The most comprehensive compilation of information on the status of
women in the world.

Latest items for IMSTD-PRACTICE-1

July 23, 2019, 8:03 p.m.
Countries: Afghanistan
Variables: IMSTD-PRACTICE-1

"Seven percent of ever-married women have experienced one or more acts of sexual violence by their spouse: 6% have been physically forced to have sexual intercourse with their spouse when they did not want to, 5% have been physically forced to perform other unwanted sexual acts, and 4% have been forced with threats and in other ways to perform unwanted sexual acts" (277).
July 8, 2019, 9:19 p.m.
Countries: Uganda
Variables: IMSTD-PRACTICE-1

"Eighty-six percent of currently married women age 15-49 can say no to their husband if they do not want to have sex, and 79% can ask their husband to use a condom" (275). "Just over three-quarters of women (76%) and men (77%) believe a wife is justified in refusing sex if her husband has other partners; 87% of women and 91% of men believe she is justified in asking her husband to wear a condom if he has an STI (Table 14.11)" (281). "Currently married women were also asked whether they could ask their husband to use a condom. Eighty-six percent of currently married women said they could say no...more
June 10, 2019, 5:45 p.m.
Countries: Malawi
Variables: IMSTD-PRACTICE-1

"The majority of women and men in Malawi believe that a woman is justified in refusing sex if she knows her husband has sex with other women (66% and 74%, respectively). The majority also report that a woman is justified in asking her husband to use a condom if he has a sexually transmitted infection (STI) (82% and 88%, respectively) (Table 16.11)" (258). "In Malawi, 46% of women can say no to their husband if they do not want to have sexual intercourse, and nearly half (49%) can ask their husband to use a condom (Table 16.12)" (259).
June 5, 2019, 11:40 a.m.
Countries: Armenia
Variables: IMSTD-PRACTICE-1

"Table 15.11 shows that 85 percent of women and 73 percent of men age 15-49 agree that a woman can refuse to have sexual intercourse with her husband if she knows that he has sex with other women; also, 87 percent of women and 93 percent of men agree that a woman can ask that they use a condom if she knows that her husband has an STI" (249). "Overall, less than half of currently married women (48 percent in each case) report that they can say no to their husband if they do not want to have sexual intercourse and that they can ask their husband to use a...more
May 27, 2019, 1:48 p.m.
Countries: Netherlands
Variables: IMSTD-PRACTICE-1

"In some parts of Curaçao, there are insufficient health-care specialists providing HIV/AIDS-specific care and, while antiretroviral medicines are available, it can be difficult to have access to them and they cost 17 times more than the internationally recommended prices" (12).
May 10, 2019, 3:08 p.m.
Countries: Philippines
Variables: IMSTD-PRACTICE-1

"Most women age 15-49 (86%) believe that a wife is justified in refusing to have sex with her husband if she knows he has sex with other women. Eighty-three percent of women believe that a wife is justified in asking her husband to use a condom if she knows that her husband has an STI (Table 14.9). To assess the ability of women to actually negotiate sexual relations with their husbands, currently married women were asked whether they can say no to their husband if they do not want to have sexual intercourse and whether they can ask their husband to use a condom. The majority of women (87%) can...more
May 1, 2019, 10:54 p.m.
Countries: Albania
Variables: IMSTD-PRACTICE-1

"Half of currently married women age 15-49 (52%) stated they could say no to their husbands if they did not want to have sex, and 43% said they could ask their husband to use a condom" (253). "The majority of Albanian women age 15-49 believe a wife is justified in negotiating sexual relations with her husband. Just over three-quarters of women (80%) and half of men (50%) believe a wife is justified in refusing sex if her husband has other partners; 74% of women and 56% of men believe she is justified in asking her husband to wear a condom if he has an STI (Table 14.12)" (260).more
March 1, 2019, 9:06 a.m.
Countries: Tajikistan
Variables: IMSTD-PRACTICE-1

"A majority of women believe that a wife is justified in negotiating sexual relations with her husband. Sixty percent of women agree that a wife is justified in refusing to have sexual intercourse with her husband if her husband has other partners, and 58% agree that she is justified in asking her husband to wear a condom if he has an STI (Table 15.10). To assess the ability of women to actually negotiate safer sexual relations with their husbands, currently married women were asked whether they can say no to their husband if they do not want to have sexual intercourse and whether they could ask their husband to use...more
Feb. 1, 2019, 2:36 p.m.
Countries: Ethiopia
Variables: IMSTD-PRACTICE-1

"Seventy-three percent of women age 15-49 believe that a woman is justified in refusing to have sexual intercourse with her husband if she knows he has sex with other women, compared with 82% of men. Similarly, 61% of women believe that a woman is justified in asking that a husband use a condom if she knows that he has an STI, compared with 80% of men (Table 14.14)" (264). "Forty-five percent of married women say that they can say no to their husbands if they do not want to have sexual intercourse, but only 30% said that they can ask their husband to use a condom (Table 14.15)" (264). "Only...more
Jan. 9, 2019, 11:12 a.m.
Countries: Niger
Variables: IMSTD-PRACTICE-1

"In secure spaces chosen in consultation with communities, Safe Space staff educates girls about sexual and reproductive health, self-esteem, their rights, money management, public speaking and literacy. In 2014 and 2015, over 10,000 girls completed the program" (para 13).
Nov. 16, 2018, 9:46 a.m.
Countries: Burma/Myanmar
Variables: IMSTD-PRACTICE-1

"Dowry System: . . . Kuki: According to Kuki tradition, dowry is given in the form of cash or mythun (a kind of cattle). If a man’s wife refuses to have sex with him because she is sick, a common attitude is “I bought you with money. You have to let me have sex or do anything to you whenever and wherever I want”. Source: Kuki Women’s Human Rights Organisation (KWHRO)" (page 32).
Oct. 26, 2018, 8:42 a.m.
Countries: Senegal
Variables: IMSTD-PRACTICE-1

"The law also allows medical doctors to inform spouses of persons with HIV/AIDS of their partners’ status if the latter fail to do so after a reasonable time" (page 21).
Oct. 22, 2018, 9:31 p.m.
Countries: Iran
Variables: IMSTD-PRACTICE-1

"In 2011 the Supreme Court ruled that a woman could withhold sex from her husband if the husband refused to pay a personal maintenance allowance" (para 157). This implies that if a husband provides the personal maintenance allowance, the wive must give him sex (MAD - CODER COMMENT)
Oct. 19, 2018, 10:12 p.m.
Countries: Comoros
Variables: IMSTD-PRACTICE-1

"On the whole, 54% of women and 69% of men think that a woman is justified, when she knows that her partner is having sexual relations with other women, to refuse sex with him. This opinion is most frequently shared by women over 20 years old than by younger women (59% among those age 25-29 compared to 48% among those age 15-24), by sexually-active single women (75% compared to 43% among non-sexually-active single women), women in Moroni (72% compared to 45% in other cities) and by those in Ngazidja (70% compared to 39% at Mwali and at Ndzuwani). We note, furthermore, that even if the gaps are not very significant,...more
Aug. 31, 2018, 10:10 a.m.
Countries: United States
Variables: IMSTD-PRACTICE-1

“The tactics employed by abusers may include not only sexual assault or rape but also reproductive or sexual coercion, including behaviors such as demanding unprotected sex, sabotaging a partner’s birth control, impregnating a partner who does not want to become pregnant, and injuring a partner in a way that can lead to miscarriage (American College of Obstetricians and Gynecologists 2013; Chamberlain and Levenson 2012). Analysis of the 2010 NISVS indicates that about nine percent of female survey respondents have had an intimate partner who tried to get them pregnant or stop them from using birth control” (248)
Aug. 31, 2018, 10:10 a.m.
Countries: United States
Variables: ISTD-DATA-3, IMSTD-PRACTICE-1

“Domestic and sexual violence also puts women and girls at higher risk of sexually transmitted infections and HIV (Decker, Silverman, and Raj 2005; Sareen, Pagura, and Grant 2009; Wingood, DiClemente, and Raj 2000). One study analyzing data from ninth through twelfth grade girls participating in the Massachusetts Youth Risk Behavior Surveys found that among girls who have been diagnosed with HIV or another sexually transmitted infection, more than half reported having experienced physical or sexual intimate partner violence. Girls experiencing this violence were 2.6 times more likely than non-abused girls to report an STD diagnosis” (248)
June 28, 2018, 4:51 p.m.
Countries: Tanzania
Variables: IMSTD-PRACTICE-1

" . . . criminalization of the transmission of HIV and the forced disclosure of HIV status to sexual partners under the HIV and AIDS (Prevention and Control) Act (2008)" (page 13).
May 31, 2018, 2:35 p.m.
Countries: Tanzania
Variables: IMSTD-PRACTICE-1

"Respondents were asked if they agreed that a husband is justified in hitting or beating his wife under each of the following five circumstances: she burns the food, she argues with him, she goes out without telling him, she neglects the children, and she refuses to have sex with him. . . . In Tanzania, 58% of women believe that a husband is justified in beating his wife in at least one of the five specified circumstances" (page 330). Figure 15.5 shows that 31% of women believe wife-beating is justified if the wife refuses sex with her husband, compared to 14% of men (page 330).
April 11, 2018, 9:04 p.m.
Countries: Albania
Variables: IMSTD-PRACTICE-1

"Furthermore, the Committee is concerned about the increasing mother-to-child transmission of HIV, notwithstanding the preventive programmes adopted by the State party" (Pg 9).
Jan. 8, 2018, 11:54 a.m.
Countries: Burma/Myanmar
Variables: IMSTD-PRACTICE-1

"Knowledge about HIV transmission and ways to prevent it is of little use if people feel powerless to negotiate safer sex practices with their partners. To assess attitudes toward negotiating safer sexual relations with husbands, women and men were asked whether they thought that a wife is justified in refusing to have sexual intercourse with her husband if she knows he has sex with other women or asking that he use a condom if she knows he has a sexually transmitted infection (STI). Eighty-one percent of women and 68% of men believe that a woman is justified in refusing sexual intercourse if her husband has another sexual partner. Similarly, three...more
June 22, 2017, 3:53 p.m.
Countries: Nigeria
Variables: IMSTD-PRACTICE-1

"Last year's [2016] study said women often found they could not ask their husbands or boyfriends to wear condoms, and were not expected to carry them...'The problem is that you cannot even suggest the use of that thing to your boyfriend. 'It’s like if you say it you are accusing him of sleeping around or that you are not sure of yourself. No matter which one, it can end the relationship and give you a bad name'" (p 12-13)
Dec. 27, 2016, 2:02 p.m.
Countries: Pakistan
Variables: IMSTD-PRACTICE-1

"In Pakistan there is currently a wife-beating bill proposed by the Council of Islamic Ideology, stating that a man should be able to ‘lightly beat’ his wife as a form of discipline.The draft details that a husband should be entitled to ‘lightly’ beat his wife if she does one of the following: defies his commands, does not dress up as per her husband’s desires, refuses intercourse or does not take a bath after intercourse/ menstrual periods" (10).
Oct. 8, 2016, 4:08 p.m.
Countries: Lesotho
Variables: IMSTD-PRACTICE-1

“Table 12.6 shows that 66% of women and 55% of men believe a woman has a right to refuse sexual intercourse with her husband if she knows he has sex with other women, and 92% of women and 90% of men believe that a wife is justified in asking her husband to use a condom if she knows he has an STI” (195).
Oct. 8, 2016, 4:07 p.m.
Countries: Bangladesh
Variables: IMSTD-PRACTICE-1

“The great majority of ever-married women (91 percent) think that if a woman knows her husband has a sexually transmitted infection (STI) she is justified in refusing to have sexual intercourse with him” (175). “Table 12.6 shows that the great majority of ever-married women (91 percent) think that if a woman knows her husband has a sexually transmitted infection (STI), she is justified in refusing to have sex with him. This percentage remains the same as in the 2011 BDHS” (182). “Among administrative divisions, the proportion of women who support a woman’s right to refuse sex ranges from 87 percent in Sylhet and Rangpur to 95 percent in Rajshahi” (182)....more
Sept. 17, 2016, 7:24 p.m.
Countries: Bangladesh
Variables: DACH-PRACTICE-2, IMSTD-PRACTICE-1

"The Ministry of Health partnered with a local pharmaceutical distributing firm and the regional distributor for female condoms to conduct a social marketing campaign for the female condom. This was done as a means of redressing weaknesses in women’s control in the use of protection during sexual intercourse. This initiative has been highly successful in raising awareness, in distributing female condoms for educational purposes, and as part of the safe sex campaign. Women are also being educated in negotiating skills for the use of condoms" (39)
Sept. 14, 2016, 4:05 p.m.
Countries: Nigeria
Variables: IMSTD-PRACTICE-1

“Table 13.6 shows that 68 percent of women and 74 percent of men in Nigeria believe that a woman is justified in refusing to have sexual intercourse with her husband if she knows that he has sexual intercourse with other women. Urban women (69 percent) are more likely than rural women (66 percent) to express this sentiment. However, men show the opposite pattern; rural men are slightly more likely than urban men to believe that a woman is justified in refusing to have sexual intercourse with her husband if she knows he has sex with other women (75 percent and 72 percent, respectively)” (236). “Seventy-five percent of women and 88...more
Sept. 14, 2016, 3:55 p.m.
Countries: Namibia
Variables: IMSTD-PRACTICE-1

“Table 14.6 shows the percentage of women and men age 15-49 who believe that, if a husband has a sexually transmitted disease, his wife is justified in refusing to have sexual intercourse with him or asking that they use a condom. The percentage of respondents who agree with this statement is high for both women and men (86 percent and 89 percent, respectively)” (202). “The proportion of respondents who say that a wife is justified in asking her husband who has a sexually transmitted disease to use a condom is also high (89 percent for women and 92 percent for men)” (202). “Older respondents and those living in urban areas...more
Sept. 14, 2016, 3:44 p.m.
Countries: Ghana
Variables: IMSTD-PRACTICE-1

“Table 13.6 shows that 74 percent of women and 79 percent of men age 15-49 believe that a wife is justified in refusing to have sexual intercourse with her husband if she knows he has sex with other women. In addition, 91 percent of women and 95 percent of men believe that a woman has a right to ask her husband to use a condom if she knows that he has an STI” (216, 217). “In terms of regional variation, women in the Upper East (81 percent), Greater Accra (80 percent), and Upper West (79 percent) regions are most supportive of a woman refusing to have sexual intercourse with her...more
Sept. 12, 2016, 3:55 a.m.
Countries: Nigeria
Variables: IMSTD-PRACTICE-1

“Table 13.6 shows that 68 percent of women and 74 percent of men in Nigeria believe that a woman is justified in refusing to have sexual intercourse with her husband if she knows that he has sexual intercourse with other women. Urban women (69 percent) are more likely than rural women (66 percent) to express this sentiment. However, men show the opposite pattern; rural men are slightly more likely than urban men to believe that a woman is justified in refusing to have sexual intercourse with her husband if she knows he has sex with other women (75 percent and 72 percent, respectively)” (236). “Seventy-five percent of women and 88...more
Sept. 12, 2016, 3:53 a.m.
Countries: Namibia
Variables: IMSTD-PRACTICE-1

“Table 14.6 shows the percentage of women and men age 15-49 who believe that, if a husband has a sexually transmitted disease, his wife is justified in refusing to have sexual intercourse with him or asking that they use a condom. The percentage of respondents who agree with this statement is high for both women and men (86 percent and 89 percent, respectively)” (202). “The proportion of respondents who say that a wife is justified in asking her husband who has a sexually transmitted disease to use a condom is also high (89 percent for women and 92 percent for men)” (202). “Older respondents and those living in urban areas...more