The most comprehensive compilation of information on the status of
women in the world.

Latest items for EWCMS-LAW-2

Jan. 25, 2017, 9:47 p.m.
Countries: Norway
Variables: EWCMS-LAW-2

"Making the military more hospitable for women, and increasing the opportunities women find in the service are both important. Norway is the only NATO country that has a mandate requiring young people to serve, so it is important that their service is as useful and rewarding as possible" (para 9).
Sept. 13, 2016, 5:26 p.m.
Countries: Norway
Variables: EWCMS-LAW-2

“In its never-ending quest for equality between the sexes, Norway recently opened up its armed forces to female recruits. Today, the Nordic country is ready to welcome its first women conscripts" (para 1). “Thoresen also expressed the idea that Sweden and Denmark might follow in Norway's footsteps by introducing universal conscription as well. ‘It seems that we have been pioneers in this area. At present, it looks like Sweden is about to follow, although it is difficult to say for certain,’ Thoresen said. Norway became the first NATO member and first European country to make national service compulsory for both sexes. Both Sweden and Denmark maintain a draft army, with ...more
April 29, 2016, 9:32 a.m.
Countries: Eritrea
Variables: EWCMS-LAW-2

"Proclamation 82 of 1995 requires persons aged 18 to 40 years to perform compulsory active national service for a period of 18 months—six months of military training followed by 12 months of service in a government-run work unit, including the Eritrean Defense Forces. However, the 18-month timeframe is arbitrary and unenforced; many persons are not demobilized from government work units after their mandatory period of service and are forced to serve indefinitely under threats of detention, torture, or familial punishment. In 2012, the government instituted a compulsory citizen militia, requiring medically fit adults up to the age of 70 and not currently in the military to carry firearms and attend ...more
April 4, 2016, 7:21 a.m.
Countries: Israel
Variables: EWCMS-LAW-2

"According to Section 16A(c) of the Defense Service Law (Consolidated Version) 5746-1986 (the “Defense Service Law”), the same law shall apply to men and women who completed their compulsory service and volunteer to serve in one of the Israeli Defense Force (IDF) positions determined by the Minister of Defense, despite the difference in the duration of women compulsory service compared to men’s" (73).
March 17, 2016, 8:57 p.m.
Countries: Cyprus
Variables: EWCMS-LAW-2

"By law, women are exempted from military conscription. On the other hand, whenever staffing is necessary, women can apply to serve in the army, at their will, as professionals for occupational purposes. A number of them serve in combat units" (4)
March 17, 2016, 7:43 p.m.
Countries: Philippines
Variables: EWCMS-LAW-2

"By law, are women draftable (including military conscription)? Compare to men, can women be required to serve in a combat position? Yes" (7)
Dec. 7, 2015, 10:10 a.m.
Countries: Eritrea
Variables: EWCMS-LAW-1, EWCMS-LAW-2

"The Committee reiterates its concern that all high school students, including girls, must enrol for their twelfth grade at the Sawa Military Training Centre, where they undergo stringent military training and are at risk of being subjected to violence. The Committee is also concerned at reports that many girls drop out of school, become pregnant, marry or flee the country to avoid such enrolment" (9). "The Committee reiterates its concern that women and girls are recruited into national service for an indefinite period without formal pay, which amounts to forced labour" (10)
Sept. 7, 2015, 11:57 p.m.
Countries: Kazakhstan
Variables: EWCMS-LAW-2, EWCMS-DATA-1, EMCMS-LAW-1

"Women as well as men perform military service on a voluntary enlistment basis. In 2010, women officers amounted to 4.2 per cent, and women non-commissioned officers and rank-and-file soldiers to 30 per cent, of total enlisted military personnel" (35)
April 28, 2015, 1:21 p.m.
Countries: Norway
Variables: EWCMS-LAW-2

"Since the beginning of this year, Commander Per-Thomas Bøe of the Norwegian Armed Forces has been working an exceptionally hectic schedule, sending out conscription letters not just to the usual 32,000-odd 17-year-old boys but to their female contemporaries as well. And Bøe has to get ready for the girls’ arrival in the summer of 2016 too, which means installing more female showers and toilets around the country’s military installations and figuring out exactly how they’ll fit into a centuries-old male bastion. That’s because what he’s doing is a first for Norway, and indeed for both Europe and NATO: female conscription. 'The Scandinavian countries are very good at leading in gender ...more
April 22, 2015, 4:23 p.m.
Countries: Finland
Variables: EWCMS-LAW-2

Men are required to do military service, but for women, it is voluntary
Sept. 9, 2014, 3:02 p.m.
Countries: Eritrea
Variables: EWCMS-PRACTICE-3, EWCMS-LAW-1, EWCMS-LAW-2, EWCMS-LAW-3, EWCMS-LAW-5, EWCMS-DATA-1, EWCMS-DATA-2, EWCMS-DATA-3, EMCMS-LAW-1

"Eritrea conscripts all men and unmarried women into 'national service.' Although Eritrean law limits national service to 18 months, most conscripts serve for much of their working lives. Conscripts are routinely used as forced labor on essentially civilian jobs. In 2013, Human Rights Watch reported that conscripts were used by a state-owned construction company, Segen Construction Co., engaged by Canadian mining firm Nevsun Resources, to build infrastructure at its Bisha gold mine. Former conscripts described working long hours for minimal food rations, primitive lodging, and wages too low to sustain themselves, much less their families. They were not allowed to leave the work site. Children as young as 15 are ...more
June 27, 2014, 2:36 p.m.
Countries: Tunisia
Variables: EWCMS-LAW-1, EWCMS-LAW-2

The table on page 32 indicates that in Tunisia military service is mandatory for women (32).
June 11, 2013, 2:28 p.m.
Countries: Brazil
Variables: EWCMS-LAW-2, EWCMS-LAW-3

"In Brazil women have been able to enlist in the school of officials since 1997, but they cannot give obligatory military service, meaning that they can combat as lieutenents, captains, or whatever other official rank, but not as soldiers in the first line of fire" (page 1)
Jan. 31, 2013, 10:42 p.m.
Countries: Israel
Variables: EWCMS-LAW-2

“As the United States moves to integrate more women into combat roles, some have looked to Israel, which on paper has one of the most gender-neutral militaries in the world, starting with a universal draft (although, since many do civilian service instead, only half of women enlist, compared with 70 percent of the nation’s men)” (para 4)
Nov. 16, 2012, 9:57 a.m.
Countries: Eritrea
Variables: EWCMS-LAW-2

”The law requires that women, starting from grade 12, participate in national service, although girls already married were generally exempt. During the year the government continued efforts to detain female draft evaders and deserters. Women drafted for national service were often subjected to rape, sexual harassment, and other abuse” (24). “The law prohibits the recruitment of children under 18 into the armed forces; however, in practice younger children were conscripted by their forced attendance at Sawa military and educational camp. Those who did not attend remain at risk of arrest” (26)
July 7, 2012, 7:28 a.m.
Countries: Israel
Variables: EWCMS-LAW-2

"The number of countries that have opened frontline combat positions is also larger than you might think (or than media reports sometimes suggest). A 2010 survey by the British Ministry of Defense listed Canada, Denmark, Finland, France, Germany, Israel, the Netherlands, Norway, Poland, Romania, and Sweden as countries that allow women in "close combat roles," defined as "engaging an enemy on the ground with individual or crew served weapons, while being exposed to hostile fire and to a high probability of direct physical contact with the hostile forces personnel." Australia joined that list in September 2011 when it opened its front-line units -- including one of the largest contingents in ...more
July 7, 2012, 7:28 a.m.
Countries: Russia
Variables: EWCMS-LAW-2

"Russia has a long history of fighting women, including the "women's death battalion" during the 1917 revolution and Lyudmila Pavlichenko, one of the most successful snipers of World War II, but today, women are not subject to the country's draft. Women volunteers do comprise about 3 percent of the Russian army, mostly in support and clerical positions, though the annual Miss Russian Army beauty pageant is not exactly a sign of respect for their role" (2).
June 30, 2012, 3:16 p.m.
Countries: South Korea
Variables: EWCMS-LAW-2

"In 1999, a law giving extra points in government exams to men who had completed their compulsory military service was declared unconstitutional; however, the government's attempt to readopt such system is still ongoing in 2011" (9)
June 14, 2012, 8:35 p.m.
Countries: Benin
Variables: EWCMS-LAW-2

"Women are forced to work both inside and outside the home to ensure the survival of themselves and their families. In addition to the cultural norms that assign women to these burdens, the state mandates that women are also liable for military service after they turn 18 years of age" (para 19)
May 29, 2012, 9:21 p.m.
Countries: Eritrea
Variables: EWCMS-LAW-2

"A significant proportion of the population was engaged in compulsory national service, which was mandatory for men and women over the age of 18. An initial period of 18 months’ service includes six months’ military service and 12 months’ deployment in military or government service. This often involves forced labour in state projects. Conscripts perform construction labour on government projects such as road building, work in the civil service or work for companies owned and operated by the military or ruling party elites. Conscripts are paid minimal salaries that do not meet the basic needs of their families. National service can be extended indefinitely and is also followed by reserve ...more
Nov. 4, 2011, 1:55 p.m.
Countries: Eritrea
Variables: EWCMS-LAW-2

"The law requires that women from 18 to 47 years of age participate in national service. During the year the government continued efforts to detain female draft evaders and deserters. According to reports, some women drafted for national service were subjected to sexual harassment and abuse"(section 6).
March 18, 2011, 10:58 p.m.
Countries: Belarus
Variables: EWCMS-LAW-2

"Regarding the involvement of women in matters relating to peace and in the armed forces, women were involved in peace-related activities such as participation in the Stockholm-Moscow-Minsk Peace Mark and worked in support of the constructive position of the Government in that area. Women were not subject to compulsory military service, although women with a medical qualification were registered and, whenever necessary, might be employed as medical personnel in the armed forces" (para. 141)
April 29, 2010, 11:50 a.m.
Countries: Taiwan
Variables: EWCMS-LAW-2, EWCMS-LAW-3

“Some countries which draft women include the People's Republic of China, Taiwan (ROC), North Korea, Peru, Malaysia, Libya, Israel, and Eritrea” (1).
Feb. 24, 2010, 6:40 p.m.
Countries: Brunei
Variables: EWCMS-LAW-2

"The growth outlook for Brunei businesswomen is very encouraging, with the government and the influential Women’s Business Council vigorously working for their advancement. Women are not barred from any profession, except combat roles in the armed forces" (4).
Feb. 15, 2010, 4 p.m.
Countries: Brunei
Variables: ERBG-PRACTICE-2, AFE-PRACTICE-1, EWCMS-LAW-1, EWCMS-LAW-2, EWCMS-LAW-3

“There are no separate pay scales for men and women, and in recent years there has been a major influx of women into the work force. Women serve in a wide variety of capacities in the armed forces, although they are not permitted to serve in combat. The number of female university graduates is increasing, and nearly two-thirds of Brunei University's entering class is female” (Para. 9).
Oct. 13, 2009, 5:45 p.m.
Countries: Greece
Variables: MULV-LAW-1, GIC-LAW-1, GIC-LAW-2, GIC-LAW-3, EWCMS-LAW-2

"Survivors' pensions are provided to both sexes under the same conditions - men had previously eligibility under special conditions not required for women. Obligatory preventive medical treatment has been established in the social security institutions" (55).
Oct. 13, 2009, 5:02 p.m.
Countries: China
Variables: EWCMS-LAW-2

“China, Eritrea, Israel, Libya, Malaysia, North Korea, Peru and Taiwan draft women into the army. In 2002, Sweden also considered female conscription on the grounds that excluding them goes against the ideology of equality” (Paragraph 3).
Oct. 13, 2009, 4:58 p.m.
Countries: China
Variables: EWCMS-LAW-2

"In each year, male citizens reaching 18 are to be drafted for military service of 2 years. If not drafted immediately, they remain liable to draft until 22 years old. Female citizens of the same age range may also be drafted based on military demands. Full-time students are eligible for deferments. The conscription is selective and who is actually drafted is not known exactly. As Falun Gong is strictly banned, its members are barred from serving the military. For Chinese Special Administrative Regions (SARs) - Hong Kong and Macao - there is no conscription" (Para. 1, 2).
Aug. 28, 2009, 5:10 p.m.
Countries: Israel
Variables: ERBG-PRACTICE-1, ERBG-LAW-1, ERBG-LAW-2, GIC-LAW-1, GIC-LAW-2, GIC-LAW-3, EWCMS-LAW-1, EWCMS-LAW-2, EWCMS-LAW-3, EWCMS-LAW-4

"Starting in 1987, a series of laws was passed: the Equal Retirement Age Law reversed the Labor Court's upholding mandatory early retirement for women; the Equal Employment Opportunity Law provided remedies for employment discrimination and the conversion of childcare rights from maternal to parental rights; the Amendment to the Equal Pay Law of 1964 imposes an obligation to pay equal pay for work of equal value; laws requiring affirmative action for directors of government companies and for civil service employees; the Amendment to the Tax Ordinance, gave women equal status in income tax reporting; the Law Prohibiting Sexual Harassment, covered the workplace and other dependent relationships, such as education, healthcare ...more
Aug. 28, 2009, 4:53 p.m.
Countries: Israel
Variables: ERBG-LAW-1, ERBG-LAW-2, EWCMS-LAW-1, EWCMS-LAW-2, EWCMS-LAW-3, EWCMS-LAW-4

"... in these areas, the legal system combines social accommodation for maternity and parenthood; equal opportunity guarantees for women's participation in the labor force and the military; and affirmative action in the public sector" (para. 1)