The most comprehensive compilation of information on the status of
women in the world.

Latest items for IAD-PRACTICE-1

Feb. 18, 2019, 7:01 p.m.
Countries: Rwanda
Variables: IAD-PRACTICE-1

"Land disputes are the most common type of disputes in Rwanda. Of these, inheritance disputes, often among children of the deceased, were cited as the most common by the members of the abunzi who were interviewed. Even those outside the dispute resolution field noted the frequency of inheritance disputes: the majority of my respondents, when asked if they knew of any land disputes, referenced inheritance disputes. When asked about current succession practices, nearly all respondents in the South and several respondents in the North stated that daughters would not receive parcels of land equal to those received by their brothers. This inequality could manifest as daughters receiving smaller shares than...more
Feb. 14, 2019, 11:11 p.m.
Countries: Mauritius
Variables: IAW-LAW-1, IAD-PRACTICE-1

"Women had equal access to education, employment, housing, and government services, and could inherit land" (para 60).
Feb. 11, 2019, 6:06 p.m.
Countries: Singapore
Variables: IAW-PRACTICE-1, IAD-PRACTICE-1, POLY-LAW-1

"Differences between civil law and Sharia are most evident in matters related to inheritance. Traditionally, across all cultures in Singapore, sons inherited family assets while daughters were expected to marry into another family. This pattern is less common today, as civil law grants equal rights to male and female heirs. By contrast, Islamic law typically continues to favour male heirs" (48)
Feb. 7, 2019, 3:47 p.m.
Countries: Lebanon
Variables: CLCW-LAW-1, CLCC-LAW-1, IAW-LAW-1, IAD-PRACTICE-1

"In matters of child custody, inheritance, and divorce, personal status laws provide unequal treatment across the various confessional court systems but generally discriminate against women. For example, Sunni civil courts applied an inheritance law that provides a son twice the inheritance of a daughter. Religious law on child custody matters favors the father in most instances. Nationality law also discriminates against women, who may not confer citizenship to their spouses and children, although widows may confer citizenship to their minor children. By law women may own property, but they often ceded control of it to male relatives due to cultural reasons and family pressure" (Pg 29).more
Jan. 28, 2019, 9:21 p.m.
Countries: South Africa
Variables: IW-PRACTICE-1, IAW-PRACTICE-1, IAD-PRACTICE-1

"The customary tenure system uses patrilineal transfer of land ownership. In patrilineal societies, inheritance and descent are traced through the father’s lineage and property devolves along the male line, to the exclusion of women. The male heir is responsible for maintaining and caring for the estate and its dependants: namely, the widow and the children" (para 15-16)
Jan. 22, 2019, 9:02 p.m.
Countries: Tanzania
Variables: IAW-PRACTICE-1, IAD-PRACTICE-1, POLY-LAW-1, POLY-LAW-2

"The statutory deference granted to both customary law and Islamic law in mainland Tanzania is particularly discriminatory toward polygamous co-wives. Under Islamic law, a Muslim man is allowed to marry up to four wives. Contrary to customary law, Islamic law does allow widows and daughters to inherit, although the amounts allotted to each are half that allotted to their male counterparts. Islamic law explicitly provides that widows and daughters only get one-half of the property interest of men in the same familial position. Specifically, widows with children are entitled to one eighth of their spouse’s estate, whereas a widower with children is entitled to one-fourth. A widow without children is...more
Jan. 22, 2019, 8:17 p.m.
Countries: East Timor
Variables: IAW-PRACTICE-1, IAW-LAW-1, IAD-PRACTICE-1, IAD-LAW-1

"The law and practice on women’s inheritance rights is unclear. In 2009, the government reported that women and men have equal rights to inheritance. For instance, the government reported that the law provides that when the husband dies first, the inheritance will be divided between his wife and the children, or the inheritance will go to the wife only if they have no children. However, non-governmental organisations report that sons are generally recognised as the heads of family and recipients of family inheritance. A 2004 survey on inheritance rights of unmarried women found that women do inherit land differently under matrilineal and patrilineal systems. In the instance where women did...more
Jan. 22, 2019, 6:56 p.m.
Countries: Togo
Variables: IAW-PRACTICE-1, IAD-PRACTICE-1

"Togolese custom is very unfavourable to women in the matter of inheritance. Women are not entitled to inherit from their husbands or fathers, but can hold property in usufruct" (272)
Jan. 8, 2019, 9:46 a.m.
Countries: Nigeria
Variables: IAW-LAW-1, IAD-PRACTICE-1

"Justice Onyeabo said, 'That custom says that only the eldest son inherits all the real properties. The man was very wealthy; no letter of administration was obtained; the other children are saying that the man had migrated from his state to the South-West a long time ago. The children can only remember that they went to the East when they were very young. But only their eldest brother has taken over the estate because the father’s property was shared according to the ethnic custom which says only the first male can inherit all the real properties. The other children are insisting that their father lived all his life in Yorubaland...more
Jan. 3, 2019, 1:50 p.m.
Countries: Tunisia
Variables: IAW-LAW-1, IAD-PRACTICE-1

"[The President of Tunisia] has . . . called for a more egalitarian inheritance law to replace the current, sharia-inspired version that gives women half of what men receive" (para 3).
Jan. 2, 2019, 2:04 p.m.
Countries: Tunisia
Variables: IAD-PRACTICE-1

"Sharia requires men, but not women, to provide for their families. Because of this expectation, sharia inheritance law provides, in some instances, men with a larger share of an inheritance. Some families avoided the application of sharia by executing sales contracts between parents and children to ensure that daughters received shares of property equal to those given sons. Non-Muslim women and their Muslim husbands may not inherit from each other. The government considers all children of those marriages to be Muslim and forbids those children from inheriting from their mothers. Spouses may, however, freely give up to a third of their estate to whomever they designate in their will" (page...more
Dec. 21, 2018, 4:39 p.m.
Countries: Tunisia
Variables: IAW-PRACTICE-1, IAW-LAW-1, IAD-PRACTICE-1, IAD-LAW-1

"Sharia requires men, but not women, to provide for their families. Because of this expectation, in some instances sharia inheritance law provides men with a larger share of an inheritance. Some families avoided the application of sharia by executing sales contracts between parents and children to ensure that daughters received shares of property equal to those given sons. Non-Muslim women and their Muslim husbands may not inherit from each other. The government considers all children of those marriages to be Muslim and forbids those children from inheriting from their mothers. Spouses may, however, freely give up to a third of their estate to whomever they designate in their will" (page...more
Dec. 19, 2018, 12:08 p.m.
Countries: Tunisia
Variables: IAD-PRACTICE-1

"Tunisia is viewed as being ahead of most Arab countries on women's rights, but there is still discrimination, particularly in matters of inheritance. Daughters are entitled to only half the inheritance given to sons" (para 7, 8). "The first president of independent Tunisia, Habib Bourguiba, championed a landmark social code in 1956 that set a standard for the region by banning polygamy and granting new rights to women unheard of in the Arab world at the time. But even he didn't dare push for equal inheritance" (para 12).
Nov. 16, 2018, 9:46 a.m.
Countries: Burma/Myanmar
Variables: ATDW-LAW-1, IAD-PRACTICE-1

"Women are discriminated against in the realm of property and inheritance as well since the Government recognizes the authority of village elders and religious or ethnic leaders to adjudicate property rights. For example, Kachin customary law favors sons over daughter in inheritance disputes; in divorce cases, the Palaung and the Kachin grant property to the husband as a matter of right" (page 28).
Oct. 19, 2018, 10:12 p.m.
Countries: Comoros
Variables: MARR-PRACTICE-7, IAD-PRACTICE-1

"The Comoran society is a matrilineal society in which the transfer of goods passes through the female line; in addition, traditionally, the Comoran society relies on a matrilocal system in which, once a marriage is finalized, it is the male spouse who goes to live in the region of origin of his wife" (page 236).
Sept. 14, 2018, 10:13 a.m.
Countries: Maldives
Variables: IAW-PRACTICE-1, IAD-PRACTICE-1

"Women have been historically disadvantaged, particularly in the application of Islamic law in matters such as divorce, education, inheritance, and providing legal testimony, including on rape" (17).
Sept. 5, 2018, 9:39 a.m.
Countries: Vietnam
Variables: IAD-PRACTICE-1

"Although the law provides for equal inheritance rights for men and women, women continued to face cultural discrimination. A son was more likely to inherit property than was a daughter, unless otherwise specified by a legal document. A study conducted in December 2014 showed women had less information than men on land access and that a cultural preference for sons over daughters for inheritance was still prevalent, despite the legal mandate that all citizens have equal rights" (41).
Sept. 4, 2018, 10:28 a.m.
Countries: Qatar
Variables: IAD-PRACTICE-1

"The proportion that women inherit depends upon their relationship to the deceased; in the cases of siblings, sisters inherit only one-half as much as their brothers" (17).
Sept. 4, 2018, 10:26 a.m.
Countries: Nepal
Variables: IAD-PRACTICE-1, IAD-LAW-1

"The law grants women equal shares of their parents’ inheritance and the right to keep their property after marriage, but many women were not aware of their rights, and others were afraid to challenge existing practice" (30).
Sept. 4, 2018, 10:19 a.m.
Countries: Laos
Variables: IAW-PRACTICE-1, IAW-LAW-1, IAD-PRACTICE-1, IAD-LAW-1

"The law also prohibits discrimination in marriage and inheritance, although varying degrees of cultural-based discrimination against women persisted, with greater discrimination practiced by some ethnic minority groups in remote areas" (20).
Aug. 28, 2018, 10:03 a.m.
Countries: Mali
Variables: IAW-PRACTICE-1, IAD-PRACTICE-1

"The Committee . . . notes with concern the disproportionately adverse impact on rural women of the Land Code (2000), under which the application of customary law to land acquisition through succession, as well as to the administration of property, is recognized, thereby limiting women’s access to economic resources and financial credit" (page 11-12).
June 28, 2018, 4:51 p.m.
Countries: Tanzania
Variables: IAD-PRACTICE-1

"The Committee . . . is also concerned that discriminatory customary laws and practices persist with regard to marriage and family relations, including concerning inheritance by widows and daughters and property ownership . . . The Committee notes with appreciation that the State party has ratified the Optional Protocol to the Convention, but is concerned that its views concerning communication No. 48/2013, adopted under article 7 (3) of the Optional Protocol at its sixtieth session, in March 2015, regarding discriminatory customary inheritance laws in the State party, have not been implemented and that the State party has provided no information on action taken in the light of those views and...more
June 1, 2018, 10:46 a.m.
Countries: Sri Lanka
Variables: IAD-PRACTICE-1

"the Committee is concerned about the persistence of discriminatory provisions in the law, including in the Penal Code, the Land Development Ordinance which gives preference to male heirs over females, the general personal laws, the Muslim Personal Law, the Kandyan Law and the Tesawalamai Law" (3).
May 29, 2018, 10:25 a.m.
Countries: Sri Lanka
Variables: IAD-PRACTICE-1

"the Committee is concerned about the persistence of discriminatory provisions in the law, including in the Penal Code, the Land Development Ordinance which gives preference to male heirs over females, the general personal laws, the Muslim Personal Law, the Kandyan Law and the Tesawalamai Law" (3).
April 3, 2018, 10:42 p.m.
Countries: Madagascar
Variables: MARR-PRACTICE-5, IAD-PRACTICE-1, DMW-PRACTICE-1

"The Committee reiterates its concern at the persistence of discriminatory stereotypes concerning the roles and responsibilities of women and men in society and in the family, such as the concept of 'the head of the household', which assigns this role to men, and the perpetuation of 'the father’s name and estate' through male heirs. The Committee notes efforts undertaken under the guidance of the Ministry of Justice with various stakeholders, the signing of road maps and the drafting of plans of action to address some harmful practices. The Committee is deeply concerned, however, about the persistence of harmful practices such as child and/or forced marriage, the sale of wives, girl...more
March 30, 2018, 11:25 a.m.
Countries: India
Variables: IAD-PRACTICE-1

"This development of identifying daughter as a coparcener in father’s ancestral property is phenomenal, although it contradicts Indian social structure as well as system. Patriarchy, traditional mindset of society, gendered socialization process and above all socio-cultural morality obstructs implementation of an otherwise egalitarian law" (109). "The findings state that despite a high level of awareness regarding inheritance rights, women prefer not to invoke them in the face of socio-cultural barriers" (109). "The explicit as well as implicit implementation of Hindu Succession Act 1956 (as amended in 2005) contradicts the traditional value system of Indian society that defies daughters inheritance staunchly in the wake of male agnates and cognates. Furthermore the...more
March 20, 2018, 1:29 p.m.
Countries: Gambia
Variables: WAM-PRACTICE-1, WAM-LAW-1, IAW-PRACTICE-1, IAD-PRACTICE-1, DMW-PRACTICE-1, PW-PRACTICE-3, POLY-LAW-1

"The Committee is deeply concerned about the persistence of patriarchal attitudes and deep-rooted stereotypes regarding the roles and responsibilities of women and men in the family and in society. It also remains concerned about the very high prevalence of harmful practices, in particular female genital mutilation, child marriage, polygamy and levirate, and the fact that they are not prohibited by law. The Committee urges the State party: (a) To adopt legal provisions explicitly prohibiting harmful practices, such as polygamy, child marriage, female genital mutilation, levirate and unequal inheritance rights for women, provide for adequate sanctions and ensure the effective implementation of the provisions; (b) To expeditiously adopt a comprehensive strategy...more
March 14, 2018, 6:54 p.m.
Countries: Senegal
Variables: LO-PRACTICE-1, IAD-PRACTICE-1

"The Committee welcomes the measures taken by the State party to improve the living conditions of rural women, but remains concerned about: (a) Rural women’s limited access to land owing to legal and sociocultural barriers with regard to their right to inheritance and limited access to decision-making processes concerning the use of land; (b) Land grabbing by huge agricultural companies from local farmers who are the traditional users, which contributes to the increase in poverty of rural women; (c) Rural women’s limited access to adequate health care, education, public transportation, food, water and sanitation, income-generating opportunities and social protection; (d) Barriers faced by rural women in gaining access to microcredit....more
March 9, 2018, 8:49 a.m.
Countries: Saudi Arabia
Variables: IAD-PRACTICE-1

"Regarding inheritance, the Islamic Sharia guarentees the right of a man and woman to inherity. It sets out rules regulating matters of inheritance, the entitlement of each heir based on the heir's status and degree of kinship to the testator and the duties of the heir to the family. In certain cases, a man may inherit more than a woman. In other cases, a woman may inherit more than a man. In other cases, the share of the man is equal to the share of the woman. In other cases, a woman inherits and her brother does not inherit, i.e., she block him from inheriting. If a man inherits more...more
Feb. 28, 2018, 5:36 p.m.
Countries: Kenya
Variables: IAD-PRACTICE-1, IAD-LAW-1

"The Law of Succession Act discriminates against women in respect of inheritance rights. The Act’s basic provisions guarantee equal inheritance rights for male and female children, and the equal right to produce a will by both male and female parents. However, Sections 32 and 33 of the Act expressly exclude all agricultural land, cattle and crops from legislated inheritance and instead places their succession under the purview of customary law as specifically defined by the appropriate minister in Kenya’s official Gazette. For the aforementioned reasons, it is likely that decisions under these customary laws will discriminate against women and girls. In addition, rules governing ‘intestate’ succession create a hierarchy for...more