The most comprehensive compilation of information on the status of
women in the world.

Latest items for EWCMS-LAW-1

July 20, 2019, 8:20 a.m.
Countries: Syria
Variables: EWCMS-LAW-1

"Women participated in public life and in most professions, including the armed forces, although violence in many regions reduced women’s access to the public sphere. Women and men have equal legal rights in owning or managing land or other property, although cultural and religious norms impeded women’s rights, especially in rural areas. Various sources observed that women constituted a minority of lawyers, university professors, and other professions" (Pg 46). "According to media reports, the SDF trained 210 women to participate in the battle against ISIS in Raqqa. This was in addition to the 8,000-strong Women’s Protection Units, widely reported on in the media, and originally formed with the aim of...more
July 19, 2019, 9:48 a.m.
Countries: Indonesia
Variables: EWCMS-PRACTICE-2, EWCMS-LAW-1

"Some female police and military recruits were subject to invasive virginity testing as a condition of employment, including use of digital pelvic probes that many activists claimed were painful, degrading, and discriminatory (and also not medically accurate). Despite widespread public outcry, police and military officials defended the practice" (Pg 40).
July 15, 2019, 3:24 p.m.
Countries: Thailand
Variables: EWCMS-LAW-1

"Ministry of Defense policy limits the percentage of female officers to not more than 25 percent in most units, with specialized hospital/medical, budgetary, and finance units permitted 35 percent" (page 30).
June 7, 2019, 2:07 p.m.
Countries: Cape Verde
Variables: EWCMS-LAW-1

"Additionally, Ordinance No. 25/2013, published 17 April, relative to women’s performance of military service, establishes the principle of equality between military women and men and specifically addresses maternity protection. The selection process of women who voluntarily want to perform military service must respects the same model applied to men, which can be adapted to take into account specific needs of women, without jeopardy of principles of equality, opportunity and impartiality, which are core to the selection process" (38).
April 11, 2019, 11:47 p.m.
Countries: Cote D'Ivoire
Variables: EWCMS-LAW-1

"The establishment of the National Women’s Council and the reform of the security sector made it possible for girls to attend the Technical Military Preparatory School (beginning in the 2013/14 academic year) and for women to join the National Gendarmerie (as of 2014)" (5).
March 12, 2019, 12:43 p.m.
Countries: North Korea
Variables: EWCMS-LAW-1

"It was widely reported that, on February 13, two women, working on behalf of the government, assassinated Kim Jong Nam, Kim Jong Un’s half-brother, at Kuala Lumpur International Airport using VX nerve agent, a chemical weapon banned under the 1992 Chemical Weapons Convention" (2).
Feb. 8, 2019, 12:44 p.m.
Countries: Morocco
Variables: EWCMS-LAW-1, EWCMS-LAW-3

"Last August, Morocco approved a draft law to resume mandatory military service for men and women" (para. 2).
Feb. 8, 2019, 12:43 p.m.
Countries: Tunisia
Variables: EWCMS-LAW-1

"Last month, Tunisian Defense Minister Farhat Horchani stated that Tunisia had to examine the possibility of making military service mandatory for women. He explained that the 'Tunisian Constitution … says that national service is a duty for every citizen… This duty applies to all citizens, female and male, and therefore, it is time to deepen this question, to study it'" (Para. 1).
Feb. 8, 2019, 12:42 p.m.
Countries: United Arab Emirates
Variables: EWCMS-LAW-1

"In 2014, the Khawla Bint Al-Azwar Military School in the United Arab Emirates, the first of its kind in the Gulf, welcomed the first batch of female recruits for a voluntary nine-month period of military service" (para. 2). That means women are allowed (JSM - Coder comment).
Feb. 4, 2019, 3:44 p.m.
Countries: United Kingdom
Variables: EWCMS-LAW-1

"The Prime Minister announced on 8 July 2016 that the exemption on women serving in ground close combat roles would be lifted. From November 2016, women were able to join the Royal Armoured Corps, both Regular and Reserve. The remaining ground close combat roles will open to women in late 2018" (18).
Jan. 29, 2019, 2:53 p.m.
Countries: Kuwait
Variables: EWCMS-LAW-1, EWCMS-LAW-4

"The de facto exclusion of women from employment in certain services in the public sector, including the military, national guard, police, fire service directorate, Environment Public Authority and Institute for Scientific Research" (pg. 10).
Jan. 22, 2019, 8:11 a.m.
Countries: Colombia
Variables: EWCMS-LAW-1

Since the decree 2129 of 7 October, 1976 women were allowed to access to work in the military services. " National Police take less time than the military forces to include women and, in 1953, accepted 46 women. Since 1977, the incoporation of women was frequently each year" (para. 7).
Jan. 7, 2019, 4:38 p.m.
Countries: Afghanistan
Variables: EWCMS-LAW-1, EWCMS-LAW-4

"But I know from my years there, that people are desperate for work. Women are joining the police and the army in Afghanistan and being killed. And these professions are deeply unconventional for women" (para 25).
Jan. 4, 2019, 5:03 p.m.
Countries: Australia, Switzerland
Variables: EWCMS-LAW-1

"[In] Australia, Switzerland –Women are now allowed to apply for all jobs in the army" (6).
Oct. 19, 2018, 7:59 p.m.
Countries: Indonesia
Variables: EWCMS-LAW-1, EWCMS-LAW-4

"Female police and military recruits were subject to invasive virginity testing as a condition of employment, including digital pelvic probes that many activists claimed were painful, degrading, and discriminatory (and also not medically accurate). Despite widespread public outcry, police and military officials defended the practice" (para 224)
Oct. 12, 2018, 12:31 p.m.
Countries: Saudi Arabia
Variables: EWCMS-LAW-1

"Women are to be allowed to serve in Saudi Arabia’s armed forces for the first time after King Salman issued a raft of royal decrees to radically shake up the country’s military" (para 1). "The Interior Ministry’s General Security division is to start accepting applications from women interested in serving in the army and police. Necessary requirements include a high school degree and the permission of a woman’s male guardian, who must live and work in the same region she has applied" (para 4-5).
Sept. 12, 2018, 9:50 p.m.
Countries: Eritrea
Variables: EWCMS-LAW-1

"In practice national service impacted the choices of men and women to marry freely and have children. For example, some girls and women reportedly married and had children to avoid national service or being mobilized" (para 51). "The government requires all students who reach the final year of secondary school to attend grade 12 at the Sawa National Education and Training Center. Students who did not do so could not graduate and therefore could not pursue higher education, although they could attend vocational schools" (para 113)
Sept. 6, 2018, 4:27 p.m.
Countries: United States
Variables: EWCMS-LAW-1

"The first women were assigned to a Marine infantry unit on Jan. 5, fulfilling the 2015 Department of Defense mandate that all military service jobs, including combat, be open to women. Baffling, isn’t it, that a military with the best cyberwar capabilities in the world and a defense budget larger than the next eight countries combined can’t control a cyberattack on women within its own ranks?" (Para 1).
Sept. 4, 2018, 10:16 a.m.
Countries: Egypt
Variables: EWCMS-LAW-1

"Large sectors of the economy controlled by the military excluded women from high-level positions, since women do not serve in the military and thus did not have access to these jobs. Authorities permitted women only to serve in the medical corps of the armed forces and excluded them from compulsory military service" (41).
Aug. 15, 2018, 9:40 a.m.
Countries: Montenegro
Variables: EWCMS-LAW-1

"The Committee for Gender Equality of the Parliament of Montenegro, the Ministry for Human and Minority Rights, the Ministry of Defence, the Military, and the NATO Coordination Team continuously organize conferences with the topic of the position of women in armed forces and implementation of Resolution 1325. The publication 'Position of Women in Armed Forces of the Western Balkans' was prepared with the financial support of UNDP and SEESAC, and it was presented at the session of the Committee for Gender Equality in 2014" (page 10).
June 26, 2018, 9:09 a.m.
Countries: New Zealand
Variables: EWCMS-LAW-1

"The Human Rights (Women in Armed Forces) Amendment Act 2007 legislated for women’s full participation in front line combat roles . . . A Women’s Development Steering Group was launched in 2013 to increase the representation and participation of women in the NZDF and to effectively implement the existing diversity and inclusion policies. Maximizing Opportunities for Military Women in the New Zealand Defence Force, published by the Ministry of Defence in 2014, offered an independent examination of women in the NZDF. The report found that in the past 15 years there has been substantial progress in gender equity. For instance, the NZDF has higher female representation in the Regular Forces...more
June 25, 2018, 10:56 a.m.
Countries: Turkmenistan
Variables: EWCMS-LAW-1

"According to the Act of Turkmenistan on amending and adding to the Military Duty and Military Service Act of Turkmenistan of 8 November 2014 (article 15), the reserve officers training programme provides for the military training of female citizens as well. Currently, female cadets train with the male soldiers; the officer corps also includes women" (23).
May 4, 2018, 10:03 a.m.
Countries: Australia
Variables: EWCMS-LAW-1

"The Australian Government has commenced the process to withdraw its reservation to the CEDAW relating to the exclusion of women from combat roles, including repealing the related exemption from Australian anti-discrimination legislation. This represents Australia’s deep commitment to women’s human rights and gender equality domestically, across our region and globally" (Pg 2). "Gender restrictions in ADF combat role employment were formally removed in 2011. Since 1 January 2013, all ADF employment categories have been open to women, except Special Forces, which opened on 1 January 2014. Direct entry into ADF roles from the public is expected by January 2016" (Pg 33).
April 11, 2018, 9:04 p.m.
Countries: Albania
Variables: EWCMS-LAW-1, EWCMS-LAW-4

"The Committee commends the State party on introducing temporary special measures, including quotas for the representation of both sexes in the Electoral Code (2012), in the State Police and in the armed forces, as well as economic support to women entrepreneurs. The Committee is concerned, however, about the lack of monitoring of the implementation, and of information on, the impact of such temporary measures on the achievement of substantive gender equality in all areas covered by the Convention" (Pg 5).
March 13, 2018, 10:57 p.m.
Countries: Norway
Variables: EWCMS-LAW-1

"Women have been able to perform military service since 1976...To strengthen the Norwegian Armed Forces’ expertise, comprehensive efforts are made to recruit and retain more female recruits, non-commissioned officers and commissioned officers. Measures include research, assessment of recruitment processes and selection criteria, environmental health and safety work, gender sensitisation training for senior officers, assessment of career opportunities, and family policy measures to provide optimal conditions for attracting women to choose the Armed Forces. This has boosted knowledge and awareness within the organization. Over time, the expanded scope of conscription is expected to promote the recruitment of more women to the military profession. The Armed Forces also work purposefully to include...more
Feb. 7, 2018, 10:37 a.m.
Countries: Sweden
Variables: EWCMS-LAW-1

"The Discrimination Act entered into force on 1 January 2009 and replaced 7 former laws against discrimination, including the Equal Opportunities Act (1991:433). The purpose of the Discrimination Act is to combat discrimination and in other ways promote equal rights and opportunities regardless of sex, transgender identity or expression, ethnicity, religion or other belief, disability, sexual orientation or age. The Discrimination Act provides more comprehensive protection from discrimination than the previous discrimination legislation. Prohibitions against discrimination apply to the following areas of society: working life; education; labour market policy activities and employment services not under public contract; starting or running a business; professional recognition; membership of an employees’ organisation, employers’...more
Jan. 17, 2018, 4:41 p.m.
Countries: Israel
Variables: EWCMS-LAW-1

"the Court accepted a petition of a woman soldier who was refused entry to the pilot's course of the Israel Air Force on the grounds of her gender. This important precedent clarified that women have the right to fill any role in the armh inless compelling reasons are argued against. Gender in itself is not a compelling reason" (14).
Dec. 13, 2017, 9:18 p.m.
Countries: Turkey
Variables: EWCMS-LAW-1

"Women serve only as officers or noncommissioned officers in Turkey" (para 8).
Sept. 9, 2017, 12:37 p.m.
Countries: Iraq
Variables: EWCMS-LAW-1

"Miad Jubouri, an Iraqi mother of five who joined the ranks of the Iraqi forces battling the Islamic State (IS), has been participating in the battle as part of the Lions of the Tigris faction for the past two years. In a patriotic and conservative Iraqi society, Jubouri’s fight alongside the male-dominated Iraqi security forces has caught the attention of both the community and the media" (para 1). "Generally speaking, Iraqi women are fighting in the ranks of official organizations, under military command, which makes their mission noble. They are fighting to defend their country, not for personal revenge or terrorist motives, as is the case of women recruited by...more
Feb. 23, 2017, 2:04 p.m.
Countries: Pakistan
Variables: EWCMS-LAW-1

"[The proposed bill] also suggests bans on various activities, including women fighting in wars" (para 7).