The most comprehensive compilation of information on the status of
women in the world.

Latest items for IMSTD-PRACTICE-1

June 22, 2017, 3:53 p.m.
Countries: Nigeria
Variables: IMSTD-PRACTICE-1

"Last year's [2016] study said women often found they could not ask their husbands or boyfriends to wear condoms, and were not expected to carry them...'The problem is that you cannot even suggest the use of that thing to your boyfriend. 'It’s like if you say it you are accusing him of sleeping around or that you are not sure of yourself. No matter which one, it can end the relationship and give you a bad name'" (p 12-13)
Dec. 27, 2016, 2:02 p.m.
Countries: Pakistan
Variables: IMSTD-PRACTICE-1

"In Pakistan there is currently a wife-beating bill proposed by the Council of Islamic Ideology, stating that a man should be able to ‘lightly beat’ his wife as a form of discipline.The draft details that a husband should be entitled to ‘lightly’ beat his wife if she does one of the following: defies his commands, does not dress up as per her husband’s desires, refuses intercourse or does not take a bath after intercourse/ menstrual periods" (10).
Oct. 8, 2016, 4:08 p.m.
Countries: Lesotho
Variables: IMSTD-PRACTICE-1

“Table 12.6 shows that 66% of women and 55% of men believe a woman has a right to refuse sexual intercourse with her husband if she knows he has sex with other women, and 92% of women and 90% of men believe that a wife is justified in asking her husband to use a condom if she knows he has an STI” (195).
Oct. 8, 2016, 4:07 p.m.
Countries: Bangladesh
Variables: IMSTD-PRACTICE-1

“The great majority of ever-married women (91 percent) think that if a woman knows her husband has a sexually transmitted infection (STI) she is justified in refusing to have sexual intercourse with him” (175). “Table 12.6 shows that the great majority of ever-married women (91 percent) think that if a woman knows her husband has a sexually transmitted infection (STI), she is justified in refusing to have sex with him. This percentage remains the same as in the 2011 BDHS” (182). “Among administrative divisions, the proportion of women who support a woman’s right to refuse sex ranges from 87 percent in Sylhet and Rangpur to 95 percent in Rajshahi” (182). ...more
Sept. 17, 2016, 7:24 p.m.
Countries: Bangladesh
Variables: DACH-PRACTICE-2, IMSTD-PRACTICE-1

"The Ministry of Health partnered with a local pharmaceutical distributing firm and the regional distributor for female condoms to conduct a social marketing campaign for the female condom. This was done as a means of redressing weaknesses in women’s control in the use of protection during sexual intercourse. This initiative has been highly successful in raising awareness, in distributing female condoms for educational purposes, and as part of the safe sex campaign. Women are also being educated in negotiating skills for the use of condoms" (39)
Sept. 14, 2016, 4:05 p.m.
Countries: Nigeria
Variables: IMSTD-PRACTICE-1

“Table 13.6 shows that 68 percent of women and 74 percent of men in Nigeria believe that a woman is justified in refusing to have sexual intercourse with her husband if she knows that he has sexual intercourse with other women. Urban women (69 percent) are more likely than rural women (66 percent) to express this sentiment. However, men show the opposite pattern; rural men are slightly more likely than urban men to believe that a woman is justified in refusing to have sexual intercourse with her husband if she knows he has sex with other women (75 percent and 72 percent, respectively)” (236). “Seventy-five percent of women and 88 ...more
Sept. 14, 2016, 3:55 p.m.
Countries: Namibia
Variables: IMSTD-PRACTICE-1

“Table 14.6 shows the percentage of women and men age 15-49 who believe that, if a husband has a sexually transmitted disease, his wife is justified in refusing to have sexual intercourse with him or asking that they use a condom. The percentage of respondents who agree with this statement is high for both women and men (86 percent and 89 percent, respectively)” (202). “The proportion of respondents who say that a wife is justified in asking her husband who has a sexually transmitted disease to use a condom is also high (89 percent for women and 92 percent for men)” (202). “Older respondents and those living in urban areas ...more
Sept. 14, 2016, 3:44 p.m.
Countries: Ghana
Variables: IMSTD-PRACTICE-1

“Table 13.6 shows that 74 percent of women and 79 percent of men age 15-49 believe that a wife is justified in refusing to have sexual intercourse with her husband if she knows he has sex with other women. In addition, 91 percent of women and 95 percent of men believe that a woman has a right to ask her husband to use a condom if she knows that he has an STI” (216, 217). “In terms of regional variation, women in the Upper East (81 percent), Greater Accra (80 percent), and Upper West (79 percent) regions are most supportive of a woman refusing to have sexual intercourse with her ...more
Sept. 12, 2016, 3:55 a.m.
Countries: Nigeria
Variables: IMSTD-PRACTICE-1

“Table 13.6 shows that 68 percent of women and 74 percent of men in Nigeria believe that a woman is justified in refusing to have sexual intercourse with her husband if she knows that he has sexual intercourse with other women. Urban women (69 percent) are more likely than rural women (66 percent) to express this sentiment. However, men show the opposite pattern; rural men are slightly more likely than urban men to believe that a woman is justified in refusing to have sexual intercourse with her husband if she knows he has sex with other women (75 percent and 72 percent, respectively)” (236). “Seventy-five percent of women and 88 ...more
Sept. 12, 2016, 3:53 a.m.
Countries: Namibia
Variables: IMSTD-PRACTICE-1

“Table 14.6 shows the percentage of women and men age 15-49 who believe that, if a husband has a sexually transmitted disease, his wife is justified in refusing to have sexual intercourse with him or asking that they use a condom. The percentage of respondents who agree with this statement is high for both women and men (86 percent and 89 percent, respectively)” (202). “The proportion of respondents who say that a wife is justified in asking her husband who has a sexually transmitted disease to use a condom is also high (89 percent for women and 92 percent for men)” (202). “Older respondents and those living in urban areas ...more
Sept. 12, 2016, 3:52 a.m.
Countries: Namibia
Variables: IMSTD-PRACTICE-1

“Table 14.6 shows the percentage of women and men age 15-49 who believe that, if a husband has a sexually transmitted disease, his wife is justified in refusing to have sexual intercourse with him or asking that they use a condom. The percentage of respondents who agree with this statement is high for both women and men (86 percent and 89 percent, respectively)” (202). “The proportion of respondents who say that a wife is justified in asking her husband who has a sexually transmitted disease to use a condom is also high (89 percent for women and 92 percent for men)” (202). “Older respondents and those living in urban areas ...more
Sept. 12, 2016, 3:50 a.m.
Countries: Kenya
Variables: IMSTD-PRACTICE-1

“Seventy-nine percent of both women and men believe that a wife is justified in refusing to have sexual intercourse with her husband if he has sex with other women. Higher proportions of women (89 percent) and men (92 percent) believe that a wife is justified in asking her husband/partner to use a condom if she knows he has an STI” (224). “Women in North Eastern are much less likely than women in other regions to support either refusing sex (32 percent) or asking for condom use (19 percent). Interestingly, men in North Eastern are much more supportive than women in that region (76 percent support refusing sex and 72 percent ...more
Sept. 12, 2016, 3:47 a.m.
Countries: Nigeria
Variables: IMSTD-PRACTICE-1

“Table 13.6 shows that 68 percent of women and 74 percent of men in Nigeria believe that a woman is justified in refusing to have sexual intercourse with her husband if she knows that he has sexual intercourse with other women. Urban women (69 percent) are more likely than rural women (66 percent) to express this sentiment. However, men show the opposite pattern; rural men are slightly more likely than urban men to believe that a woman is justified in refusing to have sexual intercourse with her husband if she knows he has sex with other women (75 percent and 72 percent, respectively)” (236). “Seventy-five percent of women and 88 ...more
Sept. 12, 2016, 3:46 a.m.
Countries: Swaziland
Variables: IMSTD-PRACTICE-1

“Table 13.6 shows that 96 percent of women and 97 percent of men believe that, if a wife knows that her husband has an STI, she is justified in refusing to have sex with him or asking him to wear a condom. While requesting the use of a condom is justifiable to nearly all women and men, refusing to have sex is not considered justifiable to one-third of women and one-quarter of men” (192). “To measure women’s agreement with the idea that a woman has the right to refuse to have sex with her husband, the 2006-07 SDHS asked respondents whether a wife is justified in refusing to have sex ...more
Aug. 27, 2016, 12:23 p.m.
Countries: Pakistan
Variables: IMSTD-PRACTICE-1

"In Pakistan there is currently a wife-beating bill proposed by the Council of Islamic Ideology, stating that a man should be able to 'lightly beat' his wife as a form of discipline.The draft details that a husband should be entitled to 'lightly' beat his wife if she does one of the following: defies his commands, does not dress up as per her husband's desires, refuses intercourse or does not take a bath after intercourse/ menstrual periods" (11).
Aug. 23, 2016, 12:34 p.m.
Countries: East Timor
Variables: IMSTD-PRACTICE-1

"The problem of contagious sexual diseases and HIV/AIDS has become a major issue for Timor-Leste women. These problems continue to grow in parts because male partners do not want to use condoms when having sexual relations and women do not have power to negotiate on using condoms" (46).
July 27, 2016, 10:06 p.m.
Countries: Bangladesh
Variables: IMSTD-PRACTICE-1

“The majority of ever-married women and men (92 percent and 82 percent, respectively) think that if a woman knows her husband has a sexually transmitted infection (STI), she is justified in refusing to have sex with him” (197). “Table 12.6 shows that the majority of ever-married women and men (92 percent and 82 percent, respectively) think that if a woman knows her husband has a sexually transmitted infection (STI), she is justified in refusing to have sex with him” (207). “There are minimal variations in women’s attitudes toward negotiating safer sex with husbands by background characteristics. The exception is for administrative division: the proportion of women who support a woman’s ...more
July 27, 2016, 10:05 p.m.
Countries: Sierra Leone
Variables: IMSTD-PRACTICE-1

“Table 14.6 shows that 58 percent of women and 66 percent of men agree that a woman is justified in refusing to have sex with her husband if she knows he has sexual intercourse with other women. Furthermore, most women and men (72 percent and 82 percent respectively) believe that a woman is justified in asking her husband to use a condom if he has an STI” (207). “Attitudes towards negotiating safer sex differ by background characteristics. Rural respondents, younger respondents (age 15-19), and women and men who never had sex are generally less supportive of women negotiating safer sex practices with their husbands, compared with other women and men. ...more
July 26, 2016, 10:29 p.m.
Countries: Barbados
Variables: DACH-PRACTICE-2, IMSTD-PRACTICE-1

"Family clinics have been integrated into the MCH (Maternal and Child Health) Programme in order to: 1) educate women and their partners 2) reduce the incidences of unplanned pregnancies 3) include medical examinations and the provision of contraceptives" (14)
July 26, 2016, 10:22 p.m.
Countries: Barbados
Variables: ISTD-PRACTICE-1, IMSTD-PRACTICE-1

"In 2003, the National HIV/AIDS Commission instituted a gender sensitive approach, the Speak Sister Media Campaign, to help women acquire the knowledge and skills to negotiate safer sex" (13)
April 30, 2016, 2:05 p.m.
Countries: Indonesia
Variables: IMSTD-PRACTICE-1

“In the 2007 IDHS, women were asked whether a wife is justified in refusing to have sexual intercourse with her husband under four circumstances: she knows her husband has a sexually transmitted disease (STD); she knows her husband has sex with other women; she has recently given birth; and she is tired or not in the mood… findings show that 57 percent of women agree that a wife is justified in refusing sex with her husband for all four of the specified reasons. On the other hand, 6 percent of women agree with none of the specified reasons” (42). “Respondents are most likely to agree with a woman’s right to ...more
April 27, 2016, 7:31 p.m.
Countries: Zambia
Variables: IMSTD-PRACTICE-1

“Table 13.7 shows that 65 percent of women and 72 percent of men age 15-49 believe that a wife is justified in refusing to have sexual intercourse with her husband if she knows he has sex with other women. In addition, 82 percent of women and 88 percent of men believe that a woman has a right to ask her husband to use a condom if she knows that he has an STI. Almost nine in ten women (88 percent) and more than nine in ten men (92 percent) agree with both statements regarding safer sexual relations with husbands. Women and men in the 15-19 age group (82 percent and ...more
April 27, 2016, 9:05 a.m.
Countries: Sierra Leone
Variables: IMSTD-PRACTICE-1

“Table 13.6 shows that nearly two-thirds of women and three-fourths of men agree that a woman is justified in refusing to have sex with her husband if she knows he has an STI (62 percent of women and 76 percent of men)” (193). “Over half of women (56 percent) and three-fourths of men (75 percent) believe that a woman is justified in asking her husband to use a condom if he has an STI” (193). “In an effort to assess the ability of women to negotiate safer sex with a spouse who has an STI, women and men were asked if they thought that a wife is justified in refusing ...more
April 26, 2016, 2:17 p.m.
Countries: Cambodia
Variables: IMSTD-PRACTICE-1

“Seventy-two percent of women and 70 percent of men believe that a woman is justified in refusing to have sex with her husband if she knows he has sex with other women, and 95 percent of women and 98 percent of men believe that a woman is justified in asking her husband to use a condom if he has an STI” (217). “Among both women and men, the percentage who agree with a woman’s right to refuse to have sex with her husband is lower in urban areas than in rural areas; this percentage is also lower among those with a secondary education or higher than among those with a ...more
April 26, 2016, 2:15 p.m.
Countries: Yemen
Variables: IMSTD-PRACTICE-1

“Half of ever-married women believe a woman is justified in asking her husband to use a condom if she knows he has a sexually transmitted infection (STI)” (151). “Table 12.6 shows that half of evermarried women (51 percent) believe that a wife is justified in asking her husband to use a condom if she knows he has an STI. Differences by age and marital status are generally small. However, acceptance of women’s ability to advocate for condom use is higher among urban than rural women and increases with increasing education and wealth” (158).
Jan. 23, 2016, 1:13 p.m.
Countries: India
Variables: IMSTD-PRACTICE-1

"When there is an oppressive relationship, women get less chances in decision making regarding household affairs, reproductive rights, condom use and so on" (para 3). "Taslima Banu, a Muslim woman, was a 26-year-old widow whose husband died in 2006 due to AIDS. She has been staying in Kolkata, with her daughter, brother and sister-in-law. She stays in one room given by her in-laws. After her husband’s death she started ‘zari’ work and was earning Rs 600 per month. According to her Rs 600 per month was insufficient to meet the basic needs and to maintain her health and her HIV-negative daughter (seven-year-old). She has no proper livelihood and above all ...more
Jan. 3, 2016, 7:09 p.m.
Countries: Vietnam
Variables: IMSTD-PRACTICE-1

"There are inequalities of power that make it difficult for women, whether in the context of commercial or marital sex, to insist on the use of condoms, even when they know the risks," (17)."Research suggests that sexual violence against girls and women, including within marriage, places women at higher risk of HIV infection not only because forced sex is almost always unprotected sex but also because violent sex can result in abrasions which facilitate HIV transmission. Furthermore, physical and emotional abuse, or fear of it, undermines...women's ability to negotiate safer sex with their regular partners," (17).
Dec. 21, 2015, 4:57 p.m.
Countries: Oman
Variables: IMSTD-PRACTICE-1, LRW-PRACTICE-1, LRW-PRACTICE-2, LRW-PRACTICE-3, LRCM-PRACTICE-1, LDS-PRACTICE-1

"In Nepal we interviewed a pregnant woman who, when she told her female employer in Oman that her policeman husband had raped her, was thrown into prison for five months for seduction. Pregnant, she was in hiding because she feared her family would desert her" (para 5)
June 30, 2015, 7:44 p.m.
Countries: Namibia
Variables: IMSTD-PRACTICE-1

"...almost 73% of married women who participate in all examples of household decision-making disagree that wife-beating is justified and almost 79% of women who participate in all examples of household decision-making agree that a woman is justified in refusing to have sex with her husband for a series of reasons" (28). "Women in Namibia are at increased vulnerability to HIV infection due to male dominance (men are seen as the heads of the family, decision makers and controllers of resources), as well as poverty and unemployment (drivers that lead women to engage in transactional sex). Violence against women and alcohol are also considered to be risk factors for HIV infection ...more
May 5, 2015, 11:58 p.m.
Countries: Venezuela
Variables: IMSTD-PRACTICE-1

In 1998, 3.4 percent of women aged 15 to 49 who were married or in union reported male condom use as a method of contraception (1). This low prevalence of use implies that a woman cannot reasonably enforce condom use with her husband (HLH-CODER COMMENT)