The most comprehensive compilation of information on the status of
women in the world.

Latest items for IAW-PRACTICE-1

Feb. 11, 2019, 6:49 p.m.
Countries: Sierra Leone
Variables: ATDW-LAW-1, IAW-PRACTICE-1, POLY-LAW-2

"Women face the risk of losing control over the land when their husband dies or if they divorce. Male children from the marriage inherit the land but if there are no children and if a woman remarries into her late husband’s family, she can continue to cultivate the land. A woman who returns to her patrilineal family regains her rights to land for cultivation from the male head of her family" (para 2)
Feb. 11, 2019, 6:48 p.m.
Countries: Sierra Leone
Variables: IAW-PRACTICE-1

"Outside of the Western area, customary law applies. Women’s access to land is restricted due to the patrilineal inheritance practices that favour men over women. While women cannot inherit land, they have rights to land before marriage and are entitled to cultivate land upon marriage" (para 1)
Feb. 11, 2019, 6:06 p.m.
Countries: Singapore
Variables: IAW-PRACTICE-1, IAD-PRACTICE-1, POLY-LAW-1

"Differences between civil law and Sharia are most evident in matters related to inheritance. Traditionally, across all cultures in Singapore, sons inherited family assets while daughters were expected to marry into another family. This pattern is less common today, as civil law grants equal rights to male and female heirs. By contrast, Islamic law typically continues to favour male heirs" (48)
Feb. 8, 2019, 4:42 p.m.
Countries: Mali
Variables: LO-PRACTICE-1, LO-LAW-1, IAW-PRACTICE-1

"While the law provides for equal property rights, traditional practices and ignorance of the law prevented women from taking full advantage of their rights" (page 22).
Jan. 28, 2019, 9:21 p.m.
Countries: South Africa
Variables: IW-PRACTICE-1, IAW-PRACTICE-1, IAD-PRACTICE-1

"The customary tenure system uses patrilineal transfer of land ownership. In patrilineal societies, inheritance and descent are traced through the father’s lineage and property devolves along the male line, to the exclusion of women. The male heir is responsible for maintaining and caring for the estate and its dependants: namely, the widow and the children" (para 15-16)
Jan. 22, 2019, 9:02 p.m.
Countries: Tanzania
Variables: IAW-PRACTICE-1, IAD-PRACTICE-1, POLY-LAW-1, POLY-LAW-2

"The statutory deference granted to both customary law and Islamic law in mainland Tanzania is particularly discriminatory toward polygamous co-wives. Under Islamic law, a Muslim man is allowed to marry up to four wives. Contrary to customary law, Islamic law does allow widows and daughters to inherit, although the amounts allotted to each are half that allotted to their male counterparts. Islamic law explicitly provides that widows and daughters only get one-half of the property interest of men in the same familial position. Specifically, widows with children are entitled to one eighth of their spouse’s estate, whereas a widower with children is entitled to one-fourth. A widow without children is...more
Jan. 22, 2019, 8:17 p.m.
Countries: East Timor
Variables: IAW-PRACTICE-1, IAW-LAW-1, IAD-PRACTICE-1, IAD-LAW-1

"The law and practice on women’s inheritance rights is unclear. In 2009, the government reported that women and men have equal rights to inheritance. For instance, the government reported that the law provides that when the husband dies first, the inheritance will be divided between his wife and the children, or the inheritance will go to the wife only if they have no children. However, non-governmental organisations report that sons are generally recognised as the heads of family and recipients of family inheritance. A 2004 survey on inheritance rights of unmarried women found that women do inherit land differently under matrilineal and patrilineal systems. In the instance where women did...more
Jan. 22, 2019, 6:56 p.m.
Countries: Togo
Variables: IAW-PRACTICE-1, IAD-PRACTICE-1

"Togolese custom is very unfavourable to women in the matter of inheritance. Women are not entitled to inherit from their husbands or fathers, but can hold property in usufruct" (272)
Jan. 19, 2019, 3:13 p.m.
Countries: Uganda
Variables: IAW-PRACTICE-1

"Inheritance/succession de facto practices: According to the patriarchal system of inheritance in place in most of the 56 indigenous communities, the male kin of the deceased will take care of the survived wife and children. De facto, this rarely happens and often the wife and children are dispossessed of the family’s assets and forced to move back to the widow’s parents’ home, where she becomes dependent on her male relatives" (para 22)
Jan. 8, 2019, 9:46 a.m.
Countries: Nigeria
Variables: IAW-PRACTICE-1

"'By custom, widows subject to customary marriages are not regarded as part of the family; as such, when their husbands die, no matter the level of closeness or contribution to the estate of the deceased’s estates, they are to be excluded. Where there are children, the children inherit. The wife is incapable of inheriting the husband property,' Oni said" (Para 23-24).
Jan. 2, 2019, 2:04 p.m.
Countries: Tunisia
Variables: IAW-PRACTICE-1

"Sharia requires men, but not women, to provide for their families. Because of this expectation, sharia inheritance law provides, in some instances, men with a larger share of an inheritance. . . . Non-Muslim women and their Muslim husbands may not inherit from each other. . . . Spouses may, however, freely give up to a third of their estate to whomever they designate in their will" (page 18).
Dec. 21, 2018, 4:39 p.m.
Countries: Tunisia
Variables: IAW-PRACTICE-1, IAW-LAW-1, IAD-PRACTICE-1, IAD-LAW-1

"Sharia requires men, but not women, to provide for their families. Because of this expectation, in some instances sharia inheritance law provides men with a larger share of an inheritance. Some families avoided the application of sharia by executing sales contracts between parents and children to ensure that daughters received shares of property equal to those given sons. Non-Muslim women and their Muslim husbands may not inherit from each other. The government considers all children of those marriages to be Muslim and forbids those children from inheriting from their mothers. Spouses may, however, freely give up to a third of their estate to whomever they designate in their will" (page...more
Nov. 16, 2018, 9:46 a.m.
Countries: Burma/Myanmar
Variables: IAW-PRACTICE-1

"Women are discriminated against in the realm of property and inheritance as well since the Government recognizes the authority of village elders and religious or ethnic leaders to adjudicate property rights. For example, Kachin customary law favors sons over daughter in inheritance disputes; in divorce cases, the Palaung and the Kachin grant property to the husband as a matter of right" (page 28). "Palaung: By Palaung customary law, when a women and a man get divorced, women do not have the right to an inheritance, even if she needs to raise children by herself. Source: Palaung Women’s Organisation (PWO). Kuki: By Kuki customary law, when a woman and a man...more
Nov. 12, 2018, 8:37 p.m.
Countries: Kosovo
Variables: IAW-PRACTICE-1

"The law stipulates that the partners in marriage and civil unions have equal rights to own and inherit property, but men commonly inherited family property and only 8 percent of women owned land...In rare cases Kosovo-Albanian widows, particularly in rural areas, risked losing custody of their children due to a custom requiring children and property to pass to the deceased father’s family while the widow returned to her birth family" (para 121)
Sept. 26, 2018, 11:01 a.m.
Countries: Afghanistan
Variables: IAW-PRACTICE-1

"Lack of access to civil documentation such as tazkera (national IDs) and marriage certificates is a major, but hidden, reason for difficulties in gaining access to justice. Without tazkera and a marriage certificate, women cannot legally claim inheritance or assert their rights in divorce cases" (para 6).
Sept. 14, 2018, 10:13 a.m.
Countries: Maldives
Variables: IAW-PRACTICE-1, IAD-PRACTICE-1

"Women have been historically disadvantaged, particularly in the application of Islamic law in matters such as divorce, education, inheritance, and providing legal testimony, including on rape" (17).
Sept. 4, 2018, 10:28 a.m.
Countries: Qatar
Variables: IAW-PRACTICE-1

"Traditions of sharia also significantly disadvantage women in family, property, and inheritance law and in the judicial system generally. For example, a non-Muslim wife does not have the automatic right to inherit from her Muslim husband. She receives an inheritance only if her husband wills her a portion of his estate, and even then she is eligible to receive only one-third of the total estate" (17).
Sept. 4, 2018, 10:26 a.m.
Countries: Nepal
Variables: IAW-PRACTICE-1, IAW-LAW-1

"The law also grants widows complete access and authority to the estate of their deceased husbands; however, traditional attitudes stigmatizing and shunning widows persisted, and communities often ignored the law, while the government did not take sufficient measures to enforce it" (30-31).
Sept. 4, 2018, 10:21 a.m.
Countries: Madagascar
Variables: IAW-PRACTICE-1

"A tradition known as “the customary third” provides the wife with the right to only one-third of a couple’s joint holdings upon dissolution of the marriage, and families occasionally observed the tradition" (17-18).
Sept. 4, 2018, 10:19 a.m.
Countries: Laos
Variables: IAW-PRACTICE-1, IAW-LAW-1, IAD-PRACTICE-1, IAD-LAW-1

"The law also prohibits discrimination in marriage and inheritance, although varying degrees of cultural-based discrimination against women persisted, with greater discrimination practiced by some ethnic minority groups in remote areas" (20).
Sept. 4, 2018, 10:15 a.m.
Countries: Greece
Variables: IAW-PRACTICE-1, IAW-LAW-1

"The media reported that, on March 14, the Supreme Court upheld a prior sharia law ruling from 2013 rejecting civil law provisions in an estate case. The court ruled that the deceased individual’s sister-in-law, under sharia law in Thrace, could claim part of her brother’s real estate property even though he had named his wife as full beneficiary in his public will and testament filed in a civil court" (22).
Aug. 28, 2018, 10:03 a.m.
Countries: Mali
Variables: IAW-PRACTICE-1, IAD-PRACTICE-1

"The Committee . . . notes with concern the disproportionately adverse impact on rural women of the Land Code (2000), under which the application of customary law to land acquisition through succession, as well as to the administration of property, is recognized, thereby limiting women’s access to economic resources and financial credit" (page 11-12).
Aug. 20, 2018, 11:08 a.m.
Countries: Philippines
Variables: MARR-LAW-1, IAW-PRACTICE-1, PW-LAW-1

"The contradictions between the provisions of the Magna Carta of Women and those of the Code of Muslim Personal Laws and customary laws applicable to Muslim and indigenous communities, which provide for unequal relations between husband and wife, including harmful practices such as polygamy and child and forced marriage, as well as unequal practices with respect to inheritance" (page 15).
Aug. 6, 2018, 2:45 p.m.
Countries: Montenegro
Variables: IAW-PRACTICE-1

“[There is the] prevalence of son preference in families and within society and the attribution of a subordinate status to women vis-à-vis men, as reflected and perpetuated by a...strong societal pressure on women to refuse inheritance to the benefit of male family members” (4)
June 28, 2018, 4:51 p.m.
Countries: Tanzania
Variables: IAW-PRACTICE-1

"The Committee . . . is also concerned that discriminatory customary laws and practices persist with regard to marriage and family relations, including concerning inheritance by widows and daughters and property ownership. . . The Committee notes with appreciation that the State party has ratified the Optional Protocol to the Convention, but is concerned that its views concerning communication No. 48/2013, adopted under article 7 (3) of the Optional Protocol at its sixtieth session, in March 2015, regarding discriminatory customary inheritance laws in the State party, have not been implemented and that the State party has provided no information on action taken in the light of those views and recommendations,...more
May 30, 2018, 8:31 p.m.
Countries: Afghanistan
Variables: IAW-PRACTICE-1

Concerning Afghanistan: "Widows cannot work, like most women in traditional areas, and any inheritance or property would go to her husband’s brothers, not to his widow or children."
May 13, 2018, 6:48 p.m.
Countries: Afghanistan
Variables: LRW-PRACTICE-1, LRW-LAW-1, LRW-LAW-2, LRCM-PRACTICE-1, LRCM-LAW-2, MARR-PRACTICE-1, MARR-LAW-1, IAW-PRACTICE-1, IAW-LAW-1, DV-PRACTICE-1, DV-LAW-1, DV-LAW-2

"The EVAW law criminalizes violence against women, including rape, battery, or beating; forced marriage; humiliation; intimidation; and deprivation of inheritance, although its implementation remained limited. The law provides for a sentence of 16 to 20 years’ imprisonment for rape. If the act results in the death of the victim, the law provides for a death sentence for the perpetrator. The law provides for imprisonment of up to seven years for the “violation of chastity of a woman...that does not result in adultery (such as sexual touching).” Under the law, rape does not include spousal rape. The law was not widely understood, and some in the public and the religious communities...more
April 11, 2018, 9:04 p.m.
Countries: Albania
Variables: IAW-PRACTICE-1

"The Committee notes with concern that only a small percentage of women in the State party (8 per cent) own land, that Law No. 33/2012, which provides for joint ownership by both spouses of property acquired during marriage, is not being implemented effectively and that women are frequently discriminated against in matters of inheritance" (Pg 11).
April 3, 2018, 10:42 p.m.
Countries: Madagascar
Variables: IAW-PRACTICE-1

"The Committee reiterates its concern at the persistence of discriminatory stereotypes concerning the roles and responsibilities of women and men in society and in the family, such as the concept of 'the head of the household', which assigns this role to men, and the perpetuation of 'the father’s name and estate' through male heirs. The Committee notes efforts undertaken under the guidance of the Ministry of Justice with various stakeholders, the signing of road maps and the drafting of plans of action to address some harmful practices. The Committee is deeply concerned, however, about the persistence of harmful practices such as child and/or forced marriage, the sale of wives, girl...more
April 2, 2018, 8:19 a.m.
Countries: Bolivia
Variables: AOM-PRACTICE-1, AOM-LAW-1, IAW-PRACTICE-1

"The Committee is concerned, however, about the challenges in its implementation, including the 18 year minimum age of marriage for women and men" (13).