The most comprehensive compilation of information on the status of
women in the world.

Latest items for GIC-LAW-3

Jan. 17, 2018, 4:41 p.m.
Countries: Israel
Variables: GIC-LAW-1, GIC-LAW-3

"From the 1950s, women were entitled to maternity leave allowance paid by National Insurance, protection against dismissal during pregnancy and affordable childcare facilites, aimed to enable women to have secured employment while maintaining family life" (13).
Dec. 13, 2017, 9:05 p.m.
Countries: China
Variables: GIC-LAW-3

"Childbearing has squeezed the opportunities accessible to women in their career growth. A survey shows that 67.4 percent of surveyed women think reproduction has scaled down their chances to get training or promotion in their work, and 47.4 percent of female employees blame it for the deterioration of their work conditions. Moreover, some women have to give up their work for childbearing. Therefore, many women, who want to continue their work, are forced to abandon their plans to have a child or postpone their pregnancy. In particular, women with great potential in their career development dare not to bear their first child, let alone raise a second child, though they ...more
Dec. 7, 2017, 7:40 p.m.
Countries: Nigeria
Variables: GIC-LAW-3

"And the impacts [from the oil spill caused by militant groups] on families are dire: Sarah Okolo is doubtful she can raise the startup money for her food stall. On average it takes her twenty minutes to walk to the market, but Okolo worries that her working day would mean her two small children would have to be on their own for too long, and she does not have an arrangement for somebody to watch them for the whole day. This has become an especially important consideration, as she fears her four-year old son has fallen ill from drinking contaminated groundwater. But without much money and limited access to healthcare, ...more
Dec. 5, 2017, 1:09 p.m.
Countries: India
Variables: ERBG-PRACTICE-1, ERBG-PRACTICE-2, ERBG-DATA-2, ERBG-DATA-3, CL-PRACTICE-1, GIC-LAW-3

"Of the MGNREGA [National Rural Employment Guarantee Act], it has been reported that despite incorporation of a provision which 'in the event that there are at least five children under the age of 6 at the worksite, one of the female workers should be deputed to look after them and she should be paid the same wage as other NREGA workers,' most women joining the program are discouraged from bringing children to work. A social audit on the implementation of the MGNREGA revealed that 70% of the women interviewed had no access to child-care services at the worksite, and 65% of them were unaware of this guaranteed right (Nayaranan 2008, ...more
Nov. 30, 2017, 12:32 p.m.
Countries: Philippines
Variables: GIC-LAW-3

"The program [Pantawid Pamilyang Pilipino Program](i) ensures that bank accounts are opened in women’s names; (ii) supports training of women on citizenship and rights, domestic violence, leadership, child-care, and nutrition; (iii) targets 70% attendance of fathers in specially designed modules"(54)
Nov. 29, 2017, 1:38 p.m.
Countries: India
Variables: GIC-LAW-1, GIC-LAW-2, GIC-LAW-3

"Of the MGNREGA [National Rural Employment Guarantee Act], it has been reported that despite incorporation of a provision which 'in the event that there are at least five children under the age of 6 at the worksite, one of the female workers should be deputed to look after them and she should be paid the same wage as other NREGA workers,' most women joining the program are discouraged from bringing children to work. A social audit on the implementation of the MGNREGA revealed that 70% of the women interviewed had no access to child-care services at the worksite, and 65% of them were unaware of this guaranteed right (Nayaranan 2008, ...more
Nov. 7, 2017, 4:20 p.m.
Countries: Palestine
Variables: GIC-LAW-1, GIC-LAW-3

"[Iman] Assaf noted that the laws in the guideline comply with the 2000 Palestinian Labor Law No. 7, the 2012 Minimum Wage Law ($370/month) and the 2016 Social Security Law No. 6, which guaranteed working women in the private and public sectors the right to a social security paid maternity leave. Assaf expects female employment to increase when the Social Security Law is implemented at the end of October, because the employer won’t have to pay maternity leave expenses — which will be paid by the social security fund. Many employers refuse to employ women due to the likelihood of pregnancy and the subsequent financial burden on the company"(para 10-11)."[Iman] ...more
Sept. 26, 2017, 7:45 p.m.
Countries: Germany
Variables: GIC-LAW-3

"Then came Germany’s division: The West revived the 19th century maxim of Kinder, Küche, Kirche — children, kitchen, church, while in the East, the Communists set up free day-care centers. Eastern mothers drove cranes and studied physics. Until 1977, western wives officially needed their husbands’ permission to work. By then, their peers in the East had a year of paid maternity leave and shorter work hours if they nursed" (para 26-27). "Schools, which traditionally closed at lunchtime, relying on stay-at-home mothers, have gradually lengthened their hours. Child care, once anathema for children under 3, has been vastly extended. A paid parental leave has been introduced that nudges fathers to take ...more
Aug. 28, 2017, 4:45 p.m.
Countries: Solomon Islands
Variables: GIC-LAW-3

"One factor that could significantly impact GDP is the restructuring of the division of labor in the country’s unpaid care economy. According to the Asian Development Bank, 'women spend twice as much time on household work and four times more on childcare' – neither of which is accounted for in the calculation of GDP. Likewise, women’s overrepresentation in subsistence work inhibits their ability to contribute significantly to GDP"(para 5)
Aug. 24, 2017, 2:32 p.m.
Countries: Greece
Variables: GIC-LAW-3

“Struggling to manage a recovery after nearly eight years of recession, the government cannot make the fertility drop a top priority. … State-financed child care became means-tested and is hard to get for women seeking work” (para 19).
Aug. 7, 2017, 4:16 p.m.
Countries: Japan
Variables: GIC-LAW-3

¨In a marked shift from Japan’s past, some companies are now supporting mothers by offering them increased responsibility and financial incentives to decrease maternity leave and return to work sooner. At first glance, this seems counterintuitive – research shows that women are more likely to return to work after childbirth when given at least twelve weeks of leave and when they can arrange a flexible work schedule. However, in the case of Japan, where mothers and fathers may take combined leave of up to fourteen months, some mothers feel the ´mommy track´ is too slow¨(para 1-2)."Consequently, despite having one of the most liberal paid parental leave policies worldwide, only 2 ...more
Aug. 1, 2017, 9:24 a.m.
Countries: Turkey
Variables: GIC-LAW-3

"Child care is the biggest challenge for working mothers, but the Turkish government has found an easy solution: pay grandmothers to look after the children. Turkish law requires workplaces, both public and private, to provide child care facilities for their employees, but most establishments do not comply with the rules to avoid additional costs. Instead of fulfilling their responsibilities, they prefer to pay fines" (para 1-2). "In 2015, the government launched a European Union-funded child care support program in three pilot provinces, under which working women with children ages 0-2 receive 416 euros ($441) per month provided they employ a socially insured nanny. The program, expanded to Ankara and Istanbul ...more
July 26, 2017, 1:50 p.m.
Countries: Jordan
Variables: GIC-LAW-3

"Article 72 of the Jordanian Labor Code compels institutions to provide nurseries for working women" (para 15).
July 5, 2017, 4:06 p.m.
Countries: Israel
Variables: GIC-LAW-3

¨There is a reason for this disparity. Arab women face discrimination in the infrastructures of the localities in which they live. They lack a transportation network that would enable them to reach employment centers or to get to universities, where they could acquire a higher education and professional training. The solution to that is quite simple. We have to relieve all the technical impediments, such as the transportation impediment, or build daycare centers that would enable women with young children to go to school or to work. I was amazed to find that all the right decisions had already been made. They simply hadn’t been implemented¨(para 9).¨Dealing with this must ...more
June 28, 2017, 11:15 a.m.
Countries: United States
Variables: GIC-LAW-1, GIC-LAW-3

Figure 3.2 shows the change in the percent of full and part-time workers with access to paid family leave from 1992/3 to 2012. In 1992/3, only 2% of full-time workers had paid family leave and that number increased to only 13% in 2012. For part-time workers, only 1% had paid family leave in 1992/3 and that increased to 4% in 2012 (89)
May 25, 2017, 5:16 p.m.
Countries: Iceland
Variables: GIC-LAW-3

"[Iceland] guarantees some of the most generous parental leave in the world: nine months at 80% pay (three months for mom, three for dad and another three to be divvied up)" (p 14)
March 24, 2017, 1:11 p.m.
Countries: Haiti
Variables: GIC-LAW-1, GIC-LAW-3

"Although overall compliance remained low, several improvements were noted during the year, including in compliance efforts for employment contracts; granting required for weekly rest days, maternity leave, and annual leave; and paying social security payments and forwarding worker contributions" (39).
March 10, 2017, 1:41 p.m.
Countries: United States
Variables: GIC-LAW-1, GIC-LAW-3

"In the United States, zero days of maternity leave are guaranteed by law" (para 5).
March 10, 2017, 1:41 p.m.
Countries: Japan
Variables: GIC-LAW-1, GIC-LAW-3

"Japan guarantees about 14 weeks of maternity leave at a rate of about 60 percent pay" (para 5).
March 10, 2017, 1:40 p.m.
Countries: Taiwan
Variables: GIC-LAW-3

"According to the Gender Equality in Employment Act...Taiwanese mothers are granted up to eight weeks of maternity leave and if they have been employed for six months or more, they will receive full pay. In addition, the law has provisions for employers of more than 100 people to provide nursing rooms and childcare facilities, or help with off-site care" (para 5).
Feb. 10, 2017, 5:18 p.m.
Countries: Sweden
Variables: GIC-LAW-1, GIC-LAW-3

"Parents are entitled to share 480 days of parental leave when a child is born or adopted. This leave can be taken by the month, week, day or even by the hour. Women still use most of the days, with men taking around one-fourth of the parental leave on average. For 390 days, parents are entitled to nearly 80 per cent of their pay, up to a maximum of SEK 946 per day. The remaining 90 days are paid at a flat daily rate of SEK 180. Those who are not in employment are also entitled to paid parental leave. Sixty days of leave are allocated spe- cifically to each ...more
Feb. 9, 2017, 4:58 p.m.
Countries: India
Variables: GIC-LAW-1, GIC-LAW-3

"In India, for example, less than 1% of women receive paid maternity leave" (para 11).
Feb. 8, 2017, 5:41 p.m.
Countries: South Korea
Variables: GIC-LAW-3

"and in Korea, men are allotted the equivalent of about 16 weeks of paid [parental] leave" (para 6).
Feb. 8, 2017, 5:41 p.m.
Countries: Austria, Bulgaria, Czech Republic, Hungary, Latvia, Lithuania, Norway, Slovakia
Variables: GIC-LAW-3

"A number of other countries – Bulgaria, Hungary, Japan, Lithuania, Austria, Czech Republic, Latvia, Norway and Slovakia – offer over a year’s worth of paid leave, as well" (para 3).
Feb. 8, 2017, 5:41 p.m.
Countries: Japan
Variables: GIC-LAW-3

"A number of other countries – Bulgaria, Hungary, Japan, Lithuania, Austria, Czech Republic, Latvia, Norway and Slovakia – offer over a year’s worth of paid leave, as well" (para 3). "In Japan, almost half of all of the available paid leave for new parents – 30 weeks – is earmarked for new fathers" (para 6).
Feb. 8, 2017, 5:41 p.m.
Countries: Cyprus, Ireland, Israel, New Zealand, Switzerland, Turkey
Variables: GIC-LAW-3

"In fact, in six countries – Cyprus, Israel, Turkey, Ireland, Switzerland and New Zealand – maternity leave accounts for all available paid leave related to the birth or care of a child. No leave is available for new fathers" (para 5).
Feb. 8, 2017, 5:41 p.m.
Countries: Estonia
Variables: GIC-LAW-3

"In comparison, Estonia offers more than a year and a half of paid leave to new parents – by far the highest benefit mandated by any of the countries represented" (para 3).
Feb. 8, 2017, 5:37 p.m.
Countries: United States
Variables: GIC-LAW-3

"Despite these transformations, the U.S. is the only country among 41 nations that does not mandate any paid leave for new parents, according to data compiled by the Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development (OECD)" (para 2). "U.S. is the only country that does not have a national paid leave mandate, California, New Jersey and Rhode Island all have state-mandated paid leave plans in place. Some businesses across the U.S. offer paid family leave to their employees without being required to do so, as well" (para 8).
Jan. 26, 2017, 2:18 p.m.
Countries: Iraq
Variables: GIC-LAW-1, GIC-LAW-3, FSCB-LAW-1

"Saddam Hussein’s regime embraced a strong pronatalist ideology since its inception in 1979. High fertility was encouraged through various economic incentives, including childbirth cash bonuses and family allowances (Faour 1989). The 1981–1988 war against Iran and the Iranian superiority in population size led Saddam Hussein to further intensify the country’s pronatalist approach, with the aim of accelerating population growth. Major restrictions on access to contraception were put in place, and penalties for performing illegal abortions were increased. Family planning services provided by the Iraqi Family Planning Association and the private sector were reserved exclusively for medical reasons (United Nations 1987; Efrati 1999). Only in the aftermath of the 1990–1991 Gulf ...more
Jan. 6, 2017, 2:55 p.m.
Countries: United States
Variables: SEGI-PRACTICE-1, GIC-LAW-1, GIC-LAW-3

"Economist Heidi Hartmann, president of the Institute for Women’s Policy Research, blames this uneven rebound on a blend of forces: The United States doesn't offer family-friendly workplace policies such as paid family leave or sick days, and the gender wage gap hasn’t budged much in a decade as the cost of child care has soared. 'The question is: Why didn’t we continue to make upward progress?' Hartmann said. 'That’s partly because women don’t feel like they get a fair break in the labor market'” (para 12-13)