The most comprehensive compilation of information on the status of
women in the world.

Latest items for EWCMS-LAW-3

Sept. 13, 2016, 5:26 p.m.
Countries: Norway
Variables: EWCMS-LAW-3

“Thoresen also expressed the idea that Sweden and Denmark might follow in Norway's footsteps by introducing universal conscription as well. ‘It seems that we have been pioneers in this area. At present, it looks like Sweden is about to follow, although it is difficult to say for certain,’ Thoresen said. Norway became the first NATO member and first European country to make national service compulsory for both sexes. Both Sweden and Denmark maintain a draft army, with military service being obligatory for men only, whereas women have the option of joining” (para 13-15).
April 10, 2015, 3:18 p.m.
Countries: Denmark
Variables: EWCMS-LAW-3

Women can serve in combat roles.
Sept. 19, 2014, 2:06 p.m.
Countries: United States
Variables: EWCMS-PRACTICE-1, EWCMS-PRACTICE-3, EWCMS-LAW-1, EWCMS-LAW-3, EWCMS-DATA-2, EWCMS-DATA-3

"In January 2013, the Department of Defense lifted a longstanding ban on women serving in direct combat roles. Military women and men continue to face high levels of sexual violence. The government estimates that 26,000 sexual assaults took place in the military in 2012, and Defense Department data suggests that 62 percent of those who report such assaults experience retaliation" (3).
Sept. 9, 2014, 3:02 p.m.
Countries: Eritrea
Variables: EWCMS-PRACTICE-3, EWCMS-LAW-1, EWCMS-LAW-2, EWCMS-LAW-3, EWCMS-LAW-5, EWCMS-DATA-1, EWCMS-DATA-2, EWCMS-DATA-3, EMCMS-LAW-1

"Eritrea conscripts all men and unmarried women into 'national service.' Although Eritrean law limits national service to 18 months, most conscripts serve for much of their working lives. Conscripts are routinely used as forced labor on essentially civilian jobs. In 2013, Human Rights Watch reported that conscripts were used by a state-owned construction company, Segen Construction Co., engaged by Canadian mining firm Nevsun Resources, to build infrastructure at its Bisha gold mine. Former conscripts described working long hours for minimal food rations, primitive lodging, and wages too low to sustain themselves, much less their families. They were not allowed to leave the work site. Children as young as 15 are ...more
June 11, 2013, 2:41 p.m.
Countries: Guatemala
Variables: EWCMS-PRACTICE-1, EWCMS-LAW-1, EWCMS-LAW-3

"And in Guatemala women have been accepted into military schools for 16 years, but combat is prohibited" (page 1)
June 11, 2013, 2:28 p.m.
Countries: Brazil
Variables: EWCMS-LAW-2, EWCMS-LAW-3

"In Brazil women have been able to enlist in the school of officials since 1997, but they cannot give obligatory military service, meaning that they can combat as lieutenents, captains, or whatever other official rank, but not as soldiers in the first line of fire" (page 1)
June 11, 2013, 9:39 a.m.
Countries: United States
Variables: EWCMS-LAW-3

"The lifting today in the United States of the prohibition that women serve in the first line of combat is a decision similar to those already adopted in various Latin-American countries, in the march of the feminine struggle to reach equality in an area that has been historically reserved for men. The United States’ decision will allow hundreds of posts to open at the front of the battle and will potentially open certain operations commands that which until now were not accessible by women" (page 1)
May 17, 2013, 7:19 p.m.
Countries: Australia
Variables: EWCMS-LAW-3

"Article 43 [of 1984 Sex Discrimination Act]: Combat duties etc. (1) Nothing in Division 1 or 2 renders it unlawful for a person to discriminate against a woman on the ground of her sex in connection with employment, engagement or appointment in the Defence Force: (a) in a position involving the performance of combat duties; or (b) in prescribed circumstances in relation to combat duties. (2) In this section: combat duties means such duties as are declared by the regulations to be combat duties for the purposes of this section" (42)
Jan. 31, 2013, 10:42 p.m.
Countries: Israel
Variables: EWCMS-LAW-3

“The main combat unit for women is Caracal, named for a desert cat that looks similar whether male or female. Since its founding in 2000, the unit, which has been up to two-thirds female, has guarded the borders with Jordan and Egypt, and was the one involved in the Mount Harif episode. While most female soldiers serve two years, women in Caracal are required to serve three, like the unit’s men” (para 12)
Jan. 9, 2013, 2:27 p.m.
Countries: Costa Rica
Variables: EWCMS-LAW-3

"The country has no military" (4)
Sept. 27, 2012, 1:07 p.m.
Countries: New Zealand
Variables: EWCMS-LAW-3

"Domestically, implementation of the Convention has been pursued comprehensively since it was ratified in 1985. During this reporting period, the practical realisation of the principle of equality between women and men came a step closer with New Zealand lifting its remaining reservation to the Convention. In May 2007, Parliament passed the Human Rights (Women in Armed Forces) Amendment Act, thereby lifting the reservation related to the employment of women in combat roles in the armed forces and in violent situations in law enforcement" (47)
May 24, 2012, 11:14 p.m.
Countries: Chad
Variables: EWCMS-LAW-3

"The recruitment and use of children by armed forces and groups continued and recruiters enjoyed total impunity. The UN stated in 2007 that between 7,000 and 10,000 children might have been used as fighters or associated with Chadian and Sudanese armed groups and the Chadian army. Less than 10 per cent had officially been released from these armed forces and groups by the end of 2010. Children from villages in eastern Chad, refugee camps and IDP sites continued to be used by the Chadian security forces, and some senior ANT officers were involved in recruiting children during the year. Following a peace agreement signed in April with the Chadian government, ...more
June 13, 2011, 10:52 p.m.
Countries: Peru
Variables: EWCMS-LAW-3

"Women do not have access to the armed forces; however, since 1975, the International Women's Year, they have been admitted to the Higher Military Studies Centre (CAEM), which is a research centre for the complex problems of national defence with full awareness of our reality, and the results which have been obtained represent a true body of national doctrine. Between 1975 and 1988, 26 women have graduated in various fields from the research centre" (11)
March 18, 2011, 10:58 p.m.
Countries: Belarus
Variables: EWCMS-LAW-3

"Regarding the involvement of women in matters relating to peace and in the armed forces, women were involved in peace-related activities such as participation in the Stockholm-Moscow-Minsk Peace Mark and worked in support of the constructive position of the Government in that area. Women were not subject to compulsory military service, although women with a medical qualification were registered and, whenever necessary, might be employed as medical personnel in the armed forces" (para. 141)
Sept. 30, 2010, 2:20 p.m.
Countries: Afghanistan
Variables: EWCMS-LAW-3

"The women will not however be sent to the front line of the fight against the Taliban, which is at its fiercest since the US-led invasion of the country in 2001" (para 7)
July 29, 2010, 1:19 p.m.
Countries: United Kingdom
Variables: EWCMS-LAW-3

"Sex Discrimination Act of 1975: Section 85(4). Nothing in this Act shall render unlawful an act done for the purpose of ensuring the combat effectiveness of the naval, military or air forces of the Crown. Revised Employment Policy for Women in the Army - Effect on the Royal Marines: Paragraph 2(b). In a small corps, in times of crisis and manpower shortage, all Royal Marines must be capable at any time of serving at their rank and skill level in a commando unit… Employment of women in the Royal Marines will not allow for interoperability." (20)
July 29, 2010, 1:19 p.m.
Countries: Australia
Variables: EWCMS-LAW-3

"The Sex Discrimination Act of 1984: Section 43. Combat duties, etc. (1) Nothing in Division 1 or 2 renders it unlawful for a person to discriminate against a woman on the ground of her sex in connection with employment, engagement or appointment in the Defence Force: (a) in a position involving the performance of combat duties; or (b) in prescribed circumstances in relation to combat duties." (17)
April 29, 2010, 11:50 a.m.
Countries: Taiwan
Variables: EWCMS-LAW-2, EWCMS-LAW-3

“Some countries which draft women include the People's Republic of China, Taiwan (ROC), North Korea, Peru, Malaysia, Libya, Israel, and Eritrea” (1).
Feb. 24, 2010, 6:40 p.m.
Countries: Brunei
Variables: EWCMS-LAW-3

"The growth outlook for Brunei businesswomen is very encouraging, with the government and the influential Women’s Business Council vigorously working for their advancement. Women are not barred from any profession, except combat roles in the armed forces" (4).
Feb. 15, 2010, 4 p.m.
Countries: Brunei
Variables: ERBG-PRACTICE-2, AFE-PRACTICE-1, EWCMS-LAW-1, EWCMS-LAW-2, EWCMS-LAW-3

“There are no separate pay scales for men and women, and in recent years there has been a major influx of women into the work force. Women serve in a wide variety of capacities in the armed forces, although they are not permitted to serve in combat. The number of female university graduates is increasing, and nearly two-thirds of Brunei University's entering class is female” (Para. 9).
Sept. 17, 2009, 4:16 p.m.
Countries: Czech Republic
Variables: EWCMS-LAW-1, EWCMS-LAW-3, EWCMS-LAW-4

"Research was performed on the role and employment of women in the Army of the Czech Republic. This showed that 70 % of female soldiers wanted to perform so-called typical male professions. They were chiefly employed, however, in business, administrational, legal, personnel and technical functions linked to their previous choice of study discipline. Women are appearing ever more frequently in positions which until not long ago had been exclusively the preserve of men. Examples include a female pilot of the tactical air-force, specialists in flight research or a parachute expert. In the tank divisions there are female drivers of battle research vehicles, tank technology, and female teachers of training for ...more
Sept. 15, 2009, 9:01 p.m.
Countries: South Korea
Variables: EWCMS-LAW-3

"In September 2005, the Ministry of Defense presented the Military Reform Plan to gradually increase women ratio of high-ranking military officers from 3 per cent (2005) to 5-7 per cent by 2020. A plan encouraging women’s participation in the armed force has been in force since February 2000, the new Reform Plan spells out detailed ways to increase the number of women military officers at higher ranks. The number of high-ranking women military officers is expected to reach 11,400 by 2020. This measure stirred debate over counter-discrimination in that while military service is entirely an occupational choice for women, it is a duty for men. The Ministry of Defense explained ...more
Aug. 28, 2009, 5:10 p.m.
Countries: Israel
Variables: ERBG-PRACTICE-1, ERBG-LAW-1, ERBG-LAW-2, GIC-LAW-1, GIC-LAW-2, GIC-LAW-3, EWCMS-LAW-1, EWCMS-LAW-2, EWCMS-LAW-3, EWCMS-LAW-4

"Starting in 1987, a series of laws was passed: the Equal Retirement Age Law reversed the Labor Court's upholding mandatory early retirement for women; the Equal Employment Opportunity Law provided remedies for employment discrimination and the conversion of childcare rights from maternal to parental rights; the Amendment to the Equal Pay Law of 1964 imposes an obligation to pay equal pay for work of equal value; laws requiring affirmative action for directors of government companies and for civil service employees; the Amendment to the Tax Ordinance, gave women equal status in income tax reporting; the Law Prohibiting Sexual Harassment, covered the workplace and other dependent relationships, such as education, healthcare ...more
Aug. 28, 2009, 4:53 p.m.
Countries: Israel
Variables: ERBG-LAW-1, ERBG-LAW-2, EWCMS-LAW-1, EWCMS-LAW-2, EWCMS-LAW-3, EWCMS-LAW-4

"... in these areas, the legal system combines social accommodation for maternity and parenthood; equal opportunity guarantees for women's participation in the labor force and the military; and affirmative action in the public sector" (para. 1)
June 26, 2009, 8:14 p.m.
Countries: South Africa
Variables: EWCMS-LAW-1, EWCMS-LAW-2, EWCMS-LAW-3, EWCMS-LAW-4

"In South Africa, the African Women’s Peace Table provides a forum for female soldiers and civil society to prevent conflicts and discuss strategies for building peace on the continent" (8).
May 26, 2009, 12:11 p.m.
Countries: Finland
Variables: EWCMS-LAW-3

"The possibilities of men who have not yet carried out military service and women to participate in national defence are intended to be improved in the new Act on Voluntary National Defence (556/2007) that will enter into force at the beginning of 2008. Women will be offered the possibility of participating in voluntary exercises in the Defence Forces and engaging in tasks of assistance. They may be given preparedness tasks, placed in the Reserves and in the wartime troops of the Defence Forces. The same type of financial and social benefits is provided for women participating in voluntary activities as conscripts are entitled to under the Conscription Act. Women participating ...more
April 15, 2009, 9:39 a.m.
Countries: Sudan
Variables: EWCMS-LAW-3

"Women and girls formed a significant contingent of the Sudan People's Liberation Army (SPLA) and other armed groups (OAGs) during the first and second Sudanese civil wars (1956-2005). Some fought on the front lines, while others travelled with the armed groups, carrying ammunition and food, and providing sexual services and medical support. Their roles were complex and multifaceted, and while some women served willingly, others were forced into supportive activities against their will. Still others saw their association with male soldiers as the only viable means of livelihood in a country bereft of economic opportunities. Today, the contributions and activities of South Sudanese female combatants and women associated with armed ...more
April 13, 2009, 11:36 a.m.
Countries: Guatemala
Variables: EWCMS-LAW-1, EWCMS-LAW-3

"The case of Guatemala identifies some of the roles assigned to women in the time of conflict and the impacts, more generally, upon those women affected by the conflict of Guatemala. During the period of conflict women primarily fulfilled roles as combatants, mostly in the capacity of messengers for guerilla groups; and as representatives for the army where they were hired as ‘beauty queens’ for army events and as dancers for army personnel"(para. 6-7).
March 25, 2009, 2:40 p.m.
Countries: Slovenia
Variables: EWCMS-LAW-3

According to the Republika Slovenija Ministrstvo Za Obrambo's table 'Organization,' in 2007, females made up 15.8% of the army: 0.18% (2 total) were flag officers and .18% (2 total) were equivalents; 1.16% (13 total) were senior officers and 1.52% (17 total) were equivalents; 8.85% (99 total) were junior officers and 3.31% (37 total) were equivalents; 15.73% (176 total) were NCO and 5.36% (60 total) were equivalents; 48.88% (547 total) were soldiers of lower rank than NCO and 0.63% (7 total) were equivalents. 6.86% (88 total) of the female soldiers were participating in military operations (coder comment) (47). According to the Republika Slovenija Ministrstvo Za Obrambo's statistics, in 2007 there were ...more
Jan. 30, 2009, 12:29 p.m.
Countries: Chile
Variables: EWCMS-LAW-1, EWCMS-LAW-2, EWCMS-LAW-3, EWCMS-LAW-4

"A year into her term, Bachelet had achieved a number of these promises: Women were for the first time admitted at the naval academy" (para. 4).