. Students who did not do so could not graduate and therefore could not pursue higher education, although they could attend vocational schools" (para 113)
Sept. 6, 2018, 4:27 p.m.
Countries: United States
Variables: EWCMS-LAW-1

"The first women were assigned to a Marine infantry unit on Jan. 5, fulfilling the 2015 Department of Defense mandate that all military service jobs, including combat, be open to women. Baffling, isn’t it, that a military with the best cyberwar capabilities in the world and a defense budget larger than the next eight countries combined can’t control a cyberattack on women within its own ranks?" (Para 1).
Sept. 4, 2018, 10:16 a.m.
Countries: Egypt
Variables: EWCMS-LAW-1

"Large sectors of the economy controlled by the military excluded women from high-level positions, since women do not serve in the military and thus did not have access to these jobs. Authorities permitted women only to serve in the medical corps of the armed forces and excluded them from compulsory military service" (41).
Aug. 15, 2018, 9:40 a.m.
Countries: Montenegro
Variables: EWCMS-LAW-1

"The Committee for Gender Equality of the Parliament of Montenegro, the Ministry for Human and Minority Rights, the Ministry of Defence, the Military, and the NATO Coordination Team continuously organize conferences with the topic of the position of women in armed forces and implementation of Resolution 1325. The publication 'Position of Women in Armed Forces of the Western Balkans' was prepared with the financial support of UNDP and SEESAC, and it was presented at the session of the Committee for Gender Equality in 2014" (page 10).
June 26, 2018, 9:09 a.m.
Countries: New Zealand
Variables: EWCMS-LAW-1

"The Human Rights (Women in Armed Forces) Amendment Act 2007 legislated for women’s full participation in front line combat roles . . . A Women’s Development Steering Group was launched in 2013 to increase the representation and participation of women in the NZDF and to effectively implement the existing diversity and inclusion policies. Maximizing Opportunities for Military Women in the New Zealand Defence Force, published by the Ministry of Defence in 2014, offered an independent examination of women in the NZDF. The report found that in the past 15 years there has been substantial progress in gender equity. For instance, the NZDF has higher female representation in the Regular Forces...more
June 25, 2018, 10:56 a.m.
Countries: Turkmenistan
Variables: EWCMS-LAW-1

"According to the Act of Turkmenistan on amending and adding to the Military Duty and Military Service Act of Turkmenistan of 8 November 2014 (article 15), the reserve officers training programme provides for the military training of female citizens as well. Currently, female cadets train with the male soldiers; the officer corps also includes women" (23).
May 4, 2018, 10:03 a.m.
Countries: Australia
Variables: EWCMS-LAW-1

"The Australian Government has commenced the process to withdraw its reservation to the CEDAW relating to the exclusion of women from combat roles, including repealing the related exemption from Australian anti-discrimination legislation. This represents Australia’s deep commitment to women’s human rights and gender equality domestically, across our region and globally" (Pg 2). "Gender restrictions in ADF combat role employment were formally removed in 2011. Since 1 January 2013, all ADF employment categories have been open to women, except Special Forces, which opened on 1 January 2014. Direct entry into ADF roles from the public is expected by January 2016" (Pg 33).
April 11, 2018, 9:04 p.m.
Countries: Albania
Variables: EWCMS-LAW-1, EWCMS-LAW-4

"The Committee commends the State party on introducing temporary special measures, including quotas for the representation of both sexes in the Electoral Code (2012), in the State Police and in the armed forces, as well as economic support to women entrepreneurs. The Committee is concerned, however, about the lack of monitoring of the implementation, and of information on, the impact of such temporary measures on the achievement of substantive gender equality in all areas covered by the Convention" (Pg 5).
March 13, 2018, 10:57 p.m.
Countries: Norway
Variables: EWCMS-LAW-1

"Women have been able to perform military service since 1976...To strengthen the Norwegian Armed Forces’ expertise, comprehensive efforts are made to recruit and retain more female recruits, non-commissioned officers and commissioned officers. Measures include research, assessment of recruitment processes and selection criteria, environmental health and safety work, gender sensitisation training for senior officers, assessment of career opportunities, and family policy measures to provide optimal conditions for attracting women to choose the Armed Forces. This has boosted knowledge and awareness within the organization. Over time, the expanded scope of conscription is expected to promote the recruitment of more women to the military profession. The Armed Forces also work purposefully to include...more
Feb. 7, 2018, 10:37 a.m.
Countries: Sweden
Variables: EWCMS-LAW-1

"The Discrimination Act entered into force on 1 January 2009 and replaced 7 former laws against discrimination, including the Equal Opportunities Act (1991:433). The purpose of the Discrimination Act is to combat discrimination and in other ways promote equal rights and opportunities regardless of sex, transgender identity or expression, ethnicity, religion or other belief, disability, sexual orientation or age. The Discrimination Act provides more comprehensive protection from discrimination than the previous discrimination legislation. Prohibitions against discrimination apply to the following areas of society: working life; education; labour market policy activities and employment services not under public contract; starting or running a business; professional recognition; membership of an employees’ organisation, employers’...more
Jan. 17, 2018, 4:41 p.m.
Countries: Israel
Variables: EWCMS-LAW-1

"the Court accepted a petition of a woman soldier who was refused entry to the pilot's course of the Israel Air Force on the grounds of her gender. This important precedent clarified that women have the right to fill any role in the armh inless compelling reasons are argued against. Gender in itself is not a compelling reason" (14).
Dec. 13, 2017, 9:18 p.m.
Countries: Turkey
Variables: EWCMS-LAW-1

"Women serve only as officers or noncommissioned officers in Turkey" (para 8).
Sept. 9, 2017, 12:37 p.m.
Countries: Iraq
Variables: EWCMS-LAW-1

"Miad Jubouri, an Iraqi mother of five who joined the ranks of the Iraqi forces battling the Islamic State (IS), has been participating in the battle as part of the Lions of the Tigris faction for the past two years. In a patriotic and conservative Iraqi society, Jubouri’s fight alongside the male-dominated Iraqi security forces has caught the attention of both the community and the media" (para 1). "Generally speaking, Iraqi women are fighting in the ranks of official organizations, under military command, which makes their mission noble. They are fighting to defend their country, not for personal revenge or terrorist motives, as is the case of women recruited by...more
Feb. 23, 2017, 2:04 p.m.
Countries: Pakistan
Variables: EWCMS-LAW-1

"[The proposed bill] also suggests bans on various activities, including women fighting in wars" (para 7).
Feb. 8, 2017, 2:26 p.m.
Countries: Croatia
Variables: EWCMS-LAW-1

"In addition the armed forces increased opportunities for female soldiers to participate in overseas peacekeeping operations" (20-21).
Feb. 2, 2017, 7:41 a.m.
Countries: South Korea
Variables: EWCMS-LAW-1

"In the midst of this change, there have been encouraging legal reforms that recognise the rights of women, exemplified in the abolition of various patriarchal laws such as South Korea’s family-head system, the enactment of equal opportunity laws and the lifting of bans on women in the military" (para 4).
Jan. 3, 2017, 10:36 p.m.
Countries: Burma/Myanmar
Variables: EWCMS-LAW-1

"The military continued to accept women into its Defense Services Academy" (42).
Nov. 30, 2016, 8:42 p.m.
Countries: Mali
Variables: EWCMS-LAW-1

"Moreover, the National Gendarmerie and the National Guard, which were reserved solely to men, have been opened up to women since 2006. The same is true of Civil Defence in 2008" (21).
Sept. 13, 2016, 5:26 p.m.
Countries: Norway
Variables: EWCMS-LAW-1

“In its never-ending quest for equality between the sexes, Norway recently opened up its armed forces to female recruits. Today, the Nordic country is ready to welcome its first women conscripts" (para 1). “Colonel Sven Halvorsen stressed that the Norwegian defense made no allowances for any sex and had largely common standard and requirements for all conscripts” (para 10). “Thoresen also expressed the idea that Sweden and Denmark might follow in Norway's footsteps by introducing universal conscription as well. ‘It seems that we have been pioneers in this area. At present, it looks like Sweden is about to follow, although it is difficult to say for certain,’ Thoresen said. Norway...more
July 5, 2016, 7:50 p.m.
Countries: Syria
Variables: EWCMS-LAW-1, EWCMS-DATA-2

"UK-based Syrian Observatory for Human Rights reported on Wednesday that the nine Kurdish soldiers, including three women, were captured in the fight over the northern Syrian town of Kobane, also known as Ayn Arab." (1)
June 3, 2016, 11:43 p.m.
Countries: Honduras
Variables: EWCMS-LAW-1

"In order to eliminate all discrimination against women, the armed forces have adopted educational measures whereby women and men have the same opportunity to be admitted to officer training centres at the various military academies (army, air force and navy) and receive equal treatment, thus dispelling the stereotype that only men are able to defend our national sovereignty. In the course of their military career, men and women have the same opportunities for promotion to the next higher rank, provided they meet all the requirements— physical, medical, psychological, and knowledge-related— of the relevant laws and regulations. In the armed forces, men and women have equal opportunities to gain command rank,...more
May 15, 2016, 7:55 p.m.
Countries: Montenegro
Variables: EWCMS-LAW-1

"The Law on the Army of Montenegro (Official Gazette of the Republic of Montenegro 47/07) stipulates that only Montenegrin citizens and exceptionally persons without Montenegrin citizenship signed up as volunteers may join the service in the Army (Article 18). The Law guarantees application of the principles of transparency, fairness and equal rights to the candidates applying to join the service in the Army without discrimination on any grounds (sex, race, language, religion, political or other belief, ethnic or social background, property status or another status) (Article 50). " (17)
May 14, 2016, 4:51 p.m.
Countries: Costa Rica
Variables: EWCMS-LAW-1

"The country has no military forces. Civilian authorities maintained effective control over the 13 agencies that have law enforcement components, including the judicial branch’s Judicial Investigative Organization" (4).
May 1, 2016, 12:42 a.m.
Countries: United States

“The US lifted its ban on women in combat roles” (1)
April 8, 2016, 2:29 a.m.
Countries: Iran
Variables: GP-DATA-6, ASR-DATA-1, EWCMS-LAW-1

"According to the Iranian Law, women are not allowed to hold certain jobs such as presidency, judgeship and working in the armed forces, and the number of jobs women are allowed to hold is decreasing by day with new bans being announced frequently" (2).
April 4, 2016, 7:21 a.m.
Countries: Israel
Variables: EWCMS-LAW-1

"Since the submission of Israel’s previous report, the State Comptroller, in his yearly report for 2006, has addressed several related issues. One such issue is Female service in the Israeli Defense Force (IDF), allowing women to make the best of their military service, in which the Comptroller found that the IDF took significant steps to amend faults he found in his 2001 inspection. The State Comptroller found that proper procedures were implemented for opening military professions for women. Also, physiological research was carried out in order to examine women’s capabilities to serve in technological and combat positions, and women were integrated according to these researches" (17). "The Defense Service (Determination...more
March 17, 2016, 8:57 p.m.
Countries: Cyprus
Variables: EWCMS-LAW-1

"On the other hand, whenever staffing is necessary, women can apply to serve in the army, at their will, as professionals for occupational purposes. A number of them serve in combat units" (4)
March 17, 2016, 7:43 p.m.
Countries: Philippines
Variables: EWCMS-LAW-1

"Yes women are allowed by law to serve in military. Yes, including in the police Section 15 of the Magna Carta of Women provides for the elimination of 'discrimination of women in the military, police and other similar services. It also provides for the revision or abolition of policies and practices that restrict women from availing of both combat and noncombat training that are open to men, or from taking on functions other than administrative tasks, such as engaging in combat, security related or field operations.' It further states that, 'Women in the military shall be accorded the same promotional privileges and opportunities as men, including pay increases, additional remunerations...more