The most comprehensive compilation of information on the status of
women in the world.

Latest items for INFIB-LAW-1

Nov. 7, 2019, 6:16 p.m.
Countries: Egypt
Variables: INFIB-LAW-1

"FGM/C is illegal, but it remained a serious problem...A 2016 amendment to the law designates FGM/C a felony, as opposed to a misdemeanor as it was previously, and assigns penalties for conviction of five to seven years’ imprisonment for practitioners who perform the procedure, or 15 years if the practice led to death or “permanent deformity.” The law granted exceptions in cases of “medical necessity,” which rights groups identified as a problematic loophole that allowed the practice to continue. According to international and local observers, the government did not effectively enforce the FGM/C law." (42).
Oct. 22, 2019, 6:25 p.m.
Countries: Sudan
Variables: INFIB-LAW-1

"FGM/C remained a problem throughout the country. No national law prohibits FGM/C, and the procedure continued to be used on women and girls throughout the country." (pg 42). "The government launched a national campaign in 2008 to eradicate FGM/C by 2018, and since 2008, five states had passed laws prohibiting FGM/C: South Kordofan, Gedaref, Red Sea, South Darfur, and West Darfur." (pg 42).
Oct. 8, 2019, 9:59 p.m.
Countries: Liberia
Variables: INFIB-LAW-1

"Last month, the Legislative Arm of Government in Liberia backtracked on efforts to criminalise Female Genital Mutilation (FGM) in the country. They deleted sections from the proposed Domestic Violence Bill (2014) that had sought to outlaw the practice. This demonstrates the lack of political will necessary to protect women and girls from harm and the institution’s problematic approach towards issues of women and girls’ rights" (para 1). "Other than the ban that was enforced last year (2018) by former President Ellen Sirleaf Johnson prohibiting the practice for one year, there is no law in Liberia that expressly criminalizes FGM" (para 2).
Aug. 9, 2019, 1 p.m.
Countries: D R Congo
Variables: INFIB-LAW-1

"The law describes FGM/C as a form of sexual violence, provides a sentence of two to five years in prison, and levies fines of up to 200,000 Congolese francs ($125); in case of death due to FGM/C, the sentence is life imprisonment" (page 40).
July 30, 2019, 8:55 a.m.
Countries: Ghana
Variables: INFIB-LAW-1

"Several laws include provisions prohibiting FGM/C" (p. 15).
July 29, 2019, 8:26 p.m.
Countries: Guinea
Variables: INFIB-LAW-1

"The law prohibits FGM/C. The law provides for a penalty of up to life in prison or death if the victim dies within 40 days of the procedure. The child code provides for minimum imprisonment of three months to two years and fines from 300,000 to one million GNF ($33 to $110) for perpetrators who do not inflict severe injury or death. If the victim is severely injured or dies, the child code specifies imprisonment of five to 20 years and a fine of up to three million GNF ($330)" (p. 16).
July 24, 2019, 6:29 p.m.
Countries: Chad
Variables: INFIB-PRACTICE-1, INFIB-LAW-1

"The law prohibits FGM/C for girls and women, but the practice remained widespread, particularly in rural areas. By law FGM/C may be prosecuted as a form of assault, and charges may be brought against the parents of victims, medical practitioners, or others involved. Nevertheless, the lack of specific penalties hindered prosecution, and authorities prosecuted no cases during the year. The Ministry of Women, Early Childhood Protection, and National Solidarity is responsible for coordinating activities to combat FGM/C. The government, with assistance from the UN Population Fund, conducted public awareness campaigns to discourage FGM/C and highlight its dangers" (page 16).
July 19, 2019, 6:43 p.m.
Countries: Guinea-Bissau
Variables: INFIB-LAW-1

"The law prohibits FGM/C. Conviction for its practice is punishable by a fine of up to five million CFA francs ($9,190) and five years in prison" (p. 8).
July 19, 2019, 9:48 a.m.
Countries: Indonesia
Variables: INFIB-PRACTICE-1, INFIB-LAW-1, INFIB-DATA-2, SEGI-PRACTICE-1, SEGI-PRACTICE-2

"FGM/C reportedly occurred regularly, and no laws prohibit the practice. A February 6 UNICEF report, which reflected 2013 government data, estimated that 49 percent of girls age 11 and younger, or an estimated 60 million women and girls, have undergone some form of FGM/C, despite laws prohibiting medical professionals from administering it. The Ministry of Women’s Empowerment has been vocal about its opposition to FGM/C but has run up against conservative groups, including the Indonesian Ulema Council, who claimed a religious foundation for the practice. For more information, see data.unicef.org/resources/female-genital-mutilation-cuttingcountry-profiles/" (Pg 27).
July 18, 2019, 12:24 p.m.
Countries: Central African Rep
Variables: INFIB-LAW-1

" The law prohibits FGM/C for women and girls, which is punishable by two to five years’ imprisonment and a fine of 100,000 to one million CFA francs ($176 to $1,760), depending on the severity of the case" (Pg 18).
July 17, 2019, 2:14 p.m.
Countries: Cameroon
Variables: INFIB-PRACTICE-1, INFIB-LAW-1

"The law protects the physical and bodily integrity of persons, and the 2016 penal code prohibits genital mutilation of all persons. Whoever mutilates the genitals of a person is subject to imprisonment from 10 to 20 years, and imprisonment for life if the offender habitually carries out this practice, does so for commercial purposes, or if the practice causes death. FMG/C remained a problem, but its prevalence remained low. As in the previous year, children were reportedly subjected to FGM/C in isolated areas of the Far North, East, and Southwest regions and in the Choa and Ejagham tribes, although the practice continued to decrease. For more information, see data.unicef.org/resources/female-genital-mutilation-cutting-country-profiles/" (Pg...more
July 15, 2019, 3:24 p.m.
Countries: Thailand
Variables: INFIB-LAW-1

"No specific law prohibits this practice . . . There were no reports of governmental efforts to prevent or address the practice" (page 29).
July 14, 2019, 11:37 a.m.
Countries: Gambia
Variables: INFIB-LAW-1

"Legislation passed in 2015 bans FGM/C . The law stipulates imprisonment of not more than three years, a fine of D50,000 ($1,060), or both, for anyone found to have circumcised a female child; if the child dies, the penalty is life imprisonment. Failure to report the practice may lead to a fine of D10,000 ($210)" (p. 12).
July 14, 2019, 11:37 a.m.
Countries: Ethiopia
Variables: INFIB-LAW-1

"FGM/C is illegal, but the government did not actively enforce this prohibition. It was less common in urban areas. The penal code criminalizes the practice of clitoridectomy and provides for three months or a fine of at least 500 birr ($22) for convicted perpetrators. Conviction of infibulation of the genitals (the most extreme and dangerous form of FGM/C) is punishable by five to 10 years’ imprisonment" (p. 28).
July 14, 2019, 11:35 a.m.
Countries: Brunei
Variables: INFIB-LAW-1

"No law criminalizes FGM/C" (p. 15).
July 12, 2019, 9:16 a.m.
Countries: Somalia
Variables: INFIB-LAW-1, INFIB-DATA-1

"Prevalence of FGM/C demonstrates persistent gender inequality in Somalia. Although Article 15.4 of the PFC prohibits female circumcision, 98 percent of Somali girls are reported to have undergone the procedure" (9).
July 11, 2019, 6:30 p.m.
Countries: Eritrea
Variables: INFIB-LAW-1

"The law prohibits FGM/C" (p. 18).
July 8, 2019, 1:19 p.m.
Countries: Uganda
Variables: INFIB-PRACTICE-1, INFIB-LAW-1, INFIB-DATA-1

"The law and constitution prohibit FGM/C of women and girls and establish a maximum penalty of 10 years’ imprisonment for convicted perpetrators--or life imprisonment if the victim dies during the act of FGM/C. The government, women’s groups, and international organizations combated the practice through education and livelihood skills training. These programs, which received some support from local leaders, emphasized close cooperation with traditional authority figures and peer counseling. Nevertheless, the Sabiny ethnic group in rural Kapchorwa District and the Pokot ethnic group along the northeastern border with Kenya continued the practice; the Sabiny practiced types I and II, and the Pokot practiced type III" (Pg 27).more
July 8, 2019, 9:30 a.m.
Countries: Senegal
Variables: INFIB-PRACTICE-1, INFIB-LAW-1

"The law provides criminal penalties for the perpetration of FGM/C on women and girls, but no cases were prosecuted during the year" (page 15).
July 7, 2019, 8:51 p.m.
Countries: Malaysia
Variables: INFIB-PRACTICE-1, INFIB-LAW-1

"FGM/C is a common practice, but data is very limited. Ministry of Health guidelines allow the practice but only at government health-care facilities" (p. 23).
July 6, 2019, 1:13 p.m.
Countries: Togo
Variables: INFIB-PRACTICE-1, INFIB-LAW-1, INFIB-DATA-1, INFIB-DATA-2

"The law prohibits FGM/C for girls and women. It is usually perpetrated a few months after birth. According to 2015 data from the UN Children’s Fund (UNICEF), FGM/C had been performed on 3 percent of girls and women between ages 15 and 49 and on 1 percent of girls and young women ages15 to 19. The most common form of FGM/C was excision. Penalties for those convicted of FGM/C range from two months to five years in prison as well as substantial fines. The law was rarely enforced because most cases occurred in rural areas where awareness of the law was limited or traditional customs often took precedence over the...more
July 2, 2019, 12:52 p.m.
Countries: Sudan
Variables: INFIB-LAW-1

"FGM/C was traditionally practiced in the country. The government launched a national campaign in 2008 to eradicate FGM/C by 2018. The government, with the support of the first lady, continued to prioritize the “Saleema” campaign, which raised public awareness about FGM/C throughout the year. Despite these efforts FGM/C remained a problem for women and girls throughout the country. No national law prohibits FGM/C. Since 2008, however, five states have passed laws prohibiting FGM/C: South Kordofan, Gedaref, Red Sea, South Darfur, and West Darfur. In its October report, UNESCO expressed concern that the provisions criminalizing FGM/C were removed from the Child Health Act" (Pg 64).
June 28, 2019, 8:55 a.m.
Countries: South Sudan
Variables: INFIB-PRACTICE-1, INFIB-LAW-1, SEGI-PRACTICE-1, NGOFW-DATA-1

"FGM/C is a criminal offense under the penal code, but little data existed to determine its prevalence. The law prohibits subjecting children to negative and harmful practices that affect their health, welfare, and dignity. Although not a common practice, FGM/C occurred in some regions, particularly along the northern border regions in Muslim communities. Several NGOs worked to end FGM/C, and the Ministry of Gender raised awareness of the dangers of FGM/C through local radio broadcasts" (Pg 35).
June 26, 2019, 11:12 a.m.
Countries: Somalia
Variables: INFIB-LAW-1, INFIB-DATA-1, INFIB-DATA-2

"Although the provisional federal constitution describes female circumcision as cruel and degrading, equates it with torture, and prohibits the circumcision of girls, FGM/C is almost universally practiced throughout the country. UNICEF reported that 98 percent of women and girls had undergone FGM/C and that the majority were subjected to infibulation--the most severe form--which involves cutting and sewing the genitalia. At least 80 percent of Somali girls who have undergone FGM/C had the procedure performed when they were between the ages of five and 14. International and local NGOs conducted education awareness programs on the dangers of FGM/C, but there were no reliable statistics to measure their success" (Pg 34).more
June 25, 2019, 7:13 a.m.
Countries: Sierra Leone
Variables: INFIB-PRACTICE-1, INFIB-LAW-1, INFIB-DATA-2

"FGM/C was a problem, with the UN Children’s Fund (UNICEF) reporting in 2014 that nine of 10 women and girls had undergone the procedure and 13 percent of girls under age 14 underwent the procedure during 2013. Through the State of Public Health Emergency issued in August 2014 and by-laws issued in 2015 to control the spread of Ebola, the government continued to prohibit the activities of secret societies, including placing a moratorium on practicing FGM/C on women and girls. On August 19, Chief Executive Officer of the National Ebola Response Center Palo Conteh reiterated the ban on secret society activities had not been lifted and anyone violating the ban...more
June 24, 2019, 4:35 p.m.
Countries: Mali
Variables: INFIB-LAW-1

"FGM/C is legal in the country and, except in certain northern areas, all religious and ethnic groups practiced it widely, particularly in rural areas. Although FGM/C is legal, authorities prohibited the practice in government-funded health centers" (p. 22).
June 23, 2019, 9:50 p.m.
Countries: Djibouti
Variables: INFIB-PRACTICE-1, INFIB-LAW-1

"The law prohibits FGM/C, but it was a problem... The law sets punishment for FGM/C at five years’ imprisonment and a fine of one million DJF ($5,650) and NGOs may file charges on behalf of victims. In late 2014 the government convicted two women for the first time on charges of committing FGM/C. Both women, one the excisor (cutter) and the other the mother of the victim, received six-month suspended sentences. This was reportedly the only conviction. The law also provides for up to one year’s imprisonment and a fine of up to 100,000 DJF ($565) for anyone convicted of failing to report a completed or planned FGM/C to the...more
June 22, 2019, 6:51 p.m.
Countries: Cote D'Ivoire
Variables: INFIB-LAW-1

"The law specifically forbids FGM/C and provides penalties for practitioners of up to five years’ imprisonment and fines of 360,000 to two million CFA francs ($662 to $3,680). Double penalties apply to medical practitioners" (p. 18).
June 20, 2019, 3:46 p.m.
Countries: Rwanda
Variables: INFIB-LAW-1

"The law considers all sex-based practices carried out on children, regardless of form or method and including FGM/C, to be defilement, which is punishable by life in prison and a fine of 100,000 to one million Rwandan francs ($139 to $1,392). There were no reports of FGM/C perpetrated against children during the year" (Pg 31).
June 17, 2019, 7:48 p.m.
Countries: Mauritania
Variables: INFIB-LAW-1

"The law states that any act or attempt to damage a girl’s sexual organs is punishable by imprisonment and a fine of 120,000 to 300,000 ouguiyas ($338 to $845)" (p. 17).