The most comprehensive compilation of information on the status of
women in the world.

Latest items for IAD-PRACTICE-1

Aug. 6, 2019, 8:14 a.m.
Countries: Comoros
Variables: IAW-PRACTICE-1, IAW-LAW-1, IAD-PRACTICE-1

"The law provides for equality of persons without regard to gender, creed, belief, origin, race, or religion. Nevertheless, inheritance and property rights practices favor women. Local cultures are traditionally matrilineal, and all inheritable property is in the legal possession of women" (page 9).
Aug. 3, 2019, 6:47 p.m.
Countries: Namibia
Variables: IAW-PRACTICE-1, IAD-PRACTICE-1

"The customary law rules on inheritance vary among communities, depending on whether matrilineal or patrilineal kinship systems are in use. According to Section 26 of the Communal Land Reform Act, a customary land right ends when the person who held that right dies. Customary law, which is applied in this case, states that following the death, the customary land right reverts back to the chief or traditional authority for reallocation. The customary right must be reallocated to the surviving spouse, if s/he consents to such allocation, or to a child of the deceased if there is no surviving spouse or if the spouse does not accept the allocation of the...more
Aug. 3, 2019, 6:12 p.m.
Countries: Nepal
Variables: IAW-PRACTICE-1, IAD-PRACTICE-1

"In spite of the cultural differences across the various ethnic and religious groups, generally land passes from father to son in almost all communities. Hindu practices follow patrilineal descent and patrifocal residence systems. Property holders, either the holders of tenancies or the owners of land, are normally patrilineal segments, comprising two or three generations. In most communities, women do not inherit land. When a man dies, his assets are taken over by his brothers - if he has no son, or if his son is not of age - leaving his widow dependent on his patrilineage. Some cultures, however, allow women to inherit land, although they are expected to hold...more
Aug. 3, 2019, 5:51 p.m.
Countries: Niger
Variables: IAW-PRACTICE-1, IAW-LAW-1, IAD-PRACTICE-1, IAD-LAW-1

"In terms of the inheritance of moveable property women, where eligible, receive half the share of an equivalently positioned male family member in Niger, as stipulated in Islamic law. This is in some ways quite progressive in the sense that custom among non-Muslims at the turn of the century would not have provided for the inclusion of women in the division of wealth of her father or husband. Yet even here, Maliki texts, if strictly observed would be far more favorable to women than other competing understandings of «custom» regarding property insofar as it touches on immoveable property-land. Often in Niger the application of Maliki inheritance law is tempered by...more
Aug. 3, 2019, 5:33 p.m.
Countries: Niger
Variables: IAD-PRACTICE-1, IAD-LAW-1

"In Niger, inheritance is governed by customary (which varies between different ethnic groups) and/or Sharia law. Sharia law stipulates that women may inherit from their father, mother, husband or children and, under certain conditions, from other family members. However, their share is generally smaller than that to which men are entitled. Daughters, for example, inherit half as much as sons, unless a will has been left specifying otherwise...Generally, the application of Maliki inheritance law is often tempered by the view that women are less responsible and reliable than men and therefore less suited to inheriting family property. As a result, women rarely inherit land at the time of the division...more
July 20, 2019, 7:37 p.m.
Countries: Nigeria
Variables: IAW-PRACTICE-1, IAD-PRACTICE-1, POLY-LAW-1

""It is generally true that widows are denied inheritance to housing and land in particular, and to chattels to a lesser degree. Generally, inheritance is based on the principle of primogeniture: that is, that the eldest surviving son inherits all the deceased’s property...In northern Nigeria, which is predominantly Muslim, women’s inheritance is governed by Islamic law — the Sharia. Under the Sharia, women can acquire and retain their own property, can pass it on to their heirs, and can inherit from their deceased parents, husbands, brothers, sisters, daughters and other relations. However, under the personal law code of the Sharia, the share of inheritance a female receives is discriminatory. Male...more
July 20, 2019, 7:27 p.m.
Countries: Nigeria
Variables: IAW-PRACTICE-1, IAD-PRACTICE-1, POLY-LAW-1

"Almost all ethnic groups practice patrilineal inheritance. Upon a man's death, land may be divided among his male heirs or passed down solely to the eldest son, depending on the community practice. If a man has multiple wives, his land is divided equally among the wives and passed down to their sons. Women rarely inherit land, usually only if there are no male heirs. Inheritance is by far the most common mode of land acquisition among rural people" (para 1)
July 20, 2019, 7:11 p.m.
Countries: Pakistan
Variables: IAW-PRACTICE-1, IAD-PRACTICE-1

"Where there are no males, some tribes like the Hazaras, provide for women’s inheritance though the actual control of the property remains in the hands of the uncles. Often, as soon as a woman’s name has been entered in the transfer papers, a gift is made in favour of the brothers. Therefore, even if women’s names are registered in the property transfer papers, upon succession, the male relatives inherit the land in their stead" (para 1). "In Punjab, women generally may inherit property but they cannot decide anything regarding its usage. Immovable property is very rarely transferred to women except in few more affluent families. In some cases, dowry is...more
July 20, 2019, 7:07 p.m.
Countries: Pakistan
Variables: IAD-PRACTICE-1

"In general, women do not inherit land if there is a male offspring" (para 1). "In the North West Frontier Province, women do not inherit land in the presence of a male offspring, nor is there a tradition of daughters inheriting immovable property from the father except in some areas, such as Dera Ismail Khan, Mardan and Swabi, where in rare cases, daughters are given a share in moveable and immovable property" (para 2). "In case of only female offspring, dowry is given to compensate for landed property which is not given to women except in Thar, the remote desert region of Sindh, where some women inherit property" (para 5)more
July 19, 2019, 12:22 p.m.
Countries: Nepal
Variables: WR-PRACTICE-2, IAD-PRACTICE-1, IAD-LAW-1

"Dalit women in particular faced discrimination by virtue of their gender and caste status. The law grants women equal shares of their parents’ inheritance and the right to keep their property after marriage, but many women were not aware of their rights, and others were afraid to challenge existing practice. The law also grants widows complete access and authority to the estate of their deceased husbands; however, traditional attitudes stigmatizing and shunning widows persisted, and communities often ignored the law, while the government did not take sufficient measures to enforce it" (Pg 28).
July 18, 2019, 12:24 p.m.
Countries: Central African Rep
Variables: LO-PRACTICE-1, IAW-PRACTICE-1, IAD-PRACTICE-1, ATFPA-PRACTICE-2, CONST-LAW-1

"The formal law does not discriminate against women in inheritance and property rights, but a number of discriminatory customary laws often prevailed. Women’s statutory inheritance rights often were not respected, particularly in rural areas. Women experienced economic and social discrimination. Customary law does not consider single, divorced, or widowed women, including those with children, to be heads of households. By law men and women are entitled to family subsidies from the government, but several women’s groups complained about lack of access to these payments for women" (Pg 18).
July 17, 2019, 2:14 p.m.
Countries: Cameroon
Variables: LO-PRACTICE-1, IAW-PRACTICE-1, IAD-PRACTICE-1, CONST-LAW-1

"The constitution provides for the same legal status and rights for women and men; however, in law women did not enjoy the same rights and privileges as men. Although local government officials including mayors claimed women had access to land in their constituencies, the overall sociocultural practice of denying women the right to own land, especially through inheritance, was prevalent in most regions" (Pg 27).
July 9, 2019, 2:45 p.m.
Countries: Zambia
Variables: ERBG-PRACTICE-1, IAW-PRACTICE-1, IAD-PRACTICE-1

"In contrast to customary law, the constitution and statutory law provide for the same legal status and rights for women as for men, including under family, labor, property, and nationality laws. Nevertheless, the government did not adequately enforce the law, and women experienced discrimination in employment (see section 7.d.), education, inheritance, and ownership of land and other property" (Pg 23).
July 8, 2019, 1:19 p.m.
Countries: Uganda
Variables: CWC-DATA-2, IW-PRACTICE-1, IW-LAW-1, ATDW-PRACTICE-2, CUST-LAW-1, IAW-PRACTICE-1, IAD-PRACTICE-1, DSFMF-PRACTICE-2, PW-LAW-1

"The law provides women with the same legal status and rights as men. Discrimination against women, however, was widespread, especially in rural areas. Many customary laws discriminate against women in adoption, marriage, divorce, and inheritance. Under local customary law in many areas, women may not own or inherit property or retain custody of their children. Traditional divorce law in many areas requires women to meet stricter evidentiary standards than men to prove adultery. Polygyny is legal under both customary and Islamic law. In some ethnic groups, men may “inherit” the widows of their deceased brothers" (Pg 29).
July 8, 2019, 12:38 p.m.
Countries: Burundi
Variables: IAD-PRACTICE-1

"Furthermore, it reiterates its concern (CEDAW/C/BDI/CO/4, para. 13) that the application of customary law in the light of the legal vacuum concerning matters of inheritance, matrimonial regimes and gifts results in women being unable to enjoy their rights under articles 13 to 16 of the Convention" (4). "Furthermore, the Committee notes that, pending the finalization of a bill on inheritance, matrimonial regimes and gifts that has existed since 2009, customary law continues to govern these matters, depriving women of their rights under articles 13 to 16 of the Convention" (15).
July 6, 2019, 1:13 p.m.
Countries: Togo
Variables: IAW-PRACTICE-1, IAD-PRACTICE-1, DTCP-LAW-1

"Although women and men are equal under the law, women continued to experience discrimination in education, pay (see section 7.d.), pension benefits, and inheritance. In urban areas women and girls dominated market activities and commerce. Harsh economic conditions in rural areas, where most of the population lived, left women with little time for activities other than domestic tasks and agricultural fieldwork. While formal law supersedes traditional law, it is slow, distant, and expensive to access; rural women were effectively subject to traditional law" (Pg 12).
July 3, 2019, 1:59 p.m.
Countries: East Timor
Variables: LO-PRACTICE-1, IAW-PRACTICE-1, IAD-PRACTICE-1

"Some customary practices discriminate against women, including traditional inheritance systems that tend to exclude women from land ownership. There have been complaints that the company registering land claims used forms that do not protect women’s rights to property or follow best practice as related to gender" (Pg 17).
June 28, 2019, 10:58 a.m.
Countries: Sri Lanka
Variables: ERBG-LAW-1, LO-PRACTICE-1, ATDW-PRACTICE-2, IAW-PRACTICE-1, IAD-PRACTICE-1

"The law provides for equal employment opportunity in the public sector. Women have equal rights under civil and criminal law. Adjudication of questions related to family law--including divorce, child custody, and inheritance-- varied according to the customary law of each ethnic or religious group, resulting in discrimination" (Pg 30).
June 12, 2019, 1:03 p.m.
Countries: Niger
Variables: CWC-DATA-2, LO-PRACTICE-1, IIP-PRACTICE-1, IAD-PRACTICE-1, IAD-LAW-1, ATFPA-PRACTICE-2

"Although the constitution provides for equal legal status and rights regardless of gender, women do not have the same rights as men under family law, which customary courts usually adjudicate. In customary law legal rights as head of household typically apply only to men. Customary law does not consider a divorced or widowed woman, even with children, to be a head of household. Traditional and religious beliefs resulted in discrimination in education, employment (see section 7.d.), owning or managing a business, credit, and property rights. Discrimination was worse in rural areas, where women helped with subsistence farming and did most of the childrearing, cooking, water- and wood-gathering, and other work....more
May 11, 2019, 5:11 p.m.
Countries: Fiji
Variables: IAD-PRACTICE-1

"Women have full rights of inheritance and property ownership by law, but local authorities often excluded them from the decision-making process on disposition of indigenous communal land, which constituted more than 80 percent of all land" (16).
April 29, 2019, 10:15 a.m.
Countries: Venezuela
Variables: IAD-PRACTICE-1

"Although the law provides for equal inheritance rights for men and women, women continued to face cultural discrimination. A son was more likely to inherit property than was a daughter, unless otherwise specified by a legal document, and even then authorities did not split the land equitably between son and daughter" (31).
April 9, 2019, 12:57 p.m.
Countries: Iran
Variables: IAD-PRACTICE-1

"In cases of inheritance, male heirs receive twice the inheritance of their female counterparts" (35).
March 21, 2019, 11:12 p.m.
Countries: Syria
Variables: IAD-PRACTICE-1

"During the year there were reports that, in some regions, custom prevailed over the law and women received no inheritance" (para 198).
March 15, 2019, 11:35 a.m.
Countries: Vanuatu
Variables: LO-LAW-1, IAW-PRACTICE-1, IAW-LAW-1, IAD-PRACTICE-1, IAD-LAW-1

"Although the law does not prohibit women from owning or inheriting property or land, tradition generally bars women from land ownership or property inheritance" (9).
March 5, 2019, 2:35 p.m.
Countries: Malaysia
Variables: IAD-PRACTICE-1

"Islamic inheritance law generally favors male offspring and male relatives" (23).
Feb. 18, 2019, 7:01 p.m.
Countries: Rwanda
Variables: IAD-PRACTICE-1

"Land disputes are the most common type of disputes in Rwanda. Of these, inheritance disputes, often among children of the deceased, were cited as the most common by the members of the abunzi who were interviewed. Even those outside the dispute resolution field noted the frequency of inheritance disputes: the majority of my respondents, when asked if they knew of any land disputes, referenced inheritance disputes. When asked about current succession practices, nearly all respondents in the South and several respondents in the North stated that daughters would not receive parcels of land equal to those received by their brothers. This inequality could manifest as daughters receiving smaller shares than...more
Feb. 14, 2019, 11:11 p.m.
Countries: Mauritius
Variables: IAW-LAW-1, IAD-PRACTICE-1

"Women had equal access to education, employment, housing, and government services, and could inherit land" (para 60).
Feb. 11, 2019, 6:06 p.m.
Countries: Singapore
Variables: IAW-PRACTICE-1, IAD-PRACTICE-1, POLY-LAW-1

"Differences between civil law and Sharia are most evident in matters related to inheritance. Traditionally, across all cultures in Singapore, sons inherited family assets while daughters were expected to marry into another family. This pattern is less common today, as civil law grants equal rights to male and female heirs. By contrast, Islamic law typically continues to favour male heirs" (48)
Feb. 7, 2019, 3:47 p.m.
Countries: Lebanon
Variables: CLCW-LAW-1, CLCC-LAW-1, IAW-LAW-1, IAD-PRACTICE-1

"In matters of child custody, inheritance, and divorce, personal status laws provide unequal treatment across the various confessional court systems but generally discriminate against women. For example, Sunni civil courts applied an inheritance law that provides a son twice the inheritance of a daughter. Religious law on child custody matters favors the father in most instances. Nationality law also discriminates against women, who may not confer citizenship to their spouses and children, although widows may confer citizenship to their minor children. By law women may own property, but they often ceded control of it to male relatives due to cultural reasons and family pressure" (Pg 29).more
Jan. 28, 2019, 9:21 p.m.
Countries: South Africa
Variables: IW-PRACTICE-1, IAW-PRACTICE-1, IAD-PRACTICE-1

"The customary tenure system uses patrilineal transfer of land ownership. In patrilineal societies, inheritance and descent are traced through the father’s lineage and property devolves along the male line, to the exclusion of women. The male heir is responsible for maintaining and caring for the estate and its dependants: namely, the widow and the children" (para 15-16)