The most comprehensive compilation of information on the status of
women in the world.

Latest items for INFIB-LAW-1

March 13, 2021, 4:47 p.m.
Countries: United Kingdom
Variables: INFIB-PRACTICE-1, INFIB-LAW-1

"While welcoming the enactment of the Female Genital Mutilation Act (2003) and the Female Genital Mutilation Prohibition (Scotland) Act (2005), the Committee is concerned that there have been no prosecutions under this legislation" (9).
Feb. 15, 2021, 10:42 p.m.
Countries: Egypt
Variables: INFIB-LAW-1

“The practice [FGM] is against the law in Egypt - but remains widespread in the region, despite ongoing efforts to quell it” (para 3). “Since the mid-1990s, Egypt has been battling the centuries-old practice [FGM], which is misguidedly believed to control women's sexuality. In 2008, a law banning the cutting of female genitalia was passed in parliament despite strong opposition from conservative voices” (para 4). “In 2016, legislators adopted amendments to the law, redefining female genital mutilation (FGM) from a misdemeanour, for which offenders typically receive up to two years in prison, to a felony, which draws tougher sentences and punishments. However, women's rights advocates argue the law still contains...more
Feb. 13, 2021, 7:35 p.m.
Countries: Nigeria
Variables: INFIB-LAW-1

“Collins and Akaziebie v. Sweden (8 March 2007 (decision on the admissibility)): The applicants, Nigerian nationals, are mother and daughter. They alleged that they would be subjected to female genital mutilation if they were returned to Nigeria, in violation of Article 3 (prohibition of inhuman or degrading treatment) of the Convention. The Swedish Migration Board rejected their applications for asylum, refugee status or a residence permit, stating, inter alia, that female genital mutilation was prohibited by law in Nigeria and that this prohibition was observed in at least six Nigerian states. Thus, if the applicants returned to one of those states it would be unlikely that they would be forced...more
Feb. 4, 2021, 10:51 p.m.
Countries: Egypt
Variables: INFIB-LAW-1

“The practice [FGM] is against the law in Egypt - but remains widespread in the region, despite ongoing efforts to quell it” (para 3). “Since the mid-1990s, Egypt has been battling the centuries-old practice [FGM], which is misguidedly believed to control women's sexuality. In 2008, a law banning the cutting of female genitalia was passed in parliament despite strong opposition from conservative voices” (para 4). “In 2016, legislators adopted amendments to the law, redefining female genital mutilation (FGM) from a misdemeanour, for which offenders typically receive up to two years in prison, to a felony, which draws tougher sentences and punishments. However, women's rights advocates argue the law still contains...more
Jan. 30, 2021, 8:17 p.m.
Countries: Kenya
Variables: INFIB-LAW-1

"Describing the type of wound inflicted on Christine, a six former cutters - who say the stopped the practice in 2012, shortly after it became illegal in Kenya - explained that it involves full removal of the labia and partial removal of the clitoris" (para 13). "As with child marriage, the practice has now been outlawed in Kenya, with a maximum penalty of life in jail if a girl dies during the procedure, but so far there have been no successful prosecutions" (36).
Dec. 5, 2020, 6:28 p.m.
Countries: Egypt
Variables: INFIB-LAW-1

“The UN in Egypt applauds the positive and encouraging steps towards renewing the call of action for a Social Contract to end Female Genital Mutilation (FGM) in Egypt. On 20th May, the National Council for Women and the National Council for Childhood and Motherhood held the first meeting of the National Taskforce for Ending FGM. The taskforce is comprised of representatives of all concerned Ministries in addition to civil society, and development partners. The National Taskforce aims to concert all efforts to end this harmful practice which constitutes as a serious violation of the rights of women and girls. This approach is in line with the National Strategy for the...more
Nov. 6, 2020, 12:22 p.m.
Countries: Egypt
Variables: INFIB-LAW-1

“The Egyptian Penal Code stipulates that, ‘Whoever causes wound mentioned in Articles no 241 & 242 of penal code occurs by female genital mutilation shall be punished with imprisonment for not less than a period of three months and not exceed two years or a fine of not less than 5000 pounds’” (para 3-4). “It also violates the Health Minister decree 271 of 2007 which states in its first article, ‘Doctors, health providers and others are banned from performing FGM whether in governmental or non-governmental hospitals or other places. Whoever commits this operation is violating law and the profession’s regulations’” (para 5-6).
Oct. 29, 2020, 11:01 a.m.
Countries: Russia
Variables: INFIB-LAW-1

"The human rights organization accused Russian authorities of doing little to crack down on the practice, saying local law enforcement officials and the FSB security services turn a blind eye to the ritual" (para 6).
Sept. 4, 2020, 4:06 p.m.
Countries: United States
Variables: INFIB-LAW-1, INFIB-DATA-2

“Earlier this month [March 2020], the movement against female genital mutilation (FGM) claimed two victories in the U.S. Vermont and Wyoming have both banned FGM! In Wyoming, we worked closely with the bill sponsor, Representative Dan Laursen, by encouraging him to sponsor the bill, reviewing draft language, and helping to navigate through to its successful passage. Together in both states, over 1,000 girls are now protected against FGM thanks to stronger protections solidified in law” (para 2).
Aug. 30, 2020, 9:21 p.m.
Countries: United Kingdom
Variables: INFIB-LAW-1

"The MCB flyer also informs Muslims that there are legal consequences for carrying out FGM in the United Kingdom. Practitioners could face up to 14 years in prison, it warns" (para 9).
Aug. 27, 2020, 12:27 p.m.
Countries: United States
Variables: INFIB-LAW-1

"After seven years of gridlock, Massachusetts legislators finally passed a strong bill this month that bans female genital mutilation (FGM) within the state. . . Our fight is far from over: 11 states and Washington D.C. still do not have laws in place that ban FGM. [The 11 states are Alabama, Alaska, Connecticut, Hawaii, Indiana, Maine, Mississippi, Montana, Nebraska, New Mexico, and Washington state.] That leaves more than 42,000 women and girls estimated to be at risk or living with FGM in those remaining areas. These 11 states are also in jeopardy of becoming FGM destinations for trafficked girls around the country to be cut."
Aug. 12, 2020, 3:51 p.m.
Countries: Egypt
Variables: INFIB-LAW-1

"Despite the 2016 penal code amendments criminalizing female genital mutilation (FGM), prosecutions of perpetrators remained rare and FGM remains widely practiced throughout the country" (para 29).
Aug. 12, 2020, 3:12 p.m.
Countries: Mauritania
Variables: INFIB-LAW-1

"The country's general code on children's protection criminalizes female genital mutilation (FGM)" (para 22).
Aug. 10, 2020, 3:28 p.m.
Countries: Gambia
Variables: INFIB-LAW-1

“Between 2007 and 2018, countries such as Zimbabwe, Uganda, South Sudan, Kenya, Guinea Bissau, Mozambique, The Gambia, and Cameroon all have laws that punish the practice of FGM. Either new laws have been introduced or existing laws have been amended. For instance, The Gambia amended its Women’s Act in 2015, while Nigeria adopted the Violence Against Persons (Prohibition) Act in 2015, prohibiting FGM–although only directly applicable in the Federal Capital Territory, Abuja” (para 11).“In a majority of places where FGM is practiced, traditional and religious leaders wield more power than the government. For example, upon the end of twenty-two years of authoritarian rule in The Gambia by former President Yahya...more
Aug. 10, 2020, 3:28 p.m.
Countries: Guinea
Variables: INFIB-LAW-1

“Between 2007 and 2018, countries such as Zimbabwe, Uganda, South Sudan, Kenya, Guinea Bissau, Mozambique, The Gambia, and Cameroon all have laws that punish the practice of FGM. Either new laws have been introduced or existing laws have been amended. For instance, The Gambia amended its Women’s Act in 2015, while Nigeria adopted the Violence Against Persons (Prohibition) Act in 2015, prohibiting FGM–although only directly applicable in the Federal Capital Territory, Abuja. In Mauritania, Article 12 of the Children’s Code of 2015 prohibited FGM. Guinea also adopted a similar provision in its Children’s Code in 2008” (para 11).
Aug. 10, 2020, 3:28 p.m.
Countries: Uganda
Variables: INFIB-LAW-1

“Between 2007 and 2018, countries such as Zimbabwe, Uganda, South Sudan, Kenya, Guinea Bissau, Mozambique, The Gambia, and Cameroon all have laws that punish the practice of FGM” (para 11). “In Law and Advocacy for Women in Uganda v. Attorney General, the Constitutional Court of Uganda held that FGM is a practice that violates women’s rights, their dignity, and is condemned by both the Constitution of Uganda and international law. The Petitioner, a non-governmental organization, asked the Constitutional Court of Uganda to declare FGM unconstitutional in accordance with Article 2(2) of the Constitution, alleging that it violated the right to life guaranteed under Article 22(1); the right to dignity and...more
Aug. 10, 2020, 3:28 p.m.
Countries: Cameroon, Kenya, Mozambique, South Sudan, Zimbabwe
Variables: INFIB-LAW-1

“Between 2007 and 2018, countries such as Zimbabwe, Uganda, South Sudan, Kenya, Guinea Bissau, Mozambique, The Gambia, and Cameroon all have laws that punish the practice of FGM” (para 11).
Aug. 10, 2020, 3:28 p.m.
Countries: Mauritania
Variables: INFIB-LAW-1

“Between 2007 and 2018, countries such as Zimbabwe, Uganda, South Sudan, Kenya, Guinea Bissau, Mozambique, The Gambia, and Cameroon all have laws that punish the practice of FGM. Either new laws have been introduced or existing laws have been amended. For instance, The Gambia amended its Women’s Act in 2015, while Nigeria adopted the Violence Against Persons (Prohibition) Act in 2015, prohibiting FGM–although only directly applicable in the Federal Capital Territory, Abuja. In Mauritania, Article 12 of the Children’s Code of 2015 prohibited FGM” (para 11).
Aug. 10, 2020, 3:28 p.m.
Countries: Guinea-Bissau
Variables: INFIB-LAW-1

“Between 2007 and 2018, countries such as Zimbabwe, Uganda, South Sudan, Kenya, Guinea Bissau, Mozambique, The Gambia, and Cameroon all have laws that punish the practice of FGM. Either new laws have been introduced or existing laws have been amended. . . Guinea-Bissau is the only country that adopted a separate and specific FGM law in 2011 ” (para 11).
July 15, 2020, 6:50 p.m.
Countries: Sudan
Variables: INFIB-LAW-1

"But the ban in Sudan took years of activism to bring about. 'Nobody really expected that FGM, after all these years, it would come, you know, and it would come so strongly,' said Tamador Ahmed Khalid, who is with UNICEF in Sudan, and has been fighting FGM there for 40 years. Khalid said the country’s new law would sentence those found guilty of performing FGM to three years in prison. But she said now, activists have to make sure the ban is enforced. 'So, there is a lot of work to be done. The first step is to develop a manual for law enforcement,' Khalid said. 'Because so many people,...more
July 15, 2020, 6:48 p.m.
Countries: Sudan
Variables: INFIB-LAW-1

"For her, Sudan’s reported passage of a law criminalizing FGM was inspiring" (para 11).
July 15, 2020, 6:45 p.m.
Countries: Sudan
Variables: INFIB-LAW-1

"Sudan — a country with one of the world's highest rates of FGM — criminalized the act" (para 3).
July 15, 2020, 6:44 p.m.
Countries: Somalia
Variables: INFIB-LAW-1

"Allin said all she can do is plead with parents not to perform the operation because right now, there’s no law to protect girls" (para 11).
July 14, 2020, 5:04 p.m.
Countries: Sudan
Variables: INFIB-LAW-1

"Sudan’s new government has outlawed the practice of female genital mutilation, a move hailed as a major victory by women’s rights campaigners in a country where the often dangerous practice is widespread" (para 1). "Now, anyone in Sudan who performs female genital mutilation faces a possible three-year prison term and a fine under an amendment to Sudan’s criminal code approved last week by the country’s transitional government, which came to power only last year following the ouster of longtime dictator Omar Hassan al-Bashir" (para 3). "Still, attitudes had already been shifting. Six of Sudan’s 18 states enacted laws to restrict or ban genital mutilation, beginning in 2008, but the measures...more
July 14, 2020, 5:02 p.m.
Countries: Kenya
Variables: INFIB-PRACTICE-1, INFIB-LAW-1

"One such program among the Maasai in Kenya, where cutting has been outlawed since 2011, has reportedly helped saved at least 15,000 girls from the practice" (para 12).
July 14, 2020, 4:58 p.m.
Countries: Egypt
Variables: INFIB-LAW-1

"In Egypt, for instance, genital cutting was banned in 2008 and the law amended in 2016 to criminalize doctors and parents who facilitate the practice, with prison sentences of up to seven years for performing the operation and up to 15 if it results in disability or death" (8).
July 10, 2020, 6:18 p.m.
Countries: Finland
Variables: INFIB-LAW-1

"Finland has attempted to improve data gathering by measures such as adding a section in maternal health care cards asking whether the expectant mother’s genitals have been circumcised. 'So we ask pregnant women about this in the maternity clinic and the information on the card is also passed on to the maternity hospital. The hospital collects information about the mothers who have been circumcised and who have had an FGM reversal into a database,' Koukkula explained. The THL specialist said that more data will also be collected in future. 'Finland is currently collecting information on circumcision of women and girls from research on two different groups of foreign-background women.' She...more
July 2, 2020, 5:03 p.m.
Countries: United States
Variables: INFIB-LAW-1

"Kentucky is the third state to pass anti-FGM legislation this year. 12 states and the District of Columbia must still act to protect their girls from this child abuse. Our next target state is Massachusetts" (para 7).
July 2, 2020, 5:01 p.m.
Countries: United States
Variables: INFIB-LAW-1

"Our team made five trips to Kentucky over the past year to assist Jenny and state legislators in passing this bill. Based on our research and experience with anti-FGM bills in other states, we advised Kentucky legislators how to develop a bill that not only criminalizes FGM in the commonwealth, but also empowers survivors to stand up for themselves in a court of law and provides education and outreach programs for impacted communities and professionals, and much more" (para 3).
July 2, 2020, 4:56 p.m.
Countries: United States
Variables: INFIB-LAW-1

"We are thrilled to share with you that Kentucky recently became the 38th state to pass comprehensive legislation against female genital mutilation (FGM)" (para 1).