The most comprehensive compilation of information on the status of
women in the world.

Latest items for INFIB-LAW-1

Feb. 8, 2019, 4:42 p.m.
Countries: Mali
Variables: INFIB-LAW-1

"FGM/C is legal in the country and, except in certain northern areas, all religious and ethnic groups practiced it widely, particularly in rural areas. Although FGM/C is legal, authorities prohibited the practice in government-funded health centers . . . Government information campaigns regarding the dangers of FGM/C reached citizens throughout the country, and human rights organizations reported decreased incidence of FGM/C among children of educated parents" (page 20-21).
Feb. 6, 2019, 2:48 p.m.
Countries: Liberia
Variables: INFIB-PRACTICE-1, INFIB-LAW-1, INFIB-DATA-2, SEGI-PRACTICE-1

"The law does not specifically prohibit FGM/C, although the government maintained that a 2011 law protecting children against all forms of violence also proscribes FGM/C. FGM/C is often performed during initiation into women’s secret Sande societies. Given the sensitivity of the topic, FGM/C surveys typically eliminate direct reference to FGM/C and instead ask respondents about initiation into a women’s secret society, making it difficult to ascertain actual prevalence rates. According to a 2013 demographic health survey, 49.8 percent of girls and women ages 15-49 had undergone the procedure. FGM/C was common and traditionally performed on young girls of northern, western, and central ethnic groups, particularly in rural areas and in...more
Feb. 4, 2019, 3:44 p.m.
Countries: United Kingdom
Variables: INFIB-LAW-1

"In 2015, UK Government introduced a number of provisions to strengthen the law on FGM to help break down barriers to prosecution. These provisions included: extending the reach of the extra-territorial offences in the Female Genital Mutilation Act 2003 (the 2003 Act) to habitual (as well as permanent) UK residents; Providing life-long anonymity for victims of alleged offences of FGM; Creating a new offence of failing to protect a girl from the risk of FGM. This makes those responsible for a girl answerable in law for how the FGM happened and may reduce the need for the girl to give evidence in court - something which young and vulnerable victims...more
Feb. 1, 2019, 2:36 p.m.
Countries: Ethiopia
Variables: INFIB-LAW-1

"The government of Ethiopia is committed to eliminating the practice of FGM/C by strategic and programmatic measures. These include putting in place a national Harmful Traditional Practices (HTPs) strategy founded on the three-pillar approach: prevention, provision, and protection. This targeted approach guides the national effort and helps to galvanize the support of stakeholders to end the practice as well as mitigate the impact of FGM/C. Additionally, Ethiopia has criminalized the practice and now penalizes practitioners in the national Criminal Code, revised in 2005" (315).
Nov. 17, 2018, 1:49 p.m.
Countries: India
Variables: INFIB-LAW-1

"For a long time there was a misconception that FGM didn’t happen in India, despite UN’s global target to eliminate FGM in all countries as part of their global Sustainable Development Goals. Women and girls in India are also not explicitly protected by law as the practice is not currently illegal, although there is a current FGM case before the Supreme Court of India" (para 1).
Nov. 17, 2018, 1:43 p.m.
Countries: Burkina Faso
Variables: INFIB-LAW-1

"Burkina Faso was one of the first countries on the African continent to ban FGM, making the practice illegal in 1996. But despite efforts to educate Burkinabé of the harms of FGM and the legislation against it, the practice and cultural attitudes about it persist" (para 7).
Nov. 16, 2018, 9:30 a.m.
Countries: Belgium
Variables: INFIB-LAW-1

"The law prohibits FGM/C for women and girls… Criminal sanctions apply to persons convicted of FGM/C" (9).
Nov. 3, 2018, 10:36 a.m.
Countries: Israel
Variables: INFIB-LAW-1, INFIB-DATA-1

"The law prohibits FGM/C. There were no reports of FGM/C on women age 18 or older. There were no reports of the practice on girls under age 18" (para 145)
Oct. 29, 2018, 10:59 a.m.
Countries: Gambia
Variables: INFIB-LAW-1

"In fact, the law against FGM is still in effect and there are no plans to remove it, information minister Demba Jawo told the Thomson Reuters Foundation by phone" (para 10). "The penalty for engaging in FGM is set as 50,000 Gambian dalasi ($1,050) or 3 years in prison or both, according to the government, but there have been no prosecutions to date" (para 21).
Oct. 26, 2018, 8:42 a.m.
Countries: Senegal
Variables: INFIB-LAW-1

"The law provides criminal penalties for the perpetration of FGM/C on women and girls" (page 14). "The government collaborated with the NGO Tostan and other groups to educate individuals about FGM/C’s inherent dangers. The government also collaborated with the NGO Group for Population Studies and Education to develop a course on the dangers of FGM/C, which was being integrated into high school and college curriculums. At the community level, Tostan continued to implement a three-year community empowerment program that influenced 760 villages to decide to abandon FGM/C. In collaboration with key stakeholders across 14 regions, the Ministry of Justice developed a work plan to enforce the law against FGM/C and...more
Oct. 22, 2018, 9:31 p.m.
Countries: Iran
Variables: INFIB-LAW-1

"The law does not address FGM/C but does punish mutilation of the body" (para 150)
Oct. 19, 2018, 7:59 p.m.
Countries: Indonesia
Variables: INFIB-LAW-1

"Female Genital Mutilation/Cutting (FGM/C): FGM/C was a problem, and there are no laws prohibiting the practice...In 2014 the Ministry of Health revoked a 2010 decree establishing guidelines for the safe practice of FGM/C. The 2010 decree overturned the ministry’s outright ban on FGM/C, which the Indonesian Ulamas Council (MUI) and other religious groups protested. The revocation transfers authority to regulate FGM/C to a health advisory body that includes religious leaders" (para 147)
Oct. 4, 2018, 1:10 p.m.
Countries: Malaysia
Variables: INFIB-LAW-1

"In 2012, the United Nations General Assembly (UNGA) unanimously passed a resolution calling it a human rights violation and urged nations to ban the practice and the ban was reaffirmed in 2014. The resolution was adopted by all UN member states, including Malaysia" (para 3).
Oct. 3, 2018, 1:14 p.m.
Countries: Kenya
Variables: INFIB-LAW-1

"Kenya banned the practice (female genital mutilation/cutting (FGM/C) in 2011" (para. 1).
Sept. 24, 2018, 10:50 p.m.
Countries: Iraq
Variables: INFIB-LAW-1

"The Family Violence Law, which went into effect in 2011 in the IKR, bans FGM/C" (para 245)
Sept. 21, 2018, 5:23 p.m.
Countries: Oman
Variables: INFIB-LAW-1

"Regarding paragraphs 25 and 26 of the Committee’s concluding observations on female genital mutilation and efforts to eliminate this practice, the Ministry of Health has made efforts through its health centres to raise awareness of erroneous health practices, including female genital mutilation. Regulations on Operations Practised by the Medical and Dental Professions do not permit circumcision in health institutions. Article 20 of the Law of the Child stipulates 'No person — particularly a physician, nurse, or guardian — may perform traditional practices that harm the health of a child. The Ministry of Health must adopt the necessary measures to raise awareness of the risks of such practices.' Article 248 of...more
Sept. 15, 2018, 1:17 p.m.
Countries: Somalia
Variables: INFIB-LAW-1

"Somaliland has issued a fatwa, or religious edict, banning female genital mutilation (FGM)... The fatwa from the ministry of religious affairs on Tuesday said those who perform FGM would face punishment, and victims would be eligible for compensation. It did not provide details on the severity of punishment, or the amount of compensation" (para 1-2).
Sept. 14, 2018, 10:21 a.m.
Countries: Uganda
Variables: INFIB-LAW-1

"Faced with the new law against Female Genital Mutilation (FGM), traditionalists have now shifted to circumcising married women with the consent of their husbands" (para 1).
Sept. 13, 2018, 7:56 a.m.
Countries: Colombia
Variables: INFIB-LAW-1

"The death of the baby girl helped lift the taboo surrounding FGM and has prompted Colombian authorities and the UNFPA to start an awareness-raising campaign - in the hope that Embera communities will stop the practice" (para. 8). "There are no laws specifically against FGM in Colombia, making it difficult to prosecute those who carry it out" (para. 9).
Sept. 12, 2018, 9:50 p.m.
Countries: Eritrea
Variables: INFIB-LAW-1

"The law prohibits FGM/C...The UN Population Fund (UNFPA) worked with the government and other organizations, including the National Union of Eritrean Women and the National Union of Eritrean Youth and Students, on a variety of education programs to discourage the practice" (para 106)
Sept. 10, 2018, 5:07 a.m.
Countries: Spain
Variables: INFIB-LAW-1

"The law prohibits FGM/C and authorizes courts to prosecute residents of the country who have committed this crime in the country or anywhere in the world. Under the 2013-16 National Strategy for the Eradication of Violence against Women, doctors must ask parents in the country to sign a declaration promising their daughter(s) will not undergo FGM/C when they visit countries where the practice is common. Once a family returns to the country, a doctor, who can start legal action against the parents if examination finds that the minors underwent FGM/C during their trip, must examine the girl(s) again. Doctors must also inform the parents of the health consequences of FGM/C"...more
Sept. 5, 2018, 10:25 a.m.
Countries: Australia
Variables: INFIB-LAW-1

"FGM/C is a criminal act in all states and territories of the country, and these laws apply extraterritorially to protect citizens or residents from being subjected to FGM/C overseas" (14).
Sept. 5, 2018, 10:21 a.m.
Countries: United Kingdom
Variables: INFIB-LAW-1

"The practice is illegal in the UK and it is compulsory for family doctors, hospitals and mental health trusts to report any new cases in their patients. FGM - intentionally altering or injuring the female external genitalia for non-medical reasons - carries a sentence of up to 14 years in jail" (para 4-5). "Wendy Preston, from the Royal College of Nursing, said: "Mandatory reporting and compulsory sex-and-relationships education are important weapons in the fight against FGM, and school nurses play a vital role in both educating children and young women, and spotting those who may be at risk" (para 16).
Sept. 5, 2018, 9:59 a.m.
Countries: Tanzania
Variables: INFIB-LAW-1

"The law prohibits FGM/C from being performed on girls under the age of 18, but it does not provide for protection to women ages 18 or older" (22).
Sept. 5, 2018, 9:58 a.m.
Countries: Thailand
Variables: INFIB-LAW-1

"No specific law prohibits this practice" (36). This refers specifically to female genital mutilation and cutting, FGM/C (AA-CODER COMMENT). "There were no reports of international or governmental efforts to prevent or address the practice" (37).
Sept. 5, 2018, 9:54 a.m.
Countries: United Arab Emirates
Variables: INFIB-LAW-1

"The law does not address FGM/C, although the Ministry of Health prohibits hospitals and clinics from performing the procedure" (21).
Sept. 5, 2018, 9:44 a.m.
Countries: United Kingdom
Variables: INFIB-LAW-1

"The law prohibits FGM/C in the UK. It is also illegal to take abroad a British national or permanent resident for FGM/C, or to help someone trying to do this. The penalty is up to 14 years in prison. The Female Genital Mutilation Act 2003 was amended during the year to include FGM Protection Orders. An FGM Protection Order is a civil measure that can be applied for through a family court. It offers the means of protecting actual or potential victims from FGM/C under the civil law. Breach of an FGM Protection Order is a criminal offense carrying a sentence of up to five years in prison. Since September...more
Sept. 4, 2018, 10:30 a.m.
Countries: Switzerland
Variables: INFIB-LAW-1

"FGM/C is illegal and punishable by up to 10 years’ imprisonment" (15).
Sept. 4, 2018, 10:29 a.m.
Countries: South Africa
Variables: INFIB-LAW-1

"The law prohibits FGM/C, but girls in isolated zones in ethnic Venda communities in the Northeast were subjected to the practice" (32).
Sept. 4, 2018, 10:21 a.m.
Countries: Malawi
Variables: INFIB-LAW-1

"The law does not specifically prohibit FGM/C. According to press reports from 2011, some cases of FGM/C were prosecuted as unlawful wounding" (16).